Publications by authors named "Kelly S Parke"

8 Publications

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Prevalence and Disease Spectrum of Extracoronary Arterial Abnormalities in Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Importance: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has been associated with fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and other extracoronary arterial abnormalities. However, the prevalence, severity, and clinical relevance of these abnormalities remain unclear.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and spectrum of FMD and other extracoronary arterial abnormalities in patients with SCAD vs controls.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This case series included 173 patients with angiographically confirmed SCAD enrolled between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2019. Imaging of extracoronary arterial beds was performed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Forty-one healthy individuals were recruited to serve as controls for blinded interpretation of MRA findings. Patients were recruited from the UK national SCAD registry, which enrolls throughout the UK by referral from the primary care physician or patient self-referral through an online portal. Participants attended the national SCAD referral center for assessment and MRA.

Exposures: Both patients with SCAD and healthy controls underwent head-to-pelvis MRA (median time between SCAD event and MRA, 1 [IQR, 1-3] year).

Main Outcome And Measures: The diagnosis of FMD, arterial dissections, and aneurysms was established according to the International FMD Consensus. Arterial tortuosity was assessed both qualitatively (presence or absence of an S curve) and quantitatively (number of curves ≥45%; tortuosity index).

Results: Of the 173 patients with SCAD, 167 were women (96.5%); mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 44.5 (7.9) years. The prevalence of FMD was 31.8% (55 patients); 16 patients (29.1% of patients with FMD) had involvement of multiple vascular beds. Thirteen patients (7.5%) had extracoronary aneurysms and 3 patients (1.7%) had dissections. The prevalence and degree of arterial tortuosity were similar in patients and controls. In 43 patients imaged with both computed tomographic angiography and MRA, the identification of clinically significant remote arteriopathies was similar. Over a median 5-year follow-up, there were 2 noncardiovascular-associated deaths and 35 recurrent myocardial infarctions, but there were no primary extracoronary vascular events.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this case series with blinded analysis of patients with SCAD, severe multivessel FMD, aneurysms, and dissections were infrequent. The findings of this study suggest that, although brain-to-pelvis imaging allows detection of remote arteriopathies that may require follow-up, extracoronary vascular events appear to be rare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.4690DOI Listing
November 2021

A pilot randomised controlled trial of a structured, home-based exercise programme on cardiovascular structure and function in kidney transplant recipients: the ECSERT study design and methods.

BMJ Open 2021 10 5;11(10):e046945. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). CVD risk scores underestimate risk in this population as CVD is driven by clustering of traditional and non-traditional risk factors, which lead to prognostic pathological changes in cardiovascular structure and function. While exercise may mitigate CVD in this population, evidence is limited, and physical activity levels and patient activation towards exercise and self-management are low. This pilot study will assess the feasibility of delivering a structured, home-based exercise intervention in a population of KTRs at increased cardiometabolic risk and evaluate the putative effects on cardiovascular structural and functional changes, cardiorespiratory fitness, quality of life, patient activation, healthcare utilisation and engagement with the prescribed exercise programme.

Methods And Analysis: Fifty KTRs will be randomised 1:1 to: (1) the intervention; a 12week, home-based combined resistance and aerobic exercise intervention; or (2) the control; usual care. Intervention participants will have one introductory session for instruction and practice of the recommended exercises prior to receiving an exercise diary, dumbbells, resistance bands and access to instructional videos. The study will evaluate the feasibility of recruitment, randomisation, retention, assessment procedures and the intervention implementation. Outcomes, to be assessed prior to randomisation and postintervention, include: cardiac structure and function with stress perfusion cardiac MRI, cardiorespiratory fitness, physical function, blood biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, quality of life and patient activation. These data will be used to inform the power calculations for future definitive trials.

Ethics And Dissemination: The protocol was reviewed and given favourable opinion by the East Midlands-Nottingham 2 Research Ethics Committee (reference: 19/EM/0209; 14 October 2019). Results will be published in peer-reviewed academic journals and will be disseminated to the patient and public community via social media, newsletter articles and presentations at conferences.

Trial Registration Number: NCT04123951.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493915PMC
October 2021

A comparison of liver fat fraction measurement on MRI at 3T and 1.5T.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(7):e0252928. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester and NIHR Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Volumetric liver fat fraction (VLFF) measurements were made using the HepaFat-Scan® technique at 1.5T and 3T to determine the agreement between the measurements obtained at the two fields.

Methods: Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes (67% male, mean age 50.92 ± 6.56yrs) and thirty healthy volunteers (50% male, mean age 48.63 ± 6.32yrs) were scanned on 1.5T Aera and 3T Skyra (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) MRI scanners on the same day using the HepaFat-Scan® gradient echo protocol with modification of echo times for 3T (TEs 2.38, 4.76, 7.14 ms at 1.5T and 1.2, 2.4, 3.6 ms at 3T). The 3T analyses were performed independently of the 1.5T analyses by a different analyst, blinded from the 1.5T results. Data were analysed for agreement and bias using Bland-Altman methods and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). A second cohort of 17 participants underwent interstudy repeatability assessment of VLFF measured by HepaFat-Scan® at 3T.

Results: A small, but statistically significant mean bias of 0.48% was observed between 3T and 1.5T with 95% limits of agreement -2.2% to 3.2% VLFF. The ICC for agreement between field strengths was 0.983 (95% CI 0.972-0.989). In the repeatability cohort studied at 3T the repeatability coefficient was 4.2%. The ICC for agreement was 0.971 (95% CI 0.921-0.989).

Conclusion: There is minimal bias and excellent agreement between the measures of VLFF using the HepaFat-Scan® at 1.5 and 3T. The test retest repeatability coefficient at 3T is comparable to the 95% limits of agreement between 1.5T and 3T suggesting that measurements can be made interchangeably between field strengths.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252928PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277031PMC
October 2021

Male sex adversely affects the phenotypic expression of diabetic heart disease.

Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 2020 27;11:2042018820927179. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester and the Leicester NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Leicester, UK.

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk of heart failure (HF) and cardiovascular mortality. A large-scale meta-analysis on HF found that diabetes was more frequent in women than men, and diabetes appeared to have attenuated the otherwise protective effect of female sex on progression of cardiomyopathy. The exact underlying mechanisms for this remain unclear. Here, we aimed to determine the effect of sex on the phenotypic expression of diabetic heart disease in patients with T2D.

Methods: A total of 62 male [mean age 44 ± 8 years, body mass index (BMI) 33 ± 5 kg/m, mean HBA1c of 7.8 ± 1.8%] and 67 female (44 ± 10 years, BMI 35 ± 6 kg/m, HBA1c 7.6 ± 1.2%) T2D patients on oral glucose-lowering treatment, and 16 male (48 ± 17 years, BMI 25 ± 3 kg/m) and 14 female (50 ± 10 years, BMI 25 ± 4 kg/m) controls were recruited. Left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, function and deformation, and left atrial (LA) volumes and function were assessed using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR).

Results: Participants in all groups were of similar age, and there were no significant differences in blood pressure (BP), diabetes duration or metabolic profile between the two diabetes groups. Concentric remodeling was present in both sexes ( < 0.0001), with greater degree of concentric hypertrophy in males (12%,  = 0.0015). Biplane LA ejection fraction (LAEF) ( = 0.038), peak systolic circumferential strain ( < 0.0001) and diastolic strain rates ( = 0.001) were significantly reduced in men compared with women with T2D. There were no significant differences in biplane LAEF, peak systolic circumferential strain and diastolic strain rates in women with T2D compared with female controls. Whereas in women with T2D, glycaemic control was linked to LV contractile function, there was no such relationship in men with T2D.

Conclusion: Male sex adversely affects the phenotypic expression of diabetic heart disease. The striking differences in the cardiac phenotype between male and female patients with T2D promote awareness of gender-specific risk factors in search of treatment and prevention of diabetes-associated HF.

Condensed Abstract: We aimed to determine the effect of sex on the phenotypic expression of diabetic heart disease in patients with T2D. While our findings support the notion that in T2D, male sex adversely affects the phenotypic expression of diabetic heart disease, this is in apparent conflict with the previous large-scale study showing diabetes attenuates the otherwise protective effect of female sex on progression of cardiomyopathy. Further longitudinal studies looking at gender differences in clinical outcomes in T2D patients are needed. These sex-related differences promote awareness of sex-specific risk factors in search of treatment and prevention of diabetes-associated HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2042018820927179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7257847PMC
May 2020

The reliability and feasibility of non-contrast adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance T1 mapping in patients on haemodialysis.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2020 06 8;22(1):43. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester and the NIHR Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, LE1 9HN, UK.

Background: Identifying coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is challenging. Adenosine stress native T1 mapping with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) may accurately detect obstructive CAD and microvascular dysfunction in the general population. This study assessed the feasibility and reliability of adenosine stress native T1 mapping in patients on haemodialysis.

Methods: The feasibility of undertaking rest and adenosine stress native T1 mapping using the single-shot Modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence was assessed in 58 patients on maintenance haemodialysis using 3 T CMR. Ten patients underwent repeat stress CMR within 2 weeks for assessment of test-retest reliability of native T1, stress T1 and delta T1 (ΔT1). Interrater and intrarater agreement were assessed in 10 patients. Exploratory analyses were undertaken to assess associations between clinical variables and native T1 values in 51 patients on haemodialysis.

Results: Mean age of participants was 55 ± 15 years, 46 (79%) were male, and median dialysis vintage was 21 (8; 48) months. All patients completed the scan without complications. Mean native T1 rest, stress and ΔT1 were 1261 ± 57 ms, 1297 ± 50 ms and 2.9 ± 2.5%, respectively. Interrater and intrarater agreement of rest T1, stress T1 and ΔT1 were excellent, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) > 0.9 for all. Test-retest reliability of rest and stress native T1 were excellent or good (CoV 1.2 and 1.5%; ICC, 0.79 and 0.69, respectively). Test-retest reliability of ΔT1 was moderate to poor (CoV 27.4%, ICC 0.55). On multivariate analysis, CAD, diabetes mellitus and resting native T1 time were independent determinants of ΔT1 (β = - 0.275, p = 0.019; β = - 0.297, p = 0.013; β = - 0.455; p < 0.001, respectively).

Conclusions: Rest and adenosine stress native T1 mapping is feasible and well-tolerated amongst patients with ESRD on haemodialysis. Although rater agreement of the technique is excellent, test-retest reliability of ΔT1 is moderate to poor. Prospective studies should evaluate the relationship between this technique and established methods of CAD assessment and association with outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12968-020-00634-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278072PMC
June 2020

Effects of Low-Energy Diet or Exercise on Cardiovascular Function in Working-Age Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective, Randomized, Open-Label, Blinded End Point Trial.

Diabetes Care 2020 06 27;43(6):1300-1310. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, Leicester, U.K.

Objective: To confirm the presence of subclinical cardiovascular dysfunction in working-age adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and determine whether this is improved by a low-energy meal replacement diet (MRP) or exercise training.

Research Design And Methods: This article reports on a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point trial with nested case-control study. Asymptomatic younger adults with T2D were randomized 1:1:1 to a 12-week intervention of ) routine care, ) supervised aerobic exercise training, or ) a low-energy (∼810 kcal/day) MRP. Participants underwent echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) at baseline and 12 weeks. The primary outcome was change in left ventricular (LV) peak early diastolic strain rate (PEDSR) as measured by CMR. Healthy volunteers were enrolled for baseline case-control comparison.

Results: Eighty-seven participants with T2D (age 51 ± 7 years, HbA 7.3 ± 1.1%) and 36 matched control participants were included. At baseline, those with T2D had evidence of diastolic dysfunction (PEDSR 1.01 ± 0.19 vs. 1.10 ± 0.16 s, = 0.02) compared with control participants. Seventy-six participants with T2D completed the trial (30 routine care, 22 exercise, and 24 MRP). The MRP arm lost 13 kg in weight and had improved blood pressure, glycemia, LV mass/volume, and aortic stiffness. The exercise arm had negligible weight loss but increased exercise capacity. PEDSR increased in the exercise arm versus routine care (β = 0.132, = 0.002) but did not improve with the MRP (β = 0.016, = 0.731).

Conclusions: In asymptomatic working-age adults with T2D, exercise training improved diastolic function. Despite beneficial effects of weight loss on glycemic control, concentric LV remodeling, and aortic stiffness, a low-energy MRP did not improve diastolic function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-0129DOI Listing
June 2020

Rationale, design and study protocol of the randomised controlled trial: Diabetes Interventional Assessment of Slimming or Training tO Lessen Inconspicuous Cardiovascular Dysfunction (the DIASTOLIC study).

BMJ Open 2019 03 30;9(3):e023207. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester and the Leicester NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, UK.

Introduction: Despite their young age and relatively short duration of disease, younger adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) already have diastolic dysfunction and may be at risk of incipient heart failure. Whether weight loss or exercise training improve cardiac dysfunction in people with T2D remains to be established.

Methods And Analysis: Prospective, randomised, open-label, blind endpoint trial. The primary aim of the study is to determine if diastolic function can be improved by either a meal replacement plan or a supervised exercise programme, compared with guideline-directed care. A total of 90 obese participants with T2D (aged 18-65 years), diabetes duration <12 years and not on insulin treatment will be randomised to either guideline-directed clinical care with lifestyle coaching, a low-energy meal replacement diet (average ≈810 kcal/day) or a supervised exercise programme for 12 weeks. Participants undergo glycometabolic profiling, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, echocardiography and MRI scanning to assesses cardiac structure and function and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning for body composition. Key secondary aims are to assess the effects of the interventions on glycaemic control and insulin resistance, exercise capacity, blood pressure, changes in body composition and association of favourable cardiac remodelling with improvements in weight loss, exercise capacity and glycometabolic control.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study has full ethical approval, and data collection was completed in August 2018. The study results will be submitted for publication within 6 months of completion.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02590822; Pre-results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6475184PMC
March 2019

Relation of Aortic Stiffness to Left Ventricular Remodeling in Younger Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes 2018 07 16;67(7):1395-1400. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester and Leicester National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, U.K.

Individuals with type 2 diabetes have a three- to fivefold increased risk of developing heart failure. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is typified by left ventricular (LV) concentric remodeling, which is a recognized predictor of adverse cardiovascular events. Although the mechanisms underlying LV remodeling in type 2 diabetes are unclear, progressive aortic stiffening may be a key determinant. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between aortic stiffness and LV geometry in younger adults with type 2 diabetes, using multiparametric cardiovascular MRI. We prospectively recruited 80 adults (aged 18-65 years) with type 2 diabetes and no cardiovascular disease and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. All subjects underwent comprehensive bio-anthropometric assessment and cardiac MRI, including measurement of aortic stiffness by aortic distensibility (AD). Type 2 diabetes was associated with increased LV mass, concentric LV remodeling, and lower AD compared with control subjects. On multivariable linear regression, AD was independently associated with concentric LV remodeling in type 2 diabetes. Aortic stiffness may therefore be a potential therapeutic target to prevent the development of heart failure in type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0112DOI Listing
July 2018
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