Publications by authors named "Kenichi Kitanishi"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Accelerated Redox Reaction of Hydrogen Peroxide by Employing Locally Concentrated State of Copper Catalysts on Polymer Chain.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 Aug 22;42(16):e2100274. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8601, Japan.

Copper complexes act as catalysts for redox reactions to generate reactive oxygen species that destroy biomolecules and, therefore, are utilized to design drugs including antitumor and antibacterial medicines. Especially, catalytic reaction for hydrogen peroxide decomposition is important because it includes the process for generating highly toxic hydroxyl radical, i.e., Fenton-like reaction. Considering that multicoppers/hydrogen peroxide species are the important intermediates for the redox reaction, herein a polymer having copper complexes in the side chains is designed to facilitate the formation of the intermediates by building locally concentrated state of the copper complexes. The polymer increases their catalytic activities for hydrogen peroxide decomposition and promotes reactive oxygen species' generation, eventually leading to higher antibacterial activity. This reveals the virtue of building a locally concentrated state of catalysts on polymers toward drug design with low amounts of transition metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202100274DOI Listing
August 2021

Structures of human peptidylarginine deiminase type III provide insights into substrate recognition and inhibitor design.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 09 7;708:108911. Epub 2021 May 7.

Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Japan; Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, Ibaraki University, Tokai Naka, Japan. Electronic address:

Peptidylarginine deiminase type III (PAD3) is an isozyme belonging to the PAD enzyme family that converts arginine to citrulline residue(s) within proteins. PAD3 is expressed in most differentiated keratinocytes of the epidermis and hair follicles, while S100A3, trichohyalin, and filaggrin are its principal substrates. In this study, the X-ray crystal structures of PAD3 in six states, including its complex with the PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine, were determined. This structural analysis identified a large space around Gly374 in the PAD3-Ca-Cl-amidine complex, which may be used to develop novel PAD3-selective inhibitors. In addition, similarities between PAD3 and PAD4 were found based on the investigation of PAD4 reactivity with S100A3 in vitro. A comparison of the structures of PAD1, PAD2, PAD3, and PAD4 implied that the flexibility of the structures around the active site may lead to different substrate selectivity among these PAD isozymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2021.108911DOI Listing
September 2021

Optimal Mutant Model of Human S100A3 Protein Citrullinated at Arg51 by Peptidylarginine Deiminase Type III and Its Solution Structural Properties.

ACS Omega 2020 Mar 18;5(8):4032-4042. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511, Japan.

S100A3 protein, a member of the EF-hand-type Ca-binding S100 protein family, undergoes a Ca-/Zn-induced structural change to a tetrameric state upon specific citrullination of R51 in human hair cuticular cells. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we prepared recombinant mutant S100A3 proteins, including R51A, R51C, R51E, R51K, and R51Q, as potential models of post-translationally modified S100A3 and evaluated their biophysical and biochemical properties relative to wild-type (WT) S100A3 and WT citrullinated in vitro. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed that R51Q formed a tetramer in the presence of Ca, while Ca titration monitored by Trp fluorescence indicated that R51Q had Ca-binding properties similar to those of citrullinated S1003A. We therefore concluded that R51Q is the optimal mutant model of post-translationally modified S100A3. We compared the solution structure of WT S100A3 and the R51Q mutant in the absence and presence of Ca and Zn by SEC-small-angle X-ray scattering. The radius of gyration of R51Q in the metal-free state was almost the same as that of WT; however, it increased by ∼1.5-fold in the presence of Ca/Zn, indicating a large expansion in molecular size. By contrast, addition of Ca/Zn to WT led to nonspecific aggregation in SEC analysis and dynamic light scattering, suggesting that citrullination of S100A3 is essential for stabilization of the Ca-/Zn-bound state. These findings will lead to the further development of structural analyses for the Ca-/Zn-bound S100A3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b03618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7057681PMC
March 2020

Structure determination of the human TRPV1 ankyrin-repeat domain under nonreducing conditions.

Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 2020 Mar 2;76(Pt 3):130-137. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511, Japan.

TRPV1, a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels family, has been found to be involved in redox sensing. The crystal structure of the human TRPV1 ankyrin-repeat domain (TRPV1-ARD) was determined at 4.5 Å resolution under nonreducing conditions. This is the first report of the crystal structure of a ligand-free form of TRPV1-ARD and in particular of the human homologue. The structure showed a unique conformation in finger loop 3 near Cys258, which is most likely to be involved in inter-subunit disulfide-bond formation. Also, in human TRPV1-ARD it was possible for solvent to access Cys258. This structural feature might be related to the high sensitivity of human TRPV1 to oxidants. ESI-MS revealed that Cys258 did not form an S-OH functionality even under nonreducing conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2053230X20001533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7057350PMC
March 2020

Identification and Characterization of a Redox Sensor Phosphodiesterase from sp. PN-J185 Containing Bacterial Hemerythrin and HD-GYP Domains.

Biochemistry 2020 03 20;59(8):983-991. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511, Japan.

The second messenger bis(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) regulates numerous important physiological functions in bacteria. In this study, we identified and characterized the first dimeric, full-length, non-heme iron-bound phosphodiesterase (PDE) containing bacterial hemerythrin and HD-GYP domains (Bhr-HD-GYP). We found that the amino acid sequence encoded by the gene from sp. PN-J185 contains an N-terminal bacterial hemerythrin domain and a C-terminal HD-GYP domain, which is characteristic of proteins with PDE activity toward c-di-GMP. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy analyses showed that Bhr-HD-GYP contains 4 equiv of iron atoms per subunit, suggesting both hemerythrin and HD-GYP domains have non-heme di-iron sites. A redox-dependent spectral change expected for oxo-bridged non-heme iron with carboxylate ligands was observed, and this redox interconversion was reversible. However, unlike marine invertebrate hemerythrin, which functions as an oxygen-binding protein, Bhr-HD-GYP did not form an oxygen adduct because of rapid autoxidation. The reduced ferrous iron complex of the protein catalyzed the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP to its linearized product, 5'-phosphoguanylyl-(3',5')-guanosine (pGpG), whereas the oxidized ferric iron complex had no significant activity. These results suggest that Bhr-HD-GYP is a redox and oxygen sensor enzyme that regulates c-di-GMP levels in response to changes in cellular redox status or oxygen concentration. Our study may lead to an improved understanding of the physiology of iron-oxidizing bacterium sp. PN-J185.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.0c00021DOI Listing
March 2020

Cofactor Editing by the G-protein Metallochaperone Domain Regulates the Radical B Enzyme IcmF.

J Biol Chem 2017 03 27;292(10):3977-3987. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

From the Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0600 and

IcmF is a 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carbon skeleton rearrangement of isobutyryl-CoA to butyryl-CoA. It is a bifunctional protein resulting from the fusion of a G-protein chaperone with GTPase activity and the cofactor- and substrate-binding mutase domains with isomerase activity. IcmF is prone to inactivation during catalytic turnover, thus setting up its dependence on a cofactor repair system. Herein, we demonstrate that the GTPase activity of IcmF powers the ejection of the inactive cob(II)alamin cofactor and requires the presence of an acceptor protein, adenosyltransferase, for receiving it. Adenosyltransferase in turn converts cob(II)alamin to AdoCbl in the presence of ATP and a reductant. The repaired cofactor is then reloaded onto IcmF in a GTPase-gated step. The mechanistic details of cofactor loading and offloading from the AdoCbl-dependent IcmF are distinct from those of the better characterized and homologous methylmalonyl-CoA mutase/G-protein chaperone system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.775957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5354503PMC
March 2017

Kinetic Analysis of a Globin-Coupled Histidine Kinase, AfGcHK: Effects of the Heme Iron Complex, Response Regulator, and Metal Cations on Autophosphorylation Activity.

Biochemistry 2015 Aug 5;54(32):5017-29. Epub 2015 Aug 5.

§Laboratoire d'Optique et Biosciences, INSERM U1182-CNRS UMR7645, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France.

The globin-coupled histidine kinase, AfGcHK, is a part of the two-component signal transduction system from the soil bacterium Anaeromyxobacter sp. Fw109-5. Activation of its sensor domain significantly increases its autophosphorylation activity, which targets the His183 residue of its functional domain. The phosphate group of phosphorylated AfGcHK is then transferred to the cognate response regulator. We investigated the effects of selected variables on the autophosphorylation reaction's kinetics. The kcat values of the heme Fe(III)-OH(-), Fe(III)-cyanide, Fe(III)-imidazole, and Fe(II)-O2 bound active AfGcHK forms were 1.1-1.2 min(-1), and their Km(ATP) values were 18.9-35.4 μM. However, the active form bearing a CO-bound Fe(II) heme had a kcat of 1.0 min(-1) but a very high Km(ATP) value of 357 μM, suggesting that its active site structure differs strongly from the other active forms. The Fe(II) heme-bound inactive form had kcat and Km(ATP) values of 0.4 min(-1) and 78 μM, respectively, suggesting that its low activity reflects a low affinity for ATP relative to that of the Fe(III) form. The heme-free form exhibited low activity, with kcat and Km(ATP) values of 0.3 min(-1) and 33.6 μM, respectively, suggesting that the heme iron complex is essential for high catalytic activity. Overall, our results indicate that the coordination and oxidation state of the sensor domain heme iron profoundly affect the enzyme's catalytic activity because they modulate its ATP binding affinity and thus change its kcat/Km(ATP) value. The effects of the response regulator and different divalent metal cations on the autophosphorylation reaction are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.5b00517DOI Listing
August 2015

Engineered and Native Coenzyme B12-dependent Isovaleryl-CoA/Pivalyl-CoA Mutase.

J Biol Chem 2015 Aug 1;290(33):20466-76. Epub 2015 Jul 1.

From the Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0600

Adenosylcobalamin-dependent isomerases catalyze carbon skeleton rearrangements using radical chemistry. We have recently demonstrated that an isobutyryl-CoA mutase variant, IcmF, a member of this enzyme family that catalyzes the interconversion of isobutyryl-CoA and n-butyryl-CoA also catalyzes the interconversion between isovaleryl-CoA and pivalyl-CoA, albeit with low efficiency and high susceptibility to inactivation. Given the biotechnological potential of the isovaleryl-CoA/pivalyl-CoA mutase (PCM) reaction, we initially attempted to engineer IcmF to be a more proficient PCM by targeting two active site residues predicted based on sequence alignments and crystal structures, to be key to substrate selectivity. Of the eight mutants tested, the F598A mutation was the most robust, resulting in an ∼17-fold increase in the catalytic efficiency of the PCM activity and a concomitant ∼240-fold decrease in the isobutyryl-CoA mutase activity compared with wild-type IcmF. Hence, mutation of a single residue in IcmF tuned substrate specificity yielding an ∼4000-fold increase in the specificity for an unnatural substrate. However, the F598A mutant was even more susceptible to inactivation than wild-type IcmF. To circumvent this limitation, we used bioinformatics analysis to identify an authentic PCM in genomic databases. Cloning and expression of the putative AdoCbl-dependent PCM with an α2β2 heterotetrameric organization similar to that of isobutyryl-CoA mutase and a recently characterized archaeal methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, allowed demonstration of its robust PCM activity. To simplify kinetic analysis and handling, a variant PCM-F was generated in which the αβ subunits were fused into a single polypeptide via a short 11-amino acid linker. The fusion protein, PCM-F, retained high PCM activity and like PCM, was resistant to inactivation. Neither PCM nor PCM-F displayed detectable isobutyryl-CoA mutase activity, demonstrating that PCM represents a novel 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin-dependent acyl-CoA mutase. The newly discovered PCM and the derivative PCM-F, have potential applications in bioremediation of pivalic acid found in sludge, in stereospecific synthesis of C5 carboxylic acids and alcohols, and in the production of potential commodity and specialty chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M115.646299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4536452PMC
August 2015

Probing the ligand recognition and discrimination environment of the globin-coupled oxygen sensor protein YddV by FTIR and time-resolved step-scan FTIR spectroscopy.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2015 Jul;17(26):17007-15

Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, PO Box 2037, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus.

YddV is a newly discovered signal transducer heme protein that recognizes O2 and CO. Structural differences in the ligand-bound heme complex in YddV reflect variations in catalytic regulation by O2 and CO. Time-resolved step-scan (TRS(2)) FTIR studies of the wild type and of the important in oxygen recognition and stability of the heme Fe(II)-O2 complex L65M, L65T, Y43A, Y43F and Y43W mutants were performed to determine the site-specific protein dynamics following carbon monoxide (CO) photodissociation. These mutations were designed to perturb the electrostatic field near the iron-bound gaseous ligand (CO) and also to allow us to investigate the communication pathway between the distal residues of the protein and heme. TRS(2)-FTIR spectra of YddV-heme-CO show that the heme propionates are in protonated and deprotonated states. Moreover, the rate of decay of the vibrations of amide I is on a time scale that coincides with the rate of rebinding of CO, which suggests that there is coupling between ligation dynamics in the distal heme environment and (i) relaxation of the protein backbone and (ii) the environment sensed by the heme propionates. The fast recombination rates in L65M, L65T and Y43W imply a significant role of L65 and Y43 in controlling the ligand dynamics. The implications of these results with respect to the role of the heme propionates and the charged or proton-donating residues in the distal pocket, which are crucial for stabilizing bound gaseous ligands, are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5cp01708dDOI Listing
July 2015

Pressure effects reveal that changes in the redox states of the heme iron complexes in the sensor domains of two heme-based oxygen sensor proteins, EcDOS and YddV, have profound effects on their flexibility.

FEBS J 2014 Dec 13;281(23):5208-19. Epub 2014 Oct 13.

Institute of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

The catalytic activity of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (EcDOS) towards cyclic diGMP is regulated by the redox state of the heme iron complex in the enzyme's sensing domain and the association of external ligands with the iron center. Specifically, the Fe(II) complex is more active towards cyclic diGMP than the Fe(III) complex, and its activity is further enhanced by O2 or CO binding. In order to determine how the redox state and coordination of the heme iron atom regulate the catalytic activity of EcDOS, we investigated the flexibility of its isolated N-terminal heme-binding domain (EcDOS-heme) by monitoring its spectral properties at various hydrostatic pressures. The most active form of the heme-containing domain, i.e. the Fe(II)-CO complex, was found to be the least flexible. Conversely, the oxidized Fe(III) forms of EcDOS-heme and its mutants had relatively high flexibilities, which appeared to be linked to the low catalytic activity of the corresponding intact enzymes. These findings corroborate the suggestion, made on the basis of crystallographic data, that there is an inverse relationship between the flexibility of the heme-containing domain of EcDOS and its catalytic activity. The Fe(II)-CO form of the heme domain of a second heme-based oxygen sensor, diguanylate cyclase (YddV), was also found to be quite rigid. Interestingly, the incorporation of a water molecule into the heme complex of YddV caused by mutation of the Leu65 residue reduced the flexibility of this heme domain. Conversely, mutation of the Tyr43 residue increased its flexibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.13060DOI Listing
December 2014

Introduction of water into the heme distal side by Leu65 mutations of an oxygen sensor, YddV, generates verdoheme and carbon monoxide, exerting the heme oxygenase reaction.

J Inorg Biochem 2014 Nov 24;140:29-38. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova (Albertov) 2030/8, Prague 2, 128 43, Czech Republic.

The globin-coupled oxygen sensor, YddV, is a heme-based oxygen sensor diguanylate cyclase. Oxygen binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in the N-terminal sensor domain of this enzyme substantially enhances its diguanylate cyclase activity which is conducted in the C-terminal functional domain. Leu65 is located on the heme distal side and is important for keeping the stability of the heme Fe(II)-O2 complex by preventing the entry of the water molecule to the heme complex. In the present study, it was found that (i) Escherichia coli-overexpressed and purified L65N mutant of the isolated heme-bound domain of YddV (YddV-heme) contained the verdoheme iron complex and other modified heme complexes as determined by optical absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry; (ii) CO was generated in the reconstituted system composed of heme-bound L65N and NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase as confirmed by gas chromatography; (iii) CO generation of heme-bound L65N in the reconstituted system was inhibited by superoxide dismutase and catalase. In a concordance with the result, the reactive oxygen species increased the CO generation; (iv) the E. coli cells overexpressing the L65N protein of YddV-heme also formed significant amounts of CO compared to the cells overexpressing the wild type protein; (v) generation of verdoheme and CO was also observed for other mutants at Leu65 as well, but to a lesser extent. Since Leu65 mutations are assumed to introduce the water molecule into the heme distal side of YddV-heme, it is suggested that the water molecule would significantly contribute to facilitating heme oxygenase reactions for the Leu65 mutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2014.06.010DOI Listing
November 2014

Heme-based globin-coupled oxygen sensors: linking oxygen binding to functional regulation of diguanylate cyclase, histidine kinase, and methyl-accepting chemotaxis.

J Biol Chem 2013 Sep 8;288(39):27702-11. Epub 2013 Aug 8.

From the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic.

An emerging class of novel heme-based oxygen sensors containing a globin fold binds and senses environmental O2 via a heme iron complex. Structure-function relationships of oxygen sensors containing a heme-bound globin fold are different from those containing heme-bound PAS and GAF folds. It is thus worth reconsidering from an evolutionary perspective how heme-bound proteins with a globin fold similar to that of hemoglobin and myoglobin could act as O2 sensors. Here, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of heme-based oxygen sensors containing a globin fold in an effort to shed light on the O2-sensing properties and O2-stimulated catalytic enhancement observed for these proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.R113.473249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3784688PMC
September 2013

Leu65 in the heme distal side is critical for the stability of the Fe(II)-O2 complex of YddV, a globin-coupled oxygen sensor diguanylate cyclase.

J Inorg Biochem 2012 Mar 17;108:163-70. Epub 2011 Sep 17.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan.

YddV is a globin-coupled oxygen sensor enzyme in that O(2) binding to the Fe(II) heme in the sensor domain substantially enhances its diguanylate cyclase activity. The Fe(III) heme-bound enzyme is also the active form. Amino acid sequence comparisons indicate that Leu65 is well conserved in globin-coupled oxygen sensor enzymes. Absorption spectra of the Fe(III) heme complexes of L65G, L65M, L65Q and L65T mutants of the isolated heme domain of YddV (YddV-heme) were substantially different from that of the wild-type protein. Specifically, Soret bands of the 6-coordinated high-spin Fe(III) complexes of mutant proteins (with H(2)O and His98 as axial ligands) were located at around 403-406 nm, distinct from that (391 nm) of the 5-coordinated high-spin Fe(III) complex of wild-type protein with His98 as the axial ligand. The autooxidation rate constant (>0.10 min(-1)) of the Fe(II)-O(2) complex of L65G was substantially higher than that (0.011 min(-1)) of the wild-type protein. Affinities of O(2) for the Fe(II) complexes of L65G and L65T were markedly higher than that for the wild-type protein. Thus, we suggest that the well-conserved Leu65 located in the heme distal side is critical for restricting water access to the heme distal side to avoid rapid autooxidation of YddV, which needs a stable Fe(II)-O(2) complex with a low autooxidation rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2011.09.019DOI Listing
March 2012

Identification and functional and spectral characterization of a globin-coupled histidine kinase from Anaeromyxobacter sp. Fw109-5.

J Biol Chem 2011 Oct 18;286(41):35522-35534. Epub 2011 Aug 18.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan. Electronic address:

Two-component signal transduction systems regulate numerous important physiological functions in bacteria. In this study we have identified, cloned, overexpressed, and characterized a dimeric full-length heme-bound (heme:protein, 1:1 stoichiometry) globin-coupled histidine kinase (AfGcHK) from Anaeromyxobacter sp. strain Fw109-5 for the first time. The Fe(III), Fe(II)-O(2), and Fe(II)-CO complexes of the protein displayed autophosphorylation activity, whereas the Fe(II) complex had no significant activity. A H99A mutant lost heme binding ability, suggesting that this residue is the heme proximal ligand. Moreover, His-183 was proposed as the autophosphorylation site based on the finding that the H183A mutant protein was not phosphorylated. The phosphate group of autophosphorylated AfGcHK was transferred to Asp-52 and Asp-169 of a response regulator, as confirmed from site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Based on the amino acid sequences and crystal structures of other globin-coupled oxygen sensor enzymes, Tyr-45 was assumed to be the O(2) binding site at the heme distal side. The O(2) dissociation rate constant, 0.10 s(-1), was substantially increased up to 8.0 s(-1) upon Y45L mutation. The resonance Raman frequencies representing ν(Fe-O2) (559 cm(-1)) and ν(O-O) (1149 cm(-1)) of the Fe(II)-O(2) complex of Y45F mutant AfGcHK were distinct from those of the wild-type protein (ν(Fe-O2), 557 cm(-1); ν(O-O), 1141 cm(-1)), supporting the proposal that Tyr-45 is located at the distal side and forms hydrogen bonds with the oxygen molecule bound to the Fe(II) complex. Thus, we have successfully identified and characterized a novel heme-based globin-coupled oxygen sensor histidine kinase, AfGcHK, in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.274811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195594PMC
October 2011

Important roles of Tyr43 at the putative heme distal side in the oxygen recognition and stability of the Fe(II)-O2 complex of YddV, a globin-coupled heme-based oxygen sensor diguanylate cyclase.

Biochemistry 2010 Dec 19;49(49):10381-93. Epub 2010 Nov 19.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

YddV from Escherichia coli (Ec) is a novel globin-coupled heme-based oxygen sensor protein displaying diguanylate cyclase activity in response to oxygen availability. In this study, we quantified the turnover numbers of the active [Fe(III), 0.066 min(-1); Fe(II)-O(2) and Fe(II)-CO, 0.022 min(-1)] [Fe(III), Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX complex; Fe(II), Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX complex] and inactive forms [Fe(II) and Fe(II)-NO, <0.01 min(-1)] of YddV for the first time. Our data indicate that the YddV reaction is the rate-determining step for two consecutive reactions coupled with phosphodiesterase Ec DOS activity on cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) [turnover number of Ec DOS-Fe(II)-O(2), 61 min(-1)]. Thus, O(2) binding and the heme redox switch of YddV appear to be critical factors in the regulation of c-di-GMP homeostasis. The redox potential and autoxidation rate of heme of the isolated heme domain of YddV (YddV-heme) were determined to be -17 mV versus the standard hydrogen electrode and 0.0076 min(-1), respectively. The Fe(II) complexes of Y43A and Y43L mutant proteins (residues at the heme distal side of the isolated heme-bound globin domain of YddV) exhibited very low O(2) affinities, and thus, their Fe(II)-O(2) complexes were not detected on the spectra. The O(2) dissociation rate constant of the Y43W protein was >150 s(-1), which is significantly larger than that of the wild-type protein (22 s(-1)). The autoxidation rate constants of the Y43F and Y43W mutant proteins were 0.069 and 0.12 min(-1), respectively, which are also markedly higher than that of the wild-type protein. The resonance Raman frequencies representing ν(Fe-O(2)) (559 cm(-1)) of the Fe(II)-O(2) complex and ν(Fe-CO) (505 cm(-1)) of the Fe(II)-CO complex of Y43F differed from those (ν(Fe-O(2)), 565 cm(-1); ν(Fe-CO), 495 cm(-1)) of the wild-type protein, suggesting that Tyr43 forms hydrogen bonds with both O(2) and CO molecules. On the basis of the results, we suggest that Tyr43 located at the heme distal side is important for the O(2) recognition and stability of the Fe(II)-O(2) complex, because the hydroxyl group of the residue appears to interact electrostatically with the O(2) molecule bound to the Fe(II) complex in YddV. Our findings clearly support a role of Tyr in oxygen sensing, and thus modulation of overall conversion from GTP to pGpG via c-di-GMP catalyzed by YddV and Ec DOS, which may be applicable to other globin-coupled oxygen sensor enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi100733qDOI Listing
December 2010

Heme-binding characteristics of the isolated PAS-B domain of mouse Per2, a transcriptional regulatory factor associated with circadian rhythms.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2011 Feb 29;1814(2):326-33. Epub 2010 Sep 29.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Mouse period homolog 2 (mPer2), an important transcriptional regulatory factor associated with circadian rhythms, is composed of two N-terminal PAS (PAS-A and PAS-B) domains and a C-terminal domain. The PAS-A domain of mPer2 binds the heme iron via a Cys axial ligand. A corresponding transcriptional regulatory factor, neuronal PAS 2 protein (NPAS2), also contains PAS-A and PAS-B domains at the N-terminus with heme-binding capability. In particular, the PAS-B domain appears important for protein-protein interactions critical for transcriptional regulation. In the present study, we examined the heme-binding characteristics of the isolated PAS-B domain of mPer2. Our experiments show that the Fe(III) heme binds the isolated PAS-B domain with a heme to protein stoichiometry of 1:1. The Fe(III) protein complex is suggested to consist of an admixture of 6-coordinated His-bound high-spin and low-spin complexes. Marked pH-dependent spectral changes were observed, in contrast to the spectrum of the Fe(III) bound PAS-A domain of mPer2, which appeared pH-resistant. Treatment with diethylpyrocarbonate abolished the heme-binding ability of this protein, supporting the proposal that His is the axial ligand. Heme dissociation was composed of two phases with rate constants of 4.3 × 10⁻⁴ s⁻¹ (50%) and 4.0 × 10⁻³ s⁻¹ (50%), which were markedly higher than that (1.5 × 10⁻⁷ s⁻¹) of the prototype heme protein, myoglobin. The Soret CD band of the H454A PAS-B mutant was significantly different from those of wild-type and other His mutant proteins, strongly suggesting that His454 is one of the axial ligands for the Fe(III) complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2010.09.007DOI Listing
February 2011

Heme-binding characteristics of the isolated PAS-A domain of mouse Per2, a transcriptional regulatory factor associated with circadian rhythms.

Biochemistry 2008 Jun 15;47(23):6157-68. Epub 2008 May 15.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku UniVersity, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Neuronal PAS protein 2 (NPAS2), a heme-binding transcriptional regulatory factor, is involved in circadian rhythms. Period homologue (Per) is another important transcriptional regulatory factor that binds to cryptochrome (Cry). The resultant Per/Cry heterodimer interacts with the NPAS2/BMAL1 heterodimer to inhibit the transcription of Per and Cry. Previous cell biology experiments indicate that mouse Per2 (mPer2) is also a heme-binding protein, and heme shuttling between mPer2 and NPAS2 may regulate transcription. In the present study, we show that the isolated PAS-A domain of mPer2 (PAS-A-mPer2) binds the Fe(III) protoporphyrin IX complex (hemin) with a heme:protein stoichiometry of 1:1. Optical absorption and EPR spectroscopic findings suggest that the Fe(III)-bound PAS-A-mPer2 is a six-coordinated low-spin complex with Cys and an unknown axial ligand. A Hg (2+) binding study supports the theory that Cys is one of the axial ligands for Fe(III)-bound PAS-A-mPer2. The dissociation rate constant of the Fe(III) complex from PAS-A-mPer2 (6.3 x 10 (-4) s (-1)) was comparable to that of the heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI), a heme-sensor enzyme (1.5 x 10 (-3) s (-1)), but markedly higher than that of metmyoglobin (8.4 x 10 (-7) s (-1)). As confirmed by a Soret absorption spectral shift, heme transferred from the holo basic helix-loop-helix PAS-A of NPAS2 to apoPAS-A-mPer2. The Soret CD spectrum of the C215A mutant PAS-A-mPer2 protein was markedly different from that of the wild-type protein. On the basis of the data, we propose that PAS-A-mPer2 is a heme-sensor protein in which Cys215 is the heme axial ligand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi7023892DOI Listing
June 2008
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