Publications by authors named "Kendalem Asmare Atalell"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Co-Utilization of Oral Rehydration Solution and Zinc for Treating Diarrhea and Its Associated Factors Among Under-Five Children in Ethiopia: Further Analysis of EDHS 2016.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2022 21;16:1713-1721. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Diarrhea causes a loss of body water and salt, which can lead to dehydration and death. The use of oral rehydration salts and zinc together is regarded as an effective treatment for diarrhea in resource-poor settings like Ethiopia. However, studies that examine the co-utilization of oral rehydration solution and zinc in the treatment of diarrhea are limited Ethiopia.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of oral rehydration solution and zinc co-utilization to treat diarrhea in children under the age of five in Ethiopia, EDHS 2016.

Methods: Secondary data from the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) was used to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with the co-utilization of ORS and zinc to treat diarrhea in under-five children. A multilevel binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with the co-utilization of ORS and zinc. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% CI were calculated and used as a measure of associations, and variables having a p-value of less than 0.05 were declared as statistically significant.

Results: The national prevalence of ORS and zinc co-utilization was 16.65% (14.66%, 18.84%). Maternal educational status (AOR = 1.45; 95% CI; (1.01, 2.09)), household size (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI; 1.09, 2.16) and distance to health facilities at the community level (AOR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.58) were variables significantly associated with the co-use of ORS and zinc.

Conclusion: The co-utilization of ORS and zinc for the management of diarrhea was low in Ethiopia. Education, household size, and distance to health facilities at the community level were significantly associated with the co-utilization of ORS and zinc in Ethiopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S356557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9314449PMC
July 2022

The effect of gestational age, low birth weight and parity on birth asphyxia among neonates in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis: 2021.

Ital J Pediatr 2022 Jul 15;48(1):114. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Pediatric and Child Health Nursing, School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Despite simple and proven cost-effective measures were available to prevent birth asphyxia; studies suggested that there has been limited progress in preventing birth asphyxia even in healthy full-term neonates. In Sub-Saharan Africa, Inconsistency of magnitude of birth asphyxia and its association gestational age, Low birth Weight and Parity among different studies has been observed through time.

Objective: This study aimed to estimate the Pooled magnitude of birth asphyxia and its association with gestational age, Low birth Weight and Parity among Neonates in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Method: PubMed, Cochrane library and Google scholar databases were searched for relevant literatures. In addition, reference lists of included studies were retrieved to obtain birth asphyxia related articles. Appropriate search term was established and used to retrieve studies from databases. Searching was limited to cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies conducted in Sub-Saharan africa and published in English language. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was used for critical appraisal of studies. Heterogeneity across the included studies was evaluated by using the inconsistency index (I) test. Funnel plot and the Egger's regression test were used to test publication bias. A weighted inverse variance random effects- model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of birth asphyxia among neonates in Sub-Saharan Africa. STATA™ version 11softwarewasused to conduct the meta-analysis.

Result: A total of 40 studies with 176,334 study participants were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall pooled magnitude of birth asphyxia in Sub-Saharan Africa was 17.28% (95% CI; (15.5, 19.04). low birth weight (AOR = 2.58(95% CI: 1.36, 4.88)), primigravida (AOR = 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.46) andMeconium-stained amniotic fluid (AOR = 6(95% CI: 3.69, 9.74)) werevariables significantly associated with the pooled prevalence of birth asphyxia.

Conclusion: The pooled magnitude of birth asphyxia was found to be high in Sub-Saharan Africa. Low birthweight and Meconium-stained amniotic fluid were variables significantly associated with birth asphyxia in Sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, it is better to develop early detection and management strategies for the affected neonates with low birth weight and born from mothers intrapartum meconium stained amniotic fluid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-022-01307-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9288040PMC
July 2022

Spatial variation and determinants of underweight among children under 5 y of age in Ethiopia: A multilevel and spatial analysis based on data from the 2019 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey.

Nutrition 2022 May 23;102:111743. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Objectives: Childhood underweight is a critical public health problem that needs urgent attention in developing countries like Ethiopia. Despite its variation between localities, the determinant factors and its geospatial variation have not been adequately addressed across the various regions of the country. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the spatial variation and determinant factors of underweight among children under 5 y of age in Ethiopia.

Methods: The total weighted samples of 5753 children aged <5 y were included in this study. The data were taken from the 2019 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS 2019). Arc GIS software was used to analyze geospatial variations to identify the hot- and cold spot areas of underweight in Ethiopia. A multilevel multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify the determinant factors of underweight. Excel, STATA-16, and ArcGIS software were used for the data management and analysis. In the multivariable multilevel analysis, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to declare significant determinants of underweight among children aged <5 y.

Results: Among 5753 children aged <5 y in Ethiopia, 21.3% were underweight during the 2019 EDHS. The distribution showed that there was a geospatial variation of underweight among children aged <5 y in Ethiopia; the Global Moran's index value was 0.36 with P < 0.001. In multivariable multilevel analysis, the significant factors associated with underweight were the sex of the child (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09-1.44); age of the child, with the highest odds of being underweight observed in the age group of 24 to 35 mo (aOR, 3.52; 95% CI, 2.60-4.74); wealth index, with poorer children having higher odds of being underweight (aOR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.58-3.24); and the regions, with the highest odds of underweight was observed in Tigray (aOR, 5.63; 95% CI, 2.79-11.36) and Afar (aOR, 4.71; 95% CI, 2.33-9.51).

Conclusions: Underweight has significant spatial variation in Ethiopia, with spatial clustering in the northern and eastern parts of the country. It is recommended that in regions like Tigray, Afar, and Somali, as well as some areas in Gambella, priority steps be taken to reduce the burden of underweight in children aged <5 y. Thus, nutritional intervention programs should be strengthened and intervention strategies developed, with special emphasis on families with poor wealth index in the hotspot areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2022.111743DOI Listing
May 2022

Magnitude of tuberculosis and its associated factors among under-five children admitted with severe acute malnutrition to public hospitals in the city of Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia, 2021: multi-center cross-sectional study.

IJID Reg 2022 Jun 28;3:256-260. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and its associated factors among children under 5 years of age with severe acute malnutrition.

Methods: A multi-center, institution-based, retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at public hospitals in Dire Dawa City Administration, Eastern Ethiopia from January 1, 2018 to December 30, 2020. A binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with the prevalence of TB.

Results: The overall prevalence of TB among children under 5 years of age admitted with severe acute malnutrition to public hospitals in the city of Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia was 10.39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.61-13.73%). Repeated admission (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.5, 95% CI 1.08-6.07), a TB contact history (AOR 3.58, 95% CI 1.21-10.6), pneumonia (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.29-6.23), stage IV HIV/AIDS (AOR 4.41, 95% CI 1.29-15.13), and being immunized (AOR 0.19, 95% CI 0.08-0.43) were variables significantly associated with the prevalence of TB.

Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of TB among under-five children with severe acute malnutrition was high. The prevalence of TB was associated with having HIV/AIDS, having pneumonia, having a TB contact history, admission status, and immunization status. Integrated TB prevention and screening strategies with nutritional rehabilitation care should be implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijregi.2022.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9216649PMC
June 2022

Mapping BCG vaccination coverage in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2019.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Jun 23;22(1):569. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Telethon Kids Institute, Nedlands, WA, Australia.

Introduction: The Bacille-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination remains the primary strategy to prevent severe disseminated TB in young children, particularly in high TB-burden countries such as Ethiopia. Accurate knowledge of vaccination coverage in small geographical areas is critically important to developing targeted immunization campaigns. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal distributions and ecological level determinants of BCG vaccination coverage in Ethiopia.

Method: Bacille-Calmette-Guerin immunization coverage and geographical information data were obtained from five different Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2019. Data for independent variables were obtained from publicly available sources. Bayesian geostatistical models were used to predict the spatial distribution of BCG vaccination coverage in Ethiopia.

Result: The overall national BCG vaccination coverage between 2000 and 2019 was 65.5%. The BCG vaccine coverage was 53.5% in 2000, 56.9% in 2005, 64.4% in 2011, 79.6% in 2016, and 79.0% in 2019. BCG vaccination coverage increased by 47.6% in Ethiopia from 2000 to 2019, but substantial geographical inequalities in BCG coverage remained at sub-national and local levels. High vaccination coverage was observed in northern, western, and central parts of Ethiopia. Climatic and demographic factors such as temperature, altitude, and population density were positively associated with BCG vaccination coverage. Whereas, healthcare access factors such as distance to health facilities and travel time to the nearest cities were negatively associated with BCG vaccine coverage in Ethiopia.

Conclusion: Despite substantial progress in national BCG vaccination coverage, marked spatial variation in BCG coverage persists throughout the country at sub-national and local levels. Healthcare access and climatic and demographic factors determined the spatial distribution of BCG vaccination coverage. Maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage across geographical areas is important to prevent TB in Ethiopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-022-07547-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9219134PMC
June 2022

Treatment Outcomes Among Pregnant Patients With Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 06 1;5(6):e2216527. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Telethon Kids Institute, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

Importance: The management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) during pregnancy is challenging, yet no systematic synthesis of evidence has accurately measured treatment outcomes.

Objective: To systematically synthesize treatment outcomes and adverse events among pregnant patients with MDR-TB.

Data Sources: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest were searched from the inception of each database through August 31, 2021.

Study Selection: Studies containing cohorts of pregnant patients with a defined treatment outcome were eligible.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Independent reviewers screened studies and assessed the risk of bias. The study followed the Preferring Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses reporting guideline. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models. The sources of heterogeneity were explored through metaregression.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with each treatment outcome (including treatment success, death, loss to follow-up, and treatment failure), and the secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients experiencing adverse events during pregnancy.

Results: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, 10 studies containing 275 pregnant patients with available data on treatment outcomes were included. The pooled estimate was 72.5% (95% CI, 63.3%-81.0%) for treatment success, 6.8% (95% CI, 2.6%-12.4%) for death, 18.4% (95% CI, 13.1%-24.2%) for loss to follow-up, and 0.6% (95% CI, 0.0%-2.9%) for treatment failure. Treatment success was significantly higher in studies in which the proportion of patients taking linezolid was greater than the median (20.1%) compared with studies in which this proportion was lower than the median (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.42). More than half of the pregnant patients (54.7%; 95% CI, 43.5%-65.4%) experienced at least 1 type of adverse event, most commonly liver function impairment (30.4%; 95% CI, 17.7%-45.7%), kidney function impairment (14.9%; 95% CI, 6.2%-28.3%), hypokalemia (11.9%; 95% CI, 3.9%-25.6%), hearing loss (11.8%; 95% CI, 5.5%-21.3%), gastrointestinal disorders (11.8%; 95% CI, 5.2%-21.8%), psychiatric disorders (9.1%; 95% CI, 2.5%-21.6%), or anemia (8.9%; 95% CI, 3.6%-17.4%). The pooled proportion of favorable pregnancy outcomes was 73.2% (95% CI, 49.4%-92.1%). The most common types of adverse pregnancy outcomes were preterm birth (9.5%; 95% CI, 0.0%-29.0%), pregnancy loss (6.0%; 95% CI, 1.3%-12.9%), low birth weight (3.9%; 95% CI, 0.0%-18.7%), and stillbirth (1.9%; 95% CI, 0.1%-5.1%). Most of the studies had low-quality (3 studies) or medium-quality (4 studies) scores.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, high treatment success and favorable pregnancy outcomes were reported among pregnant patients with MDR-TB. Further research is needed to design shorter, more effective, and safer treatment regimens for pregnant patients with MDR-TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.16527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9187956PMC
June 2022

Spatial variation and determinates of dietary diversity among children aged 6-23 months in Ethiopia: spatial and multilevel analysis using Ethiopian Demography Health Survey (EDHS) 2019.

Arch Public Health 2022 Jun 6;80(1):152. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Minimum dietary diversity is the consumption of five or more food groups from the eight World Health Organization recommended food groups. Adequately diversified diet, in terms of amount and composition, is critical for optimal growth, development, and long-term health outcomes in the first 2 years. Understanding the regional variation of dietary diversity and the underlying factors is crucial for developing and implementing interventions. However, the use of spatial approaches in dietary studies has not been widely established. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the spatial patterns and determinates of minimum dietary diversity practice among 6-23 months children in Ethiopia.

Methods: Secondary data analysis was conducted based on the Demographic and Health Surveys data conducted in Ethiopia. A total weighted sample of 1578 children aged 6-23 months was included for this study. The Global Moran's I was estimated to look into the regional variation of dietary diversity and hotspot and cold spot areas. Further, multivariable multilevel logistic regression was used for factor analyses. Adjusted Odds Ratio with 95% CI was used to declare the strength and significance of the association.

Results: Overall, 87.4% (95% CI: 85.7 to 88.9%) of children in 2019 had inadequate Minimum dietary diversity. We identified statistically significant clusters of high inadequate dietary diversity (hotspots) notably observed in Somali, Afar, Eastern and western Amhara, western Tigray, Benishangul, and Northeastern and western parts of the southern nations, nationality and peoples' regions. Inadequate dietary diversity was significantly higher among young children, uneducated mother, married women, younger mother, no postnatal check, community with higher level of poverty and community level uneducated woman.

Conclusion: According to the findings of this study inadequate Minimum dietary diversity for children as measured by World Health Organization dietary assessment shows high. Children's dietary diversity was distributed non-randomly in different districts across Ethiopia's regions. The findings of the study provided critical evidence about dietary diversity and associated factors. Hence, policy should focused on improve education status of Mother, boosting economic status of the community, increased maternal continuum of care and focused on young children nutrition may advance dietary diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-022-00905-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9169324PMC
June 2022

Spatial distributions and determinants of anaemia among adolescent girls in Ethiopia: a secondary analysis of EDHS 2016 - a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2022 05 26;12(5):e059405. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the spatial distributions and determinants of anaemia among adolescent girls in Ethiopia. Exploring the spatial epidemiology of anaemia and identifying the risk factors would inform policymakers to come up with evidence-based prevention strategies for anaemia, especially in adolescent girls, who are the most affected segment of the population.

Methods: Secondary analysis of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2016 was conducted. A total of 3172 adolescents were included in the analysis. The Bernoulli model was fitted using SaTScan V.9.6 to identify hotspot areas and the geospatial pattern and prediction of anaemia were mapped using ArcGIS V.10.8. A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with anaemia among adolescent girls. Adjusted OR with 95% CI was calculated and variables having a p value less than 0.05 were statistically significant factors of anaemia.

Result: The overall prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls in Ethiopia was 23.8 (22.4 to 25.3), with significant spatial variations across the country. The SaTScan analysis identified a primary cluster in the eastern, northeastern and southeastern parts of Ethiopia (loglikelihood ratio=39, p<0.001). High anaemia prevalence was observed in eastern parts of the country. In the multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis, no formal education (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.49, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.12), Afar (AOR=3.36, 95% CI 1.87 to 6.05), Somali (AOR=4.63, 95% CI 2.61 to 8.23), Harari (AOR=1.90, 95% CI 1.32 to 4.10), Dire Dawa (AOR=2.32, 95% CI 1.32 to 4.10) and high cluster altitude (AOR=1.37, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.82) were significantly associated with anaemia.

Conclusion: The national distributions of anaemia varied substantially across Ethiopia. Educational status, region and cluster altitude were significantly associated with anaemia in the multivariable logistic regression model. Thus, targeted public health interventions for adolescent girls should be implemented in the hotspot areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-059405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9137342PMC
May 2022

Prevalence and associated factors of double and triple burden of malnutrition among child-mother pairs in Ethiopia: Spatial and survey regression analysis.

BMC Nutr 2022 Apr 21;8(1):34. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Evidence on double and triple burdens of malnutrition at household level among child-mother pairs is a key towards addressing the problem of malnutrition. In Ethiopia, studies on double and triple burdens of malnutrition are scarce. Even though there is a study on double burden of malnutrition at national level in Ethiopia, it doesn't assess the triple burdens at all and a few forms of double burden of malnutrition. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of double and triple burdens of malnutrition among child-mother pairs in Ethiopia.

Methods: A total sample of 7,624 child-mother pairs from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2016 were included in the study. All analysis were performed considering complex sampling design. Anthropometric measures and hemoglobin levels of children, as well as anthropometric measurements of their mothers, were used to calculate double burden of malnutrition (DBM) and triple burden of malnutrition (TBM). Spatial analysis was applied to detect geographic variation of prevalence of double and triple burdens of malnutrition among EDHS 2016 clusters. Bivariable and multivariable binary survey logistic regression models were used to assess the factors associated with DBM and TBM.

Results: The overall weighted prevalence of DBM and TBM respectively were 1.8% (95%CI: 1.38-2.24) and 1.2% (95%CI: 0.83-1.57) among child-mother pairs in Ethiopia. Significant clusters of high prevalence of DBM and TBM were identified. In the adjusted multivariable binary survey logistic regression models, middle household economic status [AOR = 0.23, 95%CI: 0.06, 0.89] as compared to the poor, average birth weight [AOR = 0.26, 95%CI: 0.09, 0.80] as compared to large birth weight and children aged 24-35 months [AOR = 0.19, 95%CI: 0.04,0.95] as compared to 6-12 months were less likely to experience DBM. Average birth weight [AOR = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.91] as compared to large birth weight and time to water source <=30 min [AOR = 0.41, 95%CI: 0.19,0.89] as compared to on premise were less likely to experience TBM.

Conclusion: There is low prevalence of DBM and TBM among child-mother pairs in Ethiopia. Interventions tailored on geographic areas, wealth index, birth weight and child birth could help to control the emerging DBM and TBM at household level among child-mother pairs in Ethiopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40795-022-00528-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9027462PMC
April 2022

Burden and Associated Factors of Virological Failure Among People Living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

AIDS Behav 2022 Apr 13. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

United Nations program on HIV/AIDS 90-90-90 ambitious goal recommends 90% of people living with HIV and taking antiretroviral therapy should achieve viral suppression by 2020. However, virological failure is still a global public health problem, especially in sub-Saharan African countries. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at estimating the burden of virological failure and its associated factors among peoples living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus for studies that reported virologic failure and its associated factors. I-squared statistics and Egger's statistical test were used to detect heterogeneity and publication bias respectively. The pooled prevalence of virological failure was estimated using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. Sensitivity analysis was done to check the presence of outlier results included in the studies. The estimated pooled prevalence of virological failure was 1.7.25%. Lower Adherence to ART drugs,longer ART duration, lower CD4 count,and being co-infected with TB were significantly associated with the pooled estimate of virological failure.Virological failure was found to be high in sub-Saharan Africa. Adherence, duration of ART, CD4 + count, and TB co-infection were the significant factors associated with the pooled estimate of virological failure. Therefore, to achieve the 90-90-90 target and sustainable development goal 3 policymakers should design mechanisms to improve ART adherence, and early detecting and prevent opportunistic infections such as TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-022-03610-yDOI Listing
April 2022

Spatial codistribution of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria in Ethiopia.

BMJ Glob Health 2022 02;7(2)

Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria are the three most important infectious diseases in Ethiopia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the spatial codistribution of these diseases is critical for designing geographically targeted and integrated disease control programmes. This study investigated the spatial overlap and drivers of HIV, TB and malaria prevalence in Ethiopia.

Methods: HIV, TB and malaria data were obtained from different nationwide prevalence surveys, and geospatial covariates were obtained from publicly available sources. A Bayesian model-based geostatistical framework was applied to each survey leveraging the strength of high-resolution spatial covariates to predict continuous disease-specific prevalence surfaces and their codistribution.

Results: The national prevalence was 1.54% (95% CI 1.40 to 1.70) for HIV, 0.39% (95% CI 0.34 to 0.45) for TB and 1.1% (95%CI 0.95 to 1.32) for malaria. Substantial subnational variation was predicted with the highest HIV prevalence estimated in Gambela (4.52%), Addis Ababa (3.52%) and Dire Dawa (2.67%) regions. TB prevalence was highest in Dire Dawa (0.96%) and Gambela (0.88%), while malaria was highest in Gambela (6.1%) and Benishangul-Gumuz (3.8%). Spatial overlap of their prevalence was observed in some parts of the country, mainly Gambela region. Spatial distribution of the diseases was significantly associated with healthcare access, demographic, and climatic factors.

Conclusions: The national distribution of HIV, TB and malaria was highly focal in Ethiopia, with substantial variation at subnational and local levels. Spatial distribution of the diseases was significantly associated with healthcare access, demographic and climatic factors. Spatial overlap of HIV, TB and malaria prevalence was observed in some parts of the country. Integrated control programmes for these diseases should be targeted to these areas with high levels of co-endemicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-007599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8867247PMC
February 2022

Spatiotemporal distributions of immunization coverage in Ethiopia from 2000 to 2019.

Vaccine 2022 03 4;40(10):1413-1420. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Vaccination is the most important mechanism to improve childhood survival. However, immunization coverage is very low and unevenly distributed throughout the country. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of immunization coverage in Ethiopia.

Method: Immunization coverage data and geospatial covariates data were obtained from EDHS 2000 to 2019 and different publicly available sources. A Bayesian geostatistic model was used to estimate the national immunization coverage at a pixel level and to identify factors associated with the spatial clustering of immunization coverages.

Result: The overall immunization coverage in Ethiopia was 38.7%, 36.55%, 51.8%, 67.1% and 66.9% for 2000, 2005, 2011, 2016 and 2019 respectively. Spatial clustering of low immunization coverage was observed in Eastern, Southern, Southwestern, Southeastern and Northeastern parts of Ethiopia in EDHSs. The altitude of the area was positively associated with immunization coverage in 2000, 2005 and 2019 EDHS. The population density was positively associated with immunization coverage in 2000, 2005, 2011 and 2016. Precipitation is also positively associated with immunization coverage in 2016. Moreover, mean annual temperature was positively associated with immunization coverage in 2000, 2005 and 2019 EDHSs. Travel time to the nearest city is negatively associated with immunization coverage in 2000, 2005, 2011 and 2016. Likewise, distance to health facilities was negatively associated with immunization coverage in all the five EDHSs.

Conclusion: This study found that immunization coverage in Ethiopia substantially varied across the subnational and local levels. Spatial clustering of low immunization coverage was observed in Southern, Southeastern, Southwestern, Northeastern, and Eastern parts of the country. Altitude, population density, precipitation, temperature, travel time to the nearest city in minutes, and distance to the health facilities were factors that affect the spatial clustering of immunizations coverage. These findings can guide policymakers in Ethiopia to design geographically targeted interventions to increase programs to achieve maximum immunization coverage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2022.01.053DOI Listing
March 2022

Poor treatment outcomes of children on highly active antiretroviral therapy: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Open 2020 12 29;10(12):e040161. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley Campus, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduction: While access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for children with HIV has expanded and the use of HAART has substantially reduced the morbidity and mortality of children due to HIV, poor treatment outcomes among children with HIV are still a major public health problem globally. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to quantify treatment outcomes among children with HIV.

Methods And Analysis: Systematic searches will be conducted in three electronic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science) for recent studies published from 01 Jan 2000 up to 28 October 2020, without geographical restriction. The primary outcomes of the study will be poor treatment outcomes, which include death, treatment failure and loss to follow-up. We will include quantitative studies that report treatment outcomes among children under the age of 18 years with HIV. Studies will be excluded if they are case report, case series, conducted among adults only or do not provide data on treatment outcomes for children. Two researchers will screen the titles and abstracts of all citations identified in our search, then review the full text of the remaining papers to identify those that meet the inclusion criteria. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale will be used for quality assessment. A random-effects meta-analysis will be used to obtain pooled estimates of the proportion of poor treatment outcomes. The heterogeneity between studies will be checked visually by using forest plots and quantitatively measured by the index of heterogeneity (I). Pooled estimates of poor treatment outcomes will be calculated with a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis will be conducted by study settings, treatment regimen, comorbidity (such as tuberculosis), study period and HIV type (HIV-1 and HIV-2).

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval will not be required for this study as it will be based on published papers. The final report of this review will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778777PMC
December 2020

Incidence of Loss to Follow-Up and Its Predictors Among Children with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Referral Hospital: A Retrospective Data Analysis.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2020 5;12:525-533. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

School of Nursing College of Medicine and Health Sciences and Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: The magnitude of loss to follow-up is high and remains a major public health problem in developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this study determines the incidence rate and predictors of loss to follow-up among children with HIV on ART at the University of Gondar comprehensive specialized referral hospital.

Methods: An institution-based retrospective data analysis was conducted on 361 children with HIV. The simple random sampling technique was used, and data were entered into Epi-info version 7.1 and were exported to Stata version 14 for analysis. The proportional hazard assumption was checked, and Cox regression was fitted. Finally, an adjusted hazard ratio with a 95% CI was computed, and variables with P-value <0.05 in the multivariable analysis were taken as significant predictors of loss to follow-up.

Results: The overall incidence rate of lost to follow-up was 6.2 events per 100 child-years observations (95% CI: 4.9-7.7). Children who have got care from their biological parents (AHR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.5), WHO clinical stage III/IV (AHR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.8), history of regimen substitutions (AHR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9), poor/fair medication adherence (AHR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.2) and history of TB treatment (AHR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.6-4.4) were the significant predictors of lost to follow-up.

Conclusion: The incidence rate of loss to follow-up among children was found to be high. Children who have got care from their biological parent, WHO clinical stage III/IV, history of regimen substitution, poor/fair medication adherence, and history of TB treatment were the independent predictors of loss to follow-up. Therefore, strengthening HIV care intervention and addressing these significant predictors is highly recommended in the study setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S269580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547131PMC
October 2020

Contraceptive use and method preference among HIV-positive women in Amhara region, Ethiopia.

BMC Womens Health 2018 06 18;18(1):97. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Providing preferred methods of contraceptive for HIV-positive women and avoiding unintended pregnancy is one of the primary means of preventing mother to child transmission of HIV. This study assessed the prevalence of contraceptive use and method preference among HIV-positive women in Amhara region, Ethiopia.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among HIV-positive women in three referral hospitals of Amhara region. Data were collected by interviewing HIV-positive women using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with contraceptive use, and odd ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to measure the strength of association.

Results: A total of 803 women living with HIV (with a response rate of 95.4%) were interviewed. The mean age of the study participants was 32.2 years (SD ± 6.2 years). The prevalence of current contraceptive use was 30.3% (95% CI: 27.0-33.7%). The preferred and most commonly used contraceptive methods were injectable (42.8%) and male condom (32.9%). Younger age group (15-24 years) (AOR = 9.67; 95%CI: 3.45, 27.10), one or more number of living children (AOR = 4.01; 95%CI: 2.07, 7.79), HIV diagnosis > 2-4 years (AOR = 2.37; 95%CI: 1.10, 5.08), and having high CD4 count > 500 cell/ul (AOR = 3.25; 95% CI: 1.42, 7.44) were significantly associated with contraceptive use.

Conclusion: The prevalence of contraceptive use among HIV-positive women in Amhara region referral hospitals is low, which suggests a high risk of unintended pregnancy. Injectable and male condoms are the most preferred type of contraceptive methods. Thus, it is better to integrate these contraceptive methods with ART clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0608-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6006570PMC
June 2018

Survival and predictors of mortality among children co-infected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A retrospective follow-up study.

PLoS One 2018 22;13(5):e0197145. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children globally. The aims of this study were to determine the mortality rate and to identify the predictors of mortality among TB/HIV co-infected children at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital.

Method: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted among TB/HIV co-infected children from February 2005 to March 2017. A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate the median survival time. Bivariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to identify the predictors of mortality.

Results: A total of 271 TB/HIV co-infected children were included in the analysis. Of these, 38(14.02%) children were died during the follow-up period. This gives a total of 1167.67 child-years of observations. The overall mortality rate was 3.27(95%CI: 2.3-4.5) per 100 child-years. The independent predictors of time to death were age 1-5 years (as compared to age <1 year) (AHR = 0.3; 95%CI:0.09-0.98)), being anemic (AHR = 2.6; 95%CI:1.24-5.3), cotrimoxazole preventive therapy(CPT) non-users (AHR = 4.1; 95%CI:1.4-16.75), isoniazid preventive therapy(IPT) non-users (AHR = 2.95; 95%CI:1.16-7.5), having extra pulmonary tuberculosis(EPTB) (AHR = 2.43; 95%CI:1.1-5.3)) and fair or poor adherence to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART)(AHR = 3.5; 95%CI:1.7-7.5).

Conclusion: Mortality rate among TB/HIV co-infected children was high at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Age, extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, anemia, adherence, CPT and IPT were the independent predictors of mortality.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0197145PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5963769PMC
July 2018
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