Publications by authors named "Kelsie T Forbush"

67 Publications

Predicting probable eating disorder case-status in men using the Clinical Impairment Assessment: Evidence for a gender-specific threshold.

Eat Behav 2021 08 20;42:101541. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

The Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) is a widely used self-report measure of the psychosocial impairment associated with eating-disorder symptoms. Past studies recommended a global CIA score of 16 to identify clinically significant impairment associated with a probable eating disorder (ED). However, to date, research on the properties of the CIA has been conducted in majority-women samples. Preliminary research on gender differences in CIA scores suggested men with EDs report less impairment on the CIA relative to women with EDs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test if a different impairment threshold is needed to identify cases of men with EDs. We hypothesized that a lower CIA threshold, relative to that identified in majority-women samples, would most accurately identify men with EDs. Participants (N = 162) were men from our university-based and general community-based ED participant registry who completed the CIA and Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Both precision-recall and receiver operating characteristic curves assessed what CIA global score threshold most accurately identified men with EDs. Both analytic approaches indicated that a CIA global score of 13 best predicted ED case-status in men. Consistent with past research, men with a clinically significant ED appear to report lower impairment on the CIA. Results have implications for screening and assessing for substantial ED-related impairment in men. Additionally, past research using the CIA to identify men with EDs may have under-identified men with clinically significant symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101541DOI Listing
August 2021

An empirical evaluation of the diagnostic threshold between full-threshold and sub-threshold bulimia nervosa.

Eat Behav 2021 08 13;42:101540. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

University of Kansas, United States of America.

Previous research has failed to find differences in eating disorder and general psychopathology and impairment between people with sub- and full-threshold bulimia nervosa (BN). The purpose of the current study was to test the validity of the distinction between sub- and full-threshold BN and to determine the frequency of objective binge episodes and inappropriate compensatory behaviors that would best distinguish between sub- and full-BN. Community-recruited adults (83.5% female) with current sub-threshold (n = 105) or full-threshold BN (n = 99) completed assessments of eating-disorder psychopathology, clinical impairment, internalizing problems, and drug and alcohol misuse. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate whether eating-disorder psychopathology, clinical impairment, internalizing problems, and drug and alcohol misuse could empirically discriminate between sub- and full-threshold BN. The frequency of binge episodes and inappropriate compensatory behaviors (AUC = 0.94) was "highly accurate" in discriminating between sub- and full-threshold BN; however, only objective binge episodes was a significant predictor of BN status. Internalizing symptoms (AUC = 0.71) were "moderately accurate" at distinguishing between sub- and full-BN. Neither clinical impairment (AUC = 0.60) nor drug (AUC = 0.56) or alcohol misuse (AUC = 0.52) discriminated between groups. Results suggested that 11 episodes of binge eating and 17 episodes of inappropriate compensatory behaviors optimally distinguished between sub- and full-BN. Overall, results provided mixed support for the distinction between sub- and full-threshold BN. Future research to clarify the most meaningful way to discriminate between sub- and full-threshold is warranted to improve the criterion-related validity of the diagnostic system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101540DOI Listing
August 2021

Les progrès dans la réalisation de la classification quantitative de la psychopathologie.

Ann Med Psychol (Paris) 2021 Jan 8;179(1):95-106. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is generally more dimensional than categorical. When the discreteness versus continuity of psychopathology is treated as a research question, as opposed to being decided as a matter of tradition, the evidence clearly supports the hypothesis of continuity. In addition, a related body of literature shows how psychopathology dimensions can be arranged in a hierarchy, ranging from very broad "spectrum level" dimensions, to specific and narrow clusters of symptoms. In this way, a quantitative approach solves the "problem of comorbidity" by explicitly modeling patterns of co-occurrence among signs and symptoms within a detailed and variegated hierarchy of dimensional concepts with direct clinical utility. Indeed, extensive evidence pertaining to the dimensional and hierarchical structure of psychopathology has led to the formation of the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) Consortium. This is a group of 70 investigators working together to study empirical classification of psychopathology. In this paper, we describe the aims and current foci of the HiTOP Consortium. These aims pertain to continued research on the empirical organization of psychopathology; the connection between personality and psychopathology; the utility of empirically based psychopathology constructs in both research and the clinic; and the development of novel and comprehensive models and corresponding assessment instruments for psychopathology constructs derived from an empirical approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amp.2020.11.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309948PMC
January 2021

Measurement invariance of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) in adolescents and adults.

Eat Behav 2021 08 2;42:101538. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Recovery Record, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA.

Adolescence is a common period for eating disorder (ED) onset. The availability of psychometrically sound measures of ED psychopathology enables clinicians to accurately assess symptoms and monitor treatment outcomes continuously from adolescence and adulthood. The purpose of this study was to assess if the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) is invariant across adolescents and adults. Participants (N = 29,821) were adolescent (n = 5250) and adult (n = 24,571) users of the Recovery Record (RR) mobile phone application who provided EPSI responses through the application. Measurement invariance testing was conducted to assess invariance of the EPSI Body Dissatisfaction, Restricting, Excessive Exercise, Purging, Cognitive Restraint, and Binge Eating scales across adolescents (age 13 through 17) and adults (age 18 and older). Findings indicated that all EPSI factors administered in the RR app replicated in both adolescent and adult users. The EPSI factor structure was largely equivalent in adolescents and adults, demonstrating evidence for configural and metric invariance, as well as some evidence for scalar invariance. Our results indicated that EPSI scales measured the same constructs across development. Clinicians and researchers may benefit from utilizing the EPSI to measure ED psychopathology in adolescents and for continued progress monitoring into adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101538DOI Listing
August 2021

HiTOP Assessment of the Somatoform Spectrum and Eating Disorders.

Assessment 2021 Jun 9:10731911211020825. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

We report on Phase 1 efforts of the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) measurement subgroup tasked with developing provisional scales for the somatoform spectrum and eating disorders. In Study 1, items were written to assess five somatoform spectrum constructs (bodily distress symptoms, conversion symptoms, health anxiety, disease conviction, and somatic preoccupation). Scale development analyses were conducted on 550 university students. The conversion symptom items were too infrequently endorsed and were set aside for Phase 2. Analyses of the other items yielded four scales corresponding closely to their hypothesized structure. In Study 2, we delineated 15 specific feeding and eating disorder constructs. A sample of 400 university students were administered candidate items and several eating disorder questionnaires for criterion validity. Analyses yielded six scales capturing previously described constructs, tapping content related to body image and weight concerns, restricting and purging, cognitive restraint, binging, excessive exercise, and muscle building. Two scales representing additional constructs deemed to be of high clinical import-negative attitude towards obesity and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder-were retained for Phase 2, for a total of eight scales. Overall, we concluded that Phase 1 had been successful at generating a comprehensive set of provisional scales for inclusion in Phase 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10731911211020825DOI Listing
June 2021

Validation of the factor structure of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory in an international sample of sexual minority men.

Eat Behav 2021 08 26;42:101511. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

University of Melbourne, Department of Psychology, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.

Sexual minority individuals are at greater risk for the development of eating-disorder (ED) psychopathology. Despite the importance of understanding ED symptoms in sexual minority men, most ED measures were developed and validated in heterosexual, young adult, white women. The psychometric properties of ED measures in diverse populations remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to test: 1) whether the eight-factor structure of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) replicated in sexual minority men and 2) group-level mean differences between gay and bisexual men on the eight EPSI scales. International participants (N = 722 sexual minority men from 20 countries) were recruited via the Grindr smartphone application. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was completed using a weighted least square mean and variance adjusted estimator. Group differences in eating pathology between gay and bisexual men were tested using independent samples t-tests. The CFA model fit was good on all fit indices (CFI/TLI > 0.90, RMSEA < 0.06). Gay and bisexual men only differed on the EPSI Binge Eating scale. The results of this investigation suggest that the EPSI may be a useful tool for understanding eating pathology in this population. Using psychometrically sound assessment tools for sexual minority men is a vital piece of treatment planning and clinical decision making. The current study fills an important gap in the clinical and research literature by testing the validity and psychometric properties of a commonly used ED measure in sexual minority men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101511DOI Listing
August 2021

Validity and utility of Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): II. Externalizing superspectrum.

World Psychiatry 2021 Jun;20(2):171-193

Department of Psychiatry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is an empirical effort to address limitations of traditional mental disorder diagnoses. These include arbitrary boundaries between disorder and normality, disorder co-occurrence in the modal case, heterogeneity of presentation within dis-orders, and instability of diagnosis within patients. This paper reviews the evidence on the validity and utility of the disinhibited externalizing and antagonistic externalizing spectra of HiTOP, which together constitute a broad externalizing superspectrum. These spectra are composed of elements subsumed within a variety of mental disorders described in recent DSM nosologies, including most notably substance use disorders and "Cluster B" personality disorders. The externalizing superspectrum ranges from normative levels of impulse control and self-assertion, to maladaptive disinhibition and antagonism, to extensive polysubstance involvement and personality psychopathology. A rich literature supports the validity of the externalizing superspectrum, and the disinhibited and antagonistic spectra. This evidence encompasses common genetic influences, environmental risk factors, childhood antecedents, cognitive abnormalities, neural alterations, and treatment response. The structure of these validators mirrors the structure of the phenotypic externalizing superspectrum, with some correlates more specific to disinhibited or antagonistic spectra, and others relevant to the entire externalizing superspectrum, underlining the hierarchical structure of the domain. Compared with traditional diagnostic categories, the externalizing superspectrum conceptualization shows improved utility, reliability, explanatory capacity, and clinical applicability. The externalizing superspectrum is one aspect of the general approach to psychopathology offered by HiTOP and can make diagnostic classification more useful in both research and the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wps.20844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129870PMC
June 2021

Food insecurity associated with elevated eating disorder symptoms, impairment, and eating disorder diagnoses in an American University student sample before and during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 07 22;54(7):1213-1223. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Objective: This study tested the association between food insecurity and eating disorder (ED) pathology, including probable ED diagnosis, among two cohorts of university students before and during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Method: Students (n = 579) from a large Midwestern American university completed self-report questionnaires assessing frequency of ED behaviors, ED-related impairment, and individual food insecurity as measured by the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale 5, Clinical Impairment Assessment, and Radimer/Cornell, respectively. Chi-square tests and MANOVA with post-hoc corrections were conducted to compare demographic characteristics, ED pathology, and probable ED diagnosis prevalence between students with and without individual food insecurity.

Results: Partially supporting hypotheses, MANOVA indicated significantly greater frequency of objective binge eating, compensatory fasting, and ED-related impairment for students with food insecurity compared with individuals without food insecurity. Chi-squared tests showed higher prevalence of ED diagnoses among individuals with food insecurity compared with those without food security (47.6 vs. 31.1%, respectively, p < .01, NNT = 6.06), specifically bulimia nervosa and other specified feeding and eating disorder. There were no differences in food insecurity before or during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Discussion: Consistent with prior literature, food insecurity was associated with elevated ED psychopathology in this sample. Findings emphasize the importance of proper ED screening for college students vulnerable to food insecurity and EDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8250281PMC
July 2021

Evaluating associations between fitspiration and thinspiration content on Instagram and disordered-eating behaviors using ecological momentary assessment: A registered report.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 07 9;54(7):1307-1315. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Research Design and Analysis Unit, Lifespan Institute, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.

Introduction: Greater use of appearance-focused social media, such as Instagram, is associated with increased body dissatisfaction and eating disorder (ED) symptoms; however, questions remain about the mechanism connecting social media use to disordered-eating behaviors (DEBs). The proposed study evaluates how and for whom exposure to fitspiration or thinspiration on Instagram is associated with DEBs.

Methods: We will evaluate a hypothesized pathway from Instagram use to disordered-eating mediated by negative affect. We will test how individual differences in internalized weight stigma, trait self-esteem, and trait self-comparison moderate the pathway from social media use to negative affect. We will recruit 175 undergraduate women who report engaging in DEBs on average at least once per week over the past 3 months. Participants will complete a 7-day ecological momentary assessment protocol, during which they will report their Instagram use, affect, and engagement in DEBs.

Results: Multi-level modeling will be used to assess moderated mediation. Results from this study will provide increased specificity about how Instagram usage is linked to eating pathology and who may be most vulnerable to experiencing distress.

Discussion: Information about negative affect from Instagram and engagement in DEBs could contribute to the development of Just-In-Time Interventions for problematic social media use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23518DOI Listing
July 2021

Reconsidering delay discounting in bulimia nervosa.

Eat Behav 2021 04 29;41:101506. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Kansas, 1415 Jayhawk Boulevard, Fraser Hall Room 426, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA.

Delay discounting measures one's preference for smaller-sooner versus larger-later reward and is a facet of impulsivity. Studying delay discounting in bulimia nervosa (BN) may enhance clinical understanding of BN, as BN is characterized by engagement in behaviors that provide immediate reward (i.e., binge eating, purging) at the expense of future well-being. Prior research suggests that individuals with BN prefer smaller amounts of money available sooner compared to psychiatrically healthy (HC) persons. Here, we aimed to replicate and extend previous work by studying delay discounting of both monetary and food reward in women with BN relative to HC women. We also compared delay discounting of monetary and food reward, and examined associations among delay discounting, trait impulsivity, and eating disorder symptom expression in women with BN. Participants were 20 women with sub- or full-threshold DSM-5 BN and 20 HC women who completed a diagnostic interview, paper-and-pencil measures of delay discounting of monetary and food commodities, and a measure of trait impulsivity. Contrary to previous work, we found that women with BN showed decreased delay discounting of monetary and food reward relative to HC women. Within-group analyses demonstrated that women with BN showed elevated delay discounting of food reward relative to monetary reward. Within women with BN, elevated delay discounting of food, but not money, was associated with elevated negative and positive urgency, two facets of trait impulsivity that relate to acting rashly when experiencing strong emotion. Results suggest that delay discounting may be more variable in BN than previously assumed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428544PMC
April 2021

Reward learning in unmedicated women with bulimia nervosa: A pilot investigation.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 04 3;136:63-70. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA.

Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by recurrent engagement in eating disorder behaviors despite negative consequences, potentially reflecting aberrant stimulus-response or reward-learning processes. Indeed, frontostriatal circuitry involved in reward learning is altered in persons with BN and preliminary research suggests reward learning is impaired in persons with BN. Additional research on reward learning in BN and its association with eating disorder symptom expression is warranted to further the field's understanding of potential pathophysiological mechanisms of BN. To this end, the probabilistic reward learning task (PRLT) was administered to unmedicated women with BN (n = 15) and demographically matched psychiatrically healthy women (n = 18). Contrary to our hypotheses, results demonstrated that women with BN showed greater reward learning during the PRLT relative to healthy comparison women when covarying for symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and mania. Exploratory analyses showed that binge-eating frequency was inversely associated with reward learning in women with BN; however, results should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size. Together, results suggest that women with BN do not have deficits in implicit reward learning. Given the preliminary nature of this investigation, larger-scale studies are needed to further examine reward learning in current BN and could compare reward learning using general (e.g., monetary) and disorder-specific (e.g., food) reinforcers. Further work is needed to confirm the inverse association between reward learning and binge eating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.01.046DOI Listing
April 2021

A single-case multiple baseline design for treating insomnia in eating disorders: The TIRED study.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 04 18;54(4):652-659. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Applied Behavioral Science, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.

Objective: The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the novel use of an empirically supported treatment for sleep problems for people with residual insomnia disorder following ED treatment.

Method: Participants (N = 6) will complete a single-case multiple baseline study using Brief Behavioral Treatment for Insomnia (Buysse et al., Archives of Internal Medicine, 171, 2011, 887-895; Troxel et al., Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 10, 2012, 266-279). Participants will complete pre- and post-treatment evaluations of insomnia severity, sleep efficiency, daytime fatigue, ED symptoms, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Throughout treatment, participants will complete daily diaries of sleep indices (sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency).

Results: The primary outcome will be treatment effects on insomnia severity, measured by the Insomnia Severity Index. Secondary outcomes include sleep efficiency and daytime fatigue. Exploratory outcomes include ED-related impairment and symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and depression symptoms. We will provide subject-level graphs of sleep indices and ED symptoms throughout treatment. Additionally, treatment effects will be examined at one- and three-month follow-up.

Discussion: Although insomnia treatments have been evaluated in other psychiatric disorders, there has yet to be a study examining behavioral interventions for insomnia in EDs. Results of this study will inform the development and application of interventions for residual insomnia symptoms in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428790PMC
April 2021

Eating-disorder psychopathology and driven exercise change models: A latent change score analysis.

Int J Eat Disord 2020 12 3;53(12):2013-2025. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Recovery Record, Inc, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Objective: Approximately 50% of people with eating disorders (EDs) engage in driven exercise to influence their weight or shape and/or to compensate for loss-of-control eating. When present, driven exercise is associated with a lower quality-of-life, longer hospital stays, and faster rates-of-relapse. Despite the seriousness of driven exercise, most treatments for EDs do not target maladaptive exercise behaviors directly. Given the large proportion of patients with an ED who engage in driven exercise and its effect on treatment outcomes, it is critical to understand what predicts change in driven exercise. The purpose of this study was to test whether ED symptoms prospectively predicted change in driven exercise and vice versa.

Method: Participants were Recovery Record (RR) users (N = 4,568; 86.8% female) seeking treatment for an ED. Participants completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) monthly for 3 months.

Results: In the full sample, dynamic bivariate latent change score analyses indicated that high levels of dietary restraint and restricting prospectively predicted reductions in driven exercise. Among persons with anorexia nervosa (AN), high levels of binge eating predicted increased driven exercise. Among persons with bulimia nervosa (BN), high levels of body dissatisfaction predicted increased driven exercise. Among persons with binge-eating disorder (BED), high levels of binge eating, purging, and restricting predicted reductions in driven exercise.

Discussion: Results highlight changes that may predict increased or decreased driven exercise relative to other ED symptoms for AN, BN, and BED groups. These preliminary findings could inform future research on ED treatment efforts to manage driven exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23392DOI Listing
December 2020

Are the Criterion B binge-eating symptoms interchangeable in understanding binge-eating severity? An item response theory analysis.

Int J Eat Disord 2020 12 18;53(12):1983-1992. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Sanford Center for Biobehavioral Research, Fargo, North Dakota, USA.

Objective: The Criterion B binge-eating symptoms represent five symptoms associated with binge eating. Any three out of five symptoms can be used to meet Criterion B. However, Criterion B symptoms may not be interchangeable in terms of how binge-eating severity is associated with each symptom. Item response theory (IRT) can test how endorsing each symptom relates to the overall level (i.e., severity) of binge-eating measured by Criterion B. We used IRT to identify (a) how each Criterion B symptom corresponded with binge-eating severity in a transdiagnostic binge-eating sample and (b) how well each symptom differentiated individuals with differing levels of severity.

Method: Participants (N = 219) were adults (80.8% female) with a current ED that included objective binge-eating episodes assessed via semi-structured interview. A two-parameter logistic IRT model evaluated how endorsement of each Criterion B symptom corresponded with the level of latent binge-eating severity.

Results: "Eating large amounts when not hungry" and "eating alone" reflected the highest binge-eating severity. "Eating alone" was the best discriminator across different binge-eating severity levels, whereas "uncomfortably full" was the poorest discriminator across binge-eating severity levels.

Discussion: Criterion B symptoms were not interchangeable in terms of what level of binge-eating severity corresponded with symptom endorsement. "Eating large amounts when not hungry" or "eating alone" may signify elevated binge-eating severity, whereas "uncomfortably full" and "feeling disgusted/depressed/guilty" were not necessarily indicative of elevated severity. Results suggested that Criterion B may need to be revised to eliminate symptoms that are redundant with other binge-eating diagnostic criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23383DOI Listing
December 2020

Impact of trauma in childhood and adulthood on eating-disorder symptoms.

Eat Behav 2020 12 27;39:101426. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Kansas, United States of America.

Exposure to a traumatic event is concurrently and prospectively associated with disordered-eating behaviors such as binge eating, restricting, and purging. Specifically, purging has been found to be elevated in individuals with trauma histories, suggesting that purging may be a method for coping with trauma-related distress. However, there has been limited research investigating whether the time at which trauma occurs during development is differentially associated with disordered-eating behaviors and internalizing psychopathology. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of trauma that occurred in childhood, adulthood, or childhood and adulthood on eating disorder (ED) and internalizing psychopathology. Participants were community-recruited adults with a current DSM-5 ED (N = 225) and were subsequently grouped into categories based on the time at which trauma occurred. Groups included: no trauma exposure ED controls (n = 54), child trauma group (n = 53), adult trauma group (n = 53), and child+adult trauma group (n = 65). We compared groups on their level of disordered-eating symptoms. Participants were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI), and the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms-II (IDAS-II). Univariate analyses revealed significantly higher levels of purging symptomatology in the child+adult trauma group compared to the no trauma, child trauma, and adult trauma groups. The current study highlights the importance of assessing the timing of trauma among individuals with EDs. In particular, our study indicates a need for further investigation to explain why individuals with ED and trauma histories engage in greater purging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2020.101426DOI Listing
December 2020

Development and initial validation of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory-Clinician-Rated Version (EPSI-CRV).

Psychol Assess 2020 Oct 27;32(10):943-955. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago.

Proper assessment and diagnosis of eating disorders (EDs) are critical to determine to whom prevention and treatment efforts should be targeted, the extent to which treatment is working, and when an individual has recovered. Although existing ED diagnostic interviews have numerous strengths, they also have certain limitations, including poor internal consistency, low discriminant validity, and poor factor-structure replicability. The purpose of the current study was to address problems of past ED diagnostic interviews through the creation of a new clinician-rated interview-the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory-Clinician-Rated Version (EPSI-CRV). The EPSI-CRV was designed to measure dimensional constructs assessed in the self-report version of the EPSI and generate current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) diagnoses. Participants were community-recruited adults with a DSM-5 ED (N = 257). Participants completed self-report and interview-based measures of eating, mood, and anxiety disorders and self-report measures of psychiatric impairment. The EPSI-CRV demonstrated evidence for interrater reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and a good-fitting factor structure. EPSI-CRV dimensions showed concurrent validity for distinguishing among ED diagnoses. Baseline EPSI-CRV dimensions significantly predicted psychiatric impairment at baseline but not at 1-year follow-up. Although some scales had lower internal consistency than ideal, internal consistency values were similar to those of other established diagnostic measures. The EPSI-CRV appears to represent a promising new interview that can be used across a variety of clinical and research settings. Interested readers can access the EPSI-CRV and relevant training materials here: https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/29616. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000820DOI Listing
October 2020

A preliminary systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials of cognitive remediation therapy for anorexia nervosa.

Eat Behav 2020 04 3;37:101391. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66049, United States of America.

Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for anorexia nervosa (AN) was developed as an adjuvant treatment to target set-shifting and central coherence inefficiencies important in AN and to ultimately improve clinical outcomes of those with AN. The primary aim of this preliminary systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of CRT for AN relative to control treatments in randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) on neuropsychological inefficiencies at end-of-treatment. Secondary aims were to assess the effect of CRT for AN on dropout, eating-disorder-related, and other psychological outcomes at end-of-treatment. Systematic review and meta-analytic procedures were conducted in accordance with PRISMA Guidelines. RCTs evaluating CRT for AN compared to a control treatment were identified via ProQuest, PsycINFO, PubMed, and SCOPUS. Seven RCTs and one quasi-RCT of CRT for AN were included. RCT quality ratings ranged from fair (n = 3) to good (n = 4). Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted using Hedge's g. Study heterogeneity was assessed using I and publication bias was assessed with Begg's adjusted-rank correlation and the trim-and-fill method. CRT was not associated with improvement in central coherence compared to control treatments at end-of-treatment (g = 0.25, 95% CI = -0.35, 0.85, k = 3). Set-shifting outcomes were mixed due to heterogeneity of set-shifting measures across studies. CRT may prevent dropout; yet, more studies are needed to draw conclusions. CRT did not confer advantage over control treatments for eating-disorder-related and other psychological outcomes at end-of-treatment. Future RCTs of CRT for AN should use precise measures to assess constructs (particularly for set shifting), increase sample size, and implement longitudinal follow-up. (Word Count: 247 words).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2020.101391DOI Listing
April 2020

Validity and utility of Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): I. Psychosis superspectrum.

World Psychiatry 2020 Jun;19(2):151-172

Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN, USA.

The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a scientific effort to address shortcomings of traditional mental disorder diagnoses, which suffer from arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, frequent disorder co-occurrence, heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic instability. This paper synthesizes evidence on the validity and utility of the thought disorder and detachment spectra of HiTOP. These spectra are composed of symptoms and maladaptive traits currently subsumed within schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders, and schizotypal, paranoid and schizoid personality disorders. Thought disorder ranges from normal reality testing, to maladaptive trait psychoticism, to hallucinations and delusions. Detachment ranges from introversion, to maladaptive detachment, to blunted affect and avolition. Extensive evidence supports the validity of thought disorder and detachment spectra, as each spectrum reflects common genetics, environmental risk factors, childhood antecedents, cognitive abnormalities, neural alterations, biomarkers, and treatment response. Some of these characteristics are specific to one spectrum and others are shared, suggesting the existence of an overarching psychosis superspectrum. Further research is needed to extend this model, such as clarifying whether mania and dissociation belong to thought disorder, and explicating processes that drive development of the spectra and their subdimensions. Compared to traditional diagnoses, the thought disorder and detachment spectra demonstrated substantially improved utility: greater reliability, larger explanatory and predictive power, and higher acceptability to clinicians. Validated measures are available to implement the system in practice. The more informative, reliable and valid characterization of psychosis-related psychopathology offered by HiTOP can make diagnosis more useful for research and clinical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wps.20730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214958PMC
June 2020

A systematic review and meta-analysis of attentional bias toward food in individuals with overweight and obesity.

Appetite 2020 08 13;151:104710. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA.

Attentional bias to food stimuli may contribute to the etiology and/or maintenance of overweight and obesity. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to identify the effect size associated with attentional bias to palatable food in persons with overweight/obesity across the age spectrum. Included studies measured attentional bias to food stimuli using two reaction-time tasks (dot-probe, emotional Stroop), eye-tracking methodology, and/or event-related potentials. Meta-analysis showed that persons with overweight/obesity did not differ from persons with a healthy weight on any of the following: automatic and maintained attention to food stimuli measured by the dot-probe task (Hedge's g = -0.355, 95% CI = -0.383, 0.486; and Hedge's g = 0.006, 95% CI = -0.187, 0.199); attentional bias to food stimuli measured by the emotional Stroop task (Hedge's g = 0.184, 95% CI = -0.283, 0.651); and attentional bias to food images on gaze-direction and gaze-duration bias eye-tracking metrics (Hedge's g = 0.317, 95% CI = -0.096, 0.729; and Hedge's g = 0.056, 95% CI = -0.296, 0.407). Systematic review of preliminary event-related potentials research suggested automatic, but not maintained, attention to food images in persons with overweight/obesity. Limitations of past attentional bias research in overweight/obesity, such as poor reliability of measures and lack of consideration of moderators, such as binge eating and degree of overweight/obesity, preclude the ability to draw firm conclusions. We recommend implementation of empirically based methods for improving psychometric properties of attentional bias measures and examination of potential moderators so that the field can understand whether attentional bias to food is truly greater in overweight/obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2020.104710DOI Listing
August 2020

Longitudinal trajectories of behavior change in a national sample of patients seeking eating-disorder treatment.

Int J Eat Disord 2020 06 10;53(6):917-925. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Recovery Record Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Objective: Rapid response to treatment, indicated by substantial decreases in eating-disorder (ED) symptoms within the first 4-6 weeks of treatment, is the most reliable predictor of treatment outcomes for EDs. However, there is limited research evaluating short-term longitudinal trajectories of ED symptoms during treatment. Thus, it is difficult to know which aspects of ED psychopathology are slow or fast to change. The purpose of this study was to elucidate three-month trajectories of ED psychopathology during treatment and test whether ED diagnosis influenced the direction and rate of change.

Method: Participants were Recovery Record users seeking treatment for an ED (N = 4,568; 86.8% female). Participants completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory once per month for 3 months.

Results: Latent growth curve models indicated that ED diagnosis influenced the rate of ED behavior change. Anorexia nervosa was associated with faster reductions in cognitive restraint, excessive exercise, restricting, yet slower reductions in body dissatisfaction, and binge eating. Bulimia nervosa was associated with faster reductions in binge eating, cognitive restraint, excessive exercise, and purging. Binge-eating disorder was associated with faster reductions in body dissatisfaction and binge eating, yet slower reductions in restricting.

Conclusions: Our results have implications for future research by providing initial information about the direction and rate of ED change over the course of treatment. If clinicians and researchers know which ED symptoms are slow to change, on average, across diagnostic groups, treatment protocols could be adjusted to target slow changing symptoms more quickly, and therefore improve ED treatment outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23272DOI Listing
June 2020

Do differences between individuals who are healthy weight or overweight on self-report measures of disinhibited eating and restrained eating reflect reality or item "bias"?

Psychol Assess 2020 Jun 19;32(6):553-567. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Internal Medicine.

In light of increasing rates of overweight and obesity worldwide, there is a critical need for accurate self-report measures of disinhibited and restrained eating behaviors across the weight spectrum. Item response theory was used to determine whether differences in disinhibited and restrained eating between healthy weight and overweight or obese individuals were due to item bias (i.e., differential item functioning). Study 1 participants were healthy weight ( = 510) or overweight or obese ( = 304) adults recruited from the community. Study 2 participants were healthy weight ( = 778) or overweight or obese ( = 320) college students. Study 1 participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), Eating Disorder Inventory-3, Dutch Eating Behaviors Questionnaire, Restraint Scale, and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Study 2 participants completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI). Items on the Restraint Scale demonstrated the most evidence for bias (60% of items), whereas the majority of other scales demonstrated low to moderate levels of item bias (17-38% of items). However, EDE-Q Restraint and EPSI Binge Eating, Cognitive Restraint, Excessive Exercise, Muscle Building, and Negative Attitudes Toward Obesity scales did not show any evidence of differential item functioning among weight groups. Participants with the same level of disordered eating responded differently to certain eating disorder self-report items due to weight-bias, rather than true between-groups differences. Nevertheless, EDE-Q Restraint, EPSI Cognitive Restraint, and EPSI Binge Eating did not exhibit any evidence of bias and are ideal for assessing restrained and disinhibited eating across the weight spectrum in both research and clinical settings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000810DOI Listing
June 2020

A network investigation of core symptoms and pathways across duration of illness using a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral model of eating-disorder symptoms.

Psychol Med 2021 04 7;51(5):815-824. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, United States of America.

Background: In the past decade, network analysis (NA) has been applied to psychopathology to quantify complex symptom relationships. This statistical technique has demonstrated much promise, as it provides researchers the ability to identify relationships across many symptoms in one model and can identify central symptoms that may predict important clinical outcomes. However, network models are highly influenced by node selection, which could limit the generalizability of findings. The current study (N = 6850) tests a comprehensive, cognitive-behavioral model of eating-disorder symptoms using items from two, widely used measures (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory).

Methods: We used NA to identify central symptoms and compared networks across the duration of illness (DOI), as chronicity is one of the only known predictors of poor outcome in eating disorders (EDs).

Results: Our results suggest that eating when not hungry and feeling fat were the most central symptoms across groups. There were no significant differences in network structure across DOI, meaning the connections between symptoms remained relatively consistent. However, differences emerged in central symptoms, such that cognitive symptoms related to overvaluation of weight/shape were central in individuals with shorter DOI, and behavioral central symptoms emerged more in medium and long DOI.

Conclusions: Our results have important implications for the treatment of individuals with enduring EDs, as they may have a different core, maintaining symptoms. Additionally, our findings highlight the importance of using comprehensive, theoretically- or empirically-derived models for NA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719003817DOI Listing
April 2021

Redefining phenotypes to advance psychiatric genetics: Implications from hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology.

J Abnorm Psychol 2020 Feb 5;129(2):143-161. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Psychology.

Genetic discovery in psychiatry and clinical psychology is hindered by suboptimal phenotypic definitions. We argue that the hierarchical, dimensional, and data-driven classification system proposed by the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) consortium provides a more effective approach to identifying genes that underlie mental disorders, and to studying psychiatric etiology, than current diagnostic categories. Specifically, genes are expected to operate at different levels of the HiTOP hierarchy, with some highly pleiotropic genes influencing higher order psychopathology (e.g., the general factor), whereas other genes conferring more specific risk for individual spectra (e.g., internalizing), subfactors (e.g., fear disorders), or narrow symptoms (e.g., mood instability). We propose that the HiTOP model aligns well with the current understanding of the higher order genetic structure of psychopathology that has emerged from a large body of family and twin studies. We also discuss the convergence between the HiTOP model and findings from recent molecular studies of psychopathology indicating broad genetic pleiotropy, such as cross-disorder SNP-based shared genetic covariance and polygenic risk scores, and we highlight molecular genetic studies that have successfully redefined phenotypes to enhance precision and statistical power. Finally, we suggest how to integrate a HiTOP approach into future molecular genetic research, including quantitative and hierarchical assessment tools for future data-collection and recommendations concerning phenotypic analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/abn0000486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6980897PMC
February 2020

Integrating the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) into clinical practice.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2019 Dec;87(12):1069-1084

Department of Psychiatry, Stony Brook University.

Objective: Diagnosis is a cornerstone of clinical practice for mental health care providers, yet traditional diagnostic systems have well-known shortcomings, including inadequate reliability, high comorbidity, and marked within-diagnosis heterogeneity. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a data-driven, hierarchically based alternative to traditional classifications that conceptualizes psychopathology as a set of dimensions organized into increasingly broad, transdiagnostic spectra. Prior work has shown that using a dimensional approach improves reliability and validity, but translating a model like HiTOP into a workable system that is useful for health care providers remains a major challenge.

Method: The present work outlines the HiTOP model and describes the core principles to guide its integration into clinical practice.

Results: Potential advantages and limitations of the HiTOP model for clinical utility are reviewed, including with respect to case conceptualization and treatment planning. A HiTOP approach to practice is illustrated and contrasted with an approach based on traditional nosology. Common barriers to using HiTOP in real-world health care settings and solutions to these barriers are discussed.

Conclusions: HiTOP represents a viable alternative to classifying mental illness that can be integrated into practice today, although research is needed to further establish its utility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6859953PMC
December 2019

Eating disorder core symptoms and symptom pathways across developmental stages: A network analysis.

J Abnorm Psychol 2020 Feb 11;129(2):177-190. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences.

Eating disorders (EDs) often develop during adolescence and early adulthood but may persist, arise, or reemerge across the life span. Research and treatment efforts primarily focus on adolescent and young adult populations, leaving large knowledge gaps regarding ED symptoms across the entire developmental spectrum. The current study uses network analysis to compare central symptoms (i.e., symptoms that are highly connected to other symptoms) and symptom pathways (i.e., relations among symptoms) across five developmental stages (early adolescence, late adolescence, young adulthood, early-middle adulthood, middle-late adulthood) in a large sample of individuals with EDs ( = 29,902; = 32,219) in two network models. Several symptoms related to overeating, food avoidance, feeling full, and overvaluation of weight and shape emerged as central in most or all developmental stages, suggesting that some core symptoms remain central across development. Despite similarities in central symptoms, significant differences in network structure (i.e., how symptom pathways are connected) emerged across age groups. These differences suggest that symptom interconnectivity (but not symptom severity) might increase across development. Future research should continue to investigate developmental symptom differences in order to inform treatment for individuals with EDs of all ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/abn0000477DOI Listing
February 2020

Application of network analysis to investigate sex differences in interactive systems of eating-disorder psychopathology.

Int J Eat Disord 2019 12 14;52(12):1343-1352. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Recovery Record Inc., San Francisco, California.

Objective: Although men comprise 25% of persons with eating disorders (EDs), most research has focused on understanding EDs in women. The theoretical framework underlying common ED treatment has not been rigorously tested in men. The purpose of this study was to compare the interconnectivity among ED symptoms in men versus women.

Method: Participants (N = 1,348; 50% men) were individuals with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, or other specified feeding or eating disorder who were users of Recovery Record, a smartphone app for monitoring ED symptoms. Participants were matched on age and duration of illness. Network analysis was used to create networks of symptoms for both sexes. Strength centrality, network stability, and bootstrapped centrality differences were tested. The network comparison test (NCT) was used to identify sex differences between networks. Key players analysis was used to compare fragmentation of each network.

Results: For both sexes, items related to binge eating and restricting emerged as highest in strength centrality. The NCT identified significant differences global strength (p = .03) but not network invariance (p = .06) suggesting that although the structure of the networks was not statistically different, the strength of the connections within the network was greater for women. Key players analysis indicated that both networks were similarly disrupted when important nodes within the network were removed.

Discussion: Findings suggested that there are more similarities than differences in networks of EDs in men and women. Results have important clinical implications by supporting theoretical underpinnings of cognitive-behavioral models of EDs in both men and women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23170DOI Listing
December 2019

A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology Can Transform Mental Health Research.

Perspect Psychol Sci 2019 05 7;14(3):419-436. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

28 Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

For more than a century, research on psychopathology has focused on categorical diagnoses. Although this work has produced major discoveries, growing evidence points to the superiority of a dimensional approach to the science of mental illness. Here we outline one such dimensional system-the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP)-that is based on empirical patterns of co-occurrence among psychological symptoms. We highlight key ways in which this framework can advance mental-health research, and we provide some heuristics for using HiTOP to test theories of psychopathology. We then review emerging evidence that supports the value of a hierarchical, dimensional model of mental illness across diverse research areas in psychological science. These new data suggest that the HiTOP system has the potential to accelerate and improve research on mental-health problems as well as efforts to more effectively assess, prevent, and treat mental illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691618810696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6497550PMC
May 2019

Education, dissemination, and the science of eating disorders: Reflections on the 2019 International Conference on Eating Disorders: Editorial to accompany IJED Virtual Issue in honor of the 2019 International Conference on Eating Disorders.

Int J Eat Disord 2019 05 20;52(5):493-496. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Objective: This virtual issue of the International Journal of Eating Disorders highlights recently published research that aligns with the broad themes of the 2019 International Conference on Eating Disorders (ICED), held in New York, NY, USA.

Methods And Results: We selected articles that were published between 2017 and 2019 that complement the content of the keynote and plenary sessions. We also curated additional articles from early career scholars, given that an important component of the annual ICED is to foster the development and training of the next generation of eating-disorder clinicians and researchers.

Discussion: We hope that this virtual issue will spark more in-depth discussion and reflection on the topics, questions, and critical advances in the field of eating disorders that were presented at the 2019 ICED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6499674PMC
May 2019

The Athletes' Relationships with Training scale (ART): A self-report measure of unhealthy training behaviors associated with eating disorders.

Int J Eat Disord 2018 09 12;51(9):1080-1089. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Objective: Several studies indicate that eating-disorder (ED) psychopathology is elevated in athletes compared to non-athletes. The assessment of excessive exercise among athletes is a challenge because, compared to non-athletes, athletes are required to train at higher intensities and for longer periods of time. However, individuals participating in competitive sports are still susceptible to unhealthy physical-activity patterns. Most ED assessments were developed and normed in non-athlete samples and, therefore, do not capture the nuances of athletes' training experiences. The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate a clinically useful, self-report measure of unhealthy training behaviors and beliefs in athletes, the Athletes' Relationships with Training Scale (ART).

Method: The initial item pool was administered to N = 267 women collegiate athletes who were participating in an ED prevention program study and N = 65 women athletes who were in ED treatment.

Results: Factor analyses indicated the ART had a four-factor structure. Factorial and construct validity of the ART were demonstrated. ART scores significantly predicted health care utilization and differed between athletes with an ED versus athletes without an ED. For athletes in ED treatment, ART scores significantly decreased from treatment admission to discharge.

Discussion: The ART showed evidence of strong psychometric properties and clinical utility. The ART could be helpful for clinicians and athletic trainers to help gauge whether athletes are engaging in unhealthy training practices that may warrant clinical attention and for tracking clinical outcomes in athletes with EDs who are receiving treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.22960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6519369PMC
September 2018
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