Publications by authors named "Ken-ichiro Yanagi"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Mcm2-7-interacting domain of human mini-chromosome maintenance 10 (Mcm10) protein is important for stable chromatin association and origin firing.

J Biol Chem 2017 08 22;292(31):13008-13021. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, Tokyo 171-8588, Japan; Life Science Center of Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan.

The protein mini-chromosome maintenance 10 (Mcm10) was originally identified as an essential yeast protein in the maintenance of mini-chromosome plasmids. Subsequently, Mcm10 has been shown to be required for both initiation and elongation during chromosomal DNA replication. However, it is not fully understood how the multiple functions of Mcm10 are coordinated or how Mcm10 interacts with other factors at replication forks. Here, we identified and characterized the Mcm2-7-interacting domain in human Mcm10. The interaction with Mcm2-7 required the Mcm10 domain that contained amino acids 530-655, which overlapped with the domain required for the stable retention of Mcm10 on chromatin. Expression of truncated Mcm10 in HeLa cells depleted of endogenous Mcm10 via siRNA revealed that the Mcm10 conserved domain (amino acids 200-482) is essential for DNA replication, whereas both the conserved and the Mcm2-7-binding domains were required for its full activity. Mcm10 depletion reduced the initiation frequency of DNA replication and interfered with chromatin loading of replication protein A, DNA polymerase (Pol) α, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, whereas the chromatin loading of Cdc45 and Pol ϵ was unaffected. These results suggest that human Mcm10 is bound to chromatin through the interaction with Mcm2-7 and is primarily involved in the initiation of DNA replication after loading of Cdc45 and Pol ϵ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.779371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5546039PMC
August 2017

Structure and mutagenesis studies of the C-terminal region of licensing factor Cdt1 enable the identification of key residues for binding to replicative helicase Mcm proteins.

J Biol Chem 2010 May 24;285(21):15931-40. Epub 2010 Mar 24.

Center for Priority Areas, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan.

In eukaryotes, DNA replication is fired once in a single cell cycle before cell division starts to maintain stability of the genome. This event is tightly controlled by a series of proteins. Cdt1 is one of the licensing factors and is involved in recruiting replicative DNA helicase Mcm2-7 proteins into the pre-replicative complex together with Cdc6. In Cdt1, the C-terminal region serves as a binding site for Mcm2-7 proteins, although the details of these interactions remain largely unknown. Here, we report the structure of the region and the key residues for binding to Mcm proteins. We determined the solution structure of the C-terminal fragment, residues 450-557, of mouse Cdt1 by NMR. The structure consists of a winged-helix domain and shows unexpected similarity to those of the C-terminal domain of Cdc6 and the central fragment of Cdt1, thereby implying functional and evolutionary relationships. Structure-based mutagenesis and an in vitro binding assay enabled us to pinpoint the region that interacts with Mcm proteins. Moreover, by performing in vitro binding and budding yeast viability experiments, we showed that approximately 45 residues located in the N-terminal direction of the structural region are equally crucial for recognizing Mcm proteins. Our data suggest the possibility that winged-helix domain plays a role as a common module to interact with replicative helicase in the DNA replication-licensing process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.075333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2871461PMC
May 2010

Aberrant DNA polymerase alpha is excluded from the nucleus by defective import and degradation in the nucleus.

J Biol Chem 2009 Oct 2;284(44):30604-14. Epub 2009 Sep 2.

Cellular Physiology Laboratory, Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan.

DNA polymerase alpha is essential for the onset of eukaryotic DNA replication. Its correct folding and assembly within the nuclear replication pre-initiation complex is crucial for normal cell cycle progression and genome maintenance. Due to a single point mutation in the largest DNA polymerase alpha subunit, p180, the temperature-sensitive mouse cell line tsFT20 exhibits heat-labile DNA polymerase alpha activity and S phase arrest at restrictive temperature. In this study, we show that an aberrant form of endogenous p180 in tsFT20 cells (p180(tsFT20)) is strictly localized in the cytoplasm while its wild-type counterpart enters the nucleus. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy with enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged or photoactivatable green fluorescent protein-tagged p180(tsFT20) variants and inhibitor analysis revealed that the exclusion of aberrant p180(tsFT20) from the nucleus is due to two distinct mechanisms: first, the inability of newly synthesized (cytoplasmic) p180(tsFT20) to enter the nucleus and second, proteasome-dependent degradation of nuclear-localized protein. The nuclear import defect seems to result from an impaired association of aberrant de novo synthesized p180(tsFT20) with the second subunit of DNA polymerase alpha, p68. In accordance, we show that RNA interference of p68 results in a decrease of the overall p180 protein level and in a specific increase of cytoplasmic localized p180 in NIH3T3 cells. Taken together, our data suggest two mechanisms that prevent the nuclear expression of aberrant DNA polymerase alpha.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.024760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2781615PMC
October 2009

Cloning of Xenopus orthologs of Ctf7/Eco1 acetyltransferase and initial characterization of XEco2.

FEBS J 2008 Dec 30;275(24):6109-22. Epub 2008 Oct 30.

Cellular Dynamics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Saitama, Japan.

Sister chromatid cohesion is important for the correct alignment and segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Although the cohesin complex has been shown to play a physical role in holding sister chromatids together, its loading onto chromatin is not sufficient for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. The activity of the cohesin complex must be turned on by Ctf7/Eco1 acetyltransferase at the replication forks as the result of a specific mechanism. To dissect this mechanism in the well established in vitro system based on the use of Xenopus egg extracts, we cloned two Xenopus orthologs of Ctf7/Eco1 acetyltransferase, XEco1 and XEco2. Both proteins share a domain structure with known members of Ctf7/Eco1 family proteins. Moreover, biochemical analysis showed that XEco2 exhibited acetyltransferase activity. We raised a specific antibody against XEco2 and used it to further characterize XEco2. In tissue culture cells, XEco2 gradually accumulated in nuclei through the S phase. In nuclei formed in egg extract, XEco2 was loaded into the chromatin at a constant level in a manner sensitive to geminin, an inhibitor of the pre-replication complex assembly, but insensitive to aphidicolin, an inhibitor of DNA polymerases. In both systems, no specific localization was observed during mitosis. In XEco2-depleted egg extracts, DNA replication occurred with normal kinetics and efficiency, and the condensation and sister chromatid cohesion of subsequently formed mitotic chromosomes was unaffected. These observations will serve as a platform for elucidating the molecular function of Ctf7/Eco1 acetyltransferase in the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion in future studies, in which XEco1 and XEco2 should be dissected in parallel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06736.xDOI Listing
December 2008

Coenzyme Q10 as a potent compound that inhibits Cdt1-geminin interaction.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2008 Feb 21;1780(2):203-13. Epub 2007 Sep 21.

Laboratory of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Department of Nutritional Science, Kobe-Gakuin University, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2180, Japan.

A human replication initiation protein Cdt1 is a very central player in the cell cycle regulation of DNA replication, and geminin down-regulates Cdt1 function by directly binding to it. It has been demonstrated that Cdt1 hyperfunction resulting from Cdt1-geminin imbalance, for example by geminin silencing with siRNA, induces DNA re-replication and eventual cell death in some cancer-derived cell lines. In the present study, we first established a high throughput screening system based on modified ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) to identify compounds that interfere with human Cdt1-geminin binding. Using this system, we found that coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) can inhibit Cdt1-geminin interaction in vitro. CoQ compound is an isoprenoid quinine that functions as an electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain in eukaryotes. CoQ(10), having a longer isoprenoid chain, was the strongest inhibitor of Cdt1-geminin binding in the tested CoQs, with 50% inhibition observed at concentrations of 16.2 muM. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that CoQ(10) bound selectively to Cdt1, but did not interact with geminin. Moreover, CoQ(10) had no influence on the interaction between Cdt1 and mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM)4/6/7 complexes. These results suggested that CoQ(10) inhibits Cdt1-geminin complex formation by binding to Cdt1 and thereby could liberate Cdt1 from inhibition by geminin. Using three-dimensional computer modeling analysis, CoQ(10) was considered to interact with the geminin interaction interface on Cdt1, and was assumed to make hydrogen bonds with the residue of Arg243 of Cdt1. CoQ(10) could prevent the growth of human cancer cells, although only at high concentrations, and it remains unclear whether such an inhibitory effect is associated with the interference with Cdt1-geminin binding. The application of inhibitors for the formation of Cdt1-geminin complex is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2007.09.005DOI Listing
February 2008

Caenorhabditis elegans geminin homologue participates in cell cycle regulation and germ line development.

J Biol Chem 2005 May 4;280(20):19689-94. Epub 2005 Apr 4.

Cellular Physiology Laboratory, Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan.

Cdt1 is an essential component for the assembly of a pre-replicative complex. Cdt1 activity is inhibited by geminin, which also participates in neural development and embryonic differentiation in many eukaryotes. Although Cdt1 homologues have been identified in organisms ranging from yeast to human, geminin homologues had not been described for Caenorhabditis elegans and fungi. Here, we identify the C. elegans geminin, GMN-1. Biochemical analysis reveals that GMN-1 associates with C. elegans CDT-1, the Hox protein NOB-1, and the Six protein CEH-32. GMN-1 inhibits not only the interaction between mouse Cdt1 and Mcm6 but also licensing activity in Xenopus egg extracts. RNA interference-mediated reduction of GMN-1 is associated with enlarged germ nuclei with aberrant nucleolar morphology, severely impaired gametogenesis, and chromosome bridging in intestinal cells. We conclude that the Cdt1-geminin system is conserved throughout metazoans and that geminin has evolved in these taxa to regulate proliferation and differentiation by directly interacting with Cdt1 and homeobox proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.C500070200DOI Listing
May 2005

Novel splicing variant of mouse Orc1 is deficient in nuclear translocation and resistant for proteasome-mediated degradation.

J Biol Chem 2005 Apr 4;280(13):12643-52. Epub 2005 Jan 4.

Cellular Physiology Laboratory, RIKEN Discovery Research Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

DNA replication is controlled by the stepwise assembly of the pre-replicative complex and the replication apparatus. Loading of the origin recognition complex (ORC) onto the chromatin is a prerequisite for the assembly of the pre-replicative complex. To define the physiological functions of the mammalian ORC, we cloned ORC subunit cDNAs from mouse NIH3T3 cells and found novel variant forms of Orc1, Orc2, and Orc3 each derived from alternative RNA splicing. The variant form of Orc1, Orc1B, lacks 35 amino acid residues in exon 5; the variant of Orc2, Orc2B, lacks 48 amino acid residues in exon 2. In the Orc3 variant, Orc3B, only 1 amino acid residue is deleted in exon 15. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that the full-length Orc1-3 subunits, Orc1A, Orc2A, and Orc3A, as well as Orc2B and Orc3B, were widely expressed in various mouse cell lines and mouse tissues. In contrast, Orc1B was only expressed in the thymus and at an early embryonic stage. Overexpression of these Orc subunits in cultured cells revealed that Orc1A, Orc2A, Orc3A, Orc2B, and Orc3B are localized in the nucleus, whereas Orc1B remains exclusively in the cytoplasm. Moreover, fusion of the 35 amino acids spliced fragment from mOrc1A with beta-galactosidase resulted in its translocation into the nucleus. When Orc1B is expressed transiently, its degradation occurs in a proteasome-independent manner, whereas Orc1A is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Taken together, we conclude that mouse Orc1, Orc2, and Orc3 each exist in two alternative-splicing variants and that naturally occurring Orc1B lacks a functional domain that is essential for nuclear translocation and proteasome-dependent degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M413280200DOI Listing
April 2005

Mouse geminin inhibits not only Cdt1-MCM6 interactions but also a novel intrinsic Cdt1 DNA binding activity.

J Biol Chem 2002 Oct 20;277(43):40871-80. Epub 2002 Aug 20.

Cellular Physiology Laboratory, RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

DNA replication is controlled by the stepwise assembly of a pre-replicative complex and the replication apparatus. Cdt1 is a novel component of the pre-replicative complex and plays a role in loading the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) 2-7 complex onto chromatin. Cdt1 activity is inhibited by geminin, which is essential for the G(2)/M transition in metazoan cells. To understand the molecular basis of the Cdt1-geminin regulatory mechanism in mammalian cells, we cloned and expressed the mouse Cdt1 homologue cDNA in bacterial cells and purified mouse Cdt1 to near homogeneity. We found by yeast two-hybrid analysis that mouse Cdt1 associates with geminin, MCM6, and origin recognition complex 2. MCM6 interacts with the Cdt1 carboxyl-terminal region (amino acids 407-477), which is conserved among eukaryotes, whereas geminin associates with the Cdt1 central region (amino acids 177-380), which is conserved only in metazoans. In addition, we found that Cdt1 can bind DNA in a sequence-, strand-, and conformation-independent manner. The Cdt1 DNA binding domain overlaps with the geminin binding domain, and the binding of Cdt1 to DNA is inhibited by geminin. Taken together, we have defined structural domains and novel biochemical properties for mouse Cdt1 that suggest that Cdt1 behaves as an intrinsic DNA binding factor in the pre-replicative complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M206202200DOI Listing
October 2002
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