Publications by authors named "Kendall R Scarlett"

3 Publications

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Multi-approach assessment for the evaluation of spatio-temporal estrogenicity in fish from effluent-dominated surface waters under low instream flow.

Environ Pollut 2020 Oct 27;265(Pt B):115122. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Environmental Science and Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX, 76798, USA. Electronic address:

Current practices employed by most wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are unable to completely remove endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from reclaimed waters, and consistently discharge these substances to receiving systems. Effluent-dominated and dependent surface waters, especially during low instream flows, can increase exposure and risks to aquatic organisms due to adverse biological effects associated with EDCs. Given the ecological implications that may arise from exposure to such compounds, the present a multi-approach study examined spatio-temporal estrogenic potential of wastewater effluent to fish in East Canyon Creek (ECC), Utah, USA, a unique urban river with instream flows seasonally influenced by snowmelt. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were caged at different upstream and downstream sites from an effluent discharge during the summer and fall seasons. In the summer, where approximately 50% of the streamflow was dominated by effluent, fish from the upstream and a downstream site, located 13 miles away from the effluent discharge, presented significantly elevated concentrations of plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Similarly, significantly high 17β-estradiol to 11-ketotestosterone ratios were measured in the summer across all sites and time points, compared to the fall. In the laboratory, juvenile fish and primary hepatocytes were exposed to concentrated effluent and surface water samples. Quantification of VTG, although in significantly lower levels, resembled response patterns observed in fish from the field study. Furthermore, analytical quantification of common EDCs in wastewater revealed the presence of estriol and estrone, though these did not appear to be related to the observed biological responses, as these were more significant in sites were no EDCs were detected. These combined observations suggest potential estrogenicity for fish in ECC under continuous exposures and highlight the advantages of following weight-of-evidence (WoE) approaches for environmental monitoring, as targeted analytically-based assessments may or may not support the identification of causative contaminants for adverse biological effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115122DOI Listing
October 2020

Global scanning of cylindrospermopsin: Critical review and analysis of aquatic occurrence, bioaccumulation, toxicity and health hazards.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Oct 2;738:139807. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA; Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA; Institute of Biomedical Studies, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA. Electronic address:

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a cyanotoxin produced by harmful algal blooms, has been reported worldwide; however, there remains limited understanding of its potential risks to surface water quality. In the present study, we critically reviewed available literature regarding the global occurrence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of CYN in aquatic systems with a particular focus on freshwater. We subsequently developed environmental exposure distributions (EEDs) for CYN in surface waters and performed probabilistic environmental hazard assessments (PEHAs) using guideline values (GVs). PEHAs were performed by geographic region, type of aquatic system, and matrix. CYN occurrence was prevalent in North America, Europe, and Asia/Pacific, with lakes being the most common system. Many global whole water EEDs exceeded guideline values (GV) previously developed for drinking water (e.g., 0.5 μg L) and recreational water (e.g., 1 μg L). GV exceedances were higher in the Asia/Pacific region, and in rivers and reservoirs. Rivers in the Asia/Pacific region exceeded the lowest drinking water GV 73.2% of the time. However, lack of standardized protocols used for analyses was alarming, which warrants improvement in future studies. In addition, bioaccumulation of CYN has been reported in mollusks, crustaceans, and fish, but such exposure information remains limited. Though several publications have reported aquatic toxicity of CYN, there is limited chronic aquatic toxicity data, especially for higher trophic level organisms. Most aquatic toxicity studies have not employed standardized experimental designs, failed to analytically verify treatment levels, and did not report purity of CYN used for experiments; therefore, existing data are insufficient to derive water quality guidelines. Considering such elevated exceedances of CYN in global surface waters and limited aquatic bioaccumulation and toxicity data, further aquatic monitoring, environmental fate and mechanistic toxicology studies are warranted to robustly assess and manage water quality risks to public health and the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204307PMC
October 2020

Pharmaceutical uptake kinetics in rainbow trout: In situ bioaccumulation in an effluent-dominated river influenced by snowmelt.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Sep 22;736:139603. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA; School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Whether seasonal instream flow dynamics influence bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals by fish is not well understood, specifically for urban lotic systems in semi-arid regions when flows are influenced by snowmelt. We examined uptake of select pharmaceuticals in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) caged in situ upstream and at incremental distances downstream (0.1, 1.4, 13 miles) from a municipal effluent discharge to East Canyon Creek in Park City, Utah, USA during summer and fall of 2018. Fish were sampled over 7-d to examine if uptake occurred, and to define uptake kinetics. Water and fish tissues were analyzed via isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Several pharmaceuticals were consistently detected in water, fish tissue and plasma, including carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, and fluoxetine. Pharmaceutical levels in water ranged up to 151 ng/L for carbamazepine, whereas the effluent tracer sucralose was consistently observed at low μg/L levels. During both summer and fall experiments at each of three downstream locations from effluent discharge, rainbow trout rapidly accumulated these pharmaceuticals; tissue levels reached steady state conditions within 24-96 h. Spatial and temporal differences for pharmaceutical levels in rainbow trout directly corresponded with surface water exposure concentrations, and uptake kinetics for individual pharmaceuticals did not vary among sites or seasons. Such observations are consistent with recent laboratory bioconcentration studies, which collectively indicate inhalational exposure from water governs rapid accumulation of ionizable base pharmaceuticals by fish in inland surface waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139603DOI Listing
September 2020