Publications by authors named "Kendall Stone"

2 Publications

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Corrosive microenvironments at lead solder surfaces arising from galvanic corrosion with copper pipe.

Environ Sci Technol 2010 Sep;44(18):7076-81

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Virginia Tech, 407 Durham Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA.

As stagnant water contacts copper pipe and lead solder (simulated soldered joints), a corrosion cell is formed between the metals in solder (Pb, Sn) and the copper. If the resulting galvanic current exceeds about 2 μA/cm(2), a highly corrosive microenvironment can form at the solder surface, with pH < 2.5 and chloride concentrations at least 11 times higher than bulk water levels. Waters with relatively high chloride tend to sustain high galvanic currents, preventing passivation of the solder surface, and contributing to lead contamination of potable water supplies. The total mass of lead corroded was consistent with predictions based on the galvanic current, and lead leaching to water was correlated with galvanic current. If the concentration of sulfate in the water increased relative to chloride, galvanic currents and associated lead contamination could be greatly reduced, and solder surfaces were readily passivated.
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September 2010

Getting from here to there: evaluating West Virginia's rural nonemergency medical transportation program.

J Rural Health 2003 ;19 Suppl:397-406

West Virginia Institute for Health Policy Research, 3110 MacCorkle Ave, SE, Charleston, WV 25302, USA.

With funding from the 21st Century Challenge Fund, the West Virginia Rural Health Access Program created Transportation for Health, a demonstration project for rural nonemergency medical transportation. The project was implemented in 3 sites around the state, building on existing transportation systems--specifically, a multicounty transit authority, a joint senior center/transit system, and a senior services center. An evaluation of the project was undertaken to answer 3 major questions: (1) Did the project reach the population of people who need transportation assistance? (2) Are users of the transportation project satisfied with the service? (3) Is the program sustainable? Preliminary results from survey data indicate that the answers to questions 1 and 2 are affirmative. A break-even analysis of all 3 sites begins to identify programmatic and policy issues that challenge the likelihood of financial sustainability, including salary expenses, unreimbursed mileage, and reliance on Medicaid reimbursement.
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October 2003