Publications by authors named "Kelly Haupfear"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A novel algorithm comprehensively characterizes human RH genes using whole-genome sequencing data.

Blood Adv 2020 09;4(18):4347-4357

Department of Pathology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

RHD and RHCE genes encode Rh blood group antigens and exhibit extensive single-nucleotide polymorphisms and chromosome structural changes in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). RH variation can drive loss of antigen epitopes or expression of new epitopes, predisposing patients with SCD to Rh alloimmunization. Serologic antigen typing is limited to common Rh antigens, necessitating a genetic approach to detect variant antigen expression. We developed a novel algorithm termed RHtyper for RH genotyping from existing whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data. RHtyper determined RH genotypes in an average of 3.4 and 3.3 minutes per sample for RHD and RHCE, respectively. In a validation cohort consisting of 57 patients with SCD, RHtyper achieved 100% accuracy for RHD and 98.2% accuracy for RHCE, when compared with genotypes obtained by RH BeadChip and targeted molecular assays and after verification by Sanger sequencing and independent next-generation sequencing assays. RHtyper was next applied to WGS data from an additional 827 patients with SCD. In the total cohort of 884 patients, RHtyper identified 38 RHD and 28 RHCE distinct alleles, including a novel RHD DAU allele, RHD* 602G, 733C, 744T 1136T. RHtyper provides comprehensive and high-throughput RH genotyping from WGS data, facilitating deconvolution of the extensive RH genetic variation among patients with SCD. We have implemented RHtyper as a cloud-based public access application in DNAnexus (https://platform.dnanexus.com/app/RHtyper), enabling clinicians and researchers to perform RH genotyping with next-generation sequencing data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509869PMC
September 2020

Infant High-Grade Gliomas Comprise Multiple Subgroups Characterized by Novel Targetable Gene Fusions and Favorable Outcomes.

Cancer Discov 2020 Jul 1;10(7):942-963. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Neuropathology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, and Research Institute Children's Cancer Center, Hamburg, Germany.

Infant high-grade gliomas appear clinically distinct from their counterparts in older children, indicating that histopathologic grading may not accurately reflect the biology of these tumors. We have collected 241 cases under 4 years of age, and carried out histologic review, methylation profiling, and custom panel, genome, or exome sequencing. After excluding tumors representing other established entities or subgroups, we identified 130 cases to be part of an "intrinsic" spectrum of disease specific to the infant population. These included those with targetable MAPK alterations, and a large proportion of remaining cases harboring gene fusions targeting ( = 31), ( = 21), ( = 9), and ( = 4) as their driving alterations, with evidence of efficacy of targeted agents in the clinic. These data strongly support the concept that infant gliomas require a change in diagnostic practice and management. SIGNIFICANCE: Infant high-grade gliomas in the cerebral hemispheres comprise novel subgroups, with a prevalence of , or gene fusions. Kinase fusion-positive tumors have better outcome and respond to targeted therapy clinically. Other subgroups have poor outcome, with fusion-negative cases possibly representing an epigenetically driven pluripotent stem cell phenotype...
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-19-1030DOI Listing
July 2020

Molecular heterogeneity and CXorf67 alterations in posterior fossa group A (PFA) ependymomas.

Acta Neuropathol 2018 08 16;136(2):211-226. Epub 2018 Jun 16.

Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 38105, USA.

Of nine ependymoma molecular groups detected by DNA methylation profiling, the posterior fossa type A (PFA) is most prevalent. We used DNA methylation profiling to look for further molecular heterogeneity among 675 PFA ependymomas. Two major subgroups, PFA-1 and PFA-2, and nine minor subtypes were discovered. Transcriptome profiling suggested a distinct histogenesis for PFA-1 and PFA-2, but their clinical parameters were similar. In contrast, PFA subtypes differed with respect to age at diagnosis, gender ratio, outcome, and frequencies of genetic alterations. One subtype, PFA-1c, was enriched for 1q gain and had a relatively poor outcome, while patients with PFA-2c ependymomas showed an overall survival at 5 years of > 90%. Unlike other ependymomas, PFA-2c tumors express high levels of OTX2, a potential biomarker for this ependymoma subtype with a good prognosis. We also discovered recurrent mutations among PFA ependymomas. H3 K27M mutations were present in 4.2%, occurring only in PFA-1 tumors, and missense mutations in an uncharacterized gene, CXorf67, were found in 9.4% of PFA ependymomas, but not in other groups. We detected high levels of wildtype or mutant CXorf67 expression in all PFA subtypes except PFA-1f, which is enriched for H3 K27M mutations. PFA ependymomas are characterized by lack of H3 K27 trimethylation (H3 K27-me3), and we tested the hypothesis that CXorf67 binds to PRC2 and can modulate levels of H3 K27-me3. Immunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry detected EZH2, SUZ12, and EED, core components of the PRC2 complex, bound to CXorf67 in the Daoy cell line, which shows high levels of CXorf67 and no expression of H3 K27-me3. Enforced reduction of CXorf67 in Daoy cells restored H3 K27-me3 levels, while enforced expression of CXorf67 in HEK293T and neural stem cells reduced H3 K27-me3 levels. Our data suggest that heterogeneity among PFA ependymomas could have clinicopathologic utility and that CXorf67 may have a functional role in these tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-018-1877-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6105278PMC
August 2018

Genetic alterations in uncommon low-grade neuroepithelial tumors: BRAF, FGFR1, and MYB mutations occur at high frequency and align with morphology.

Acta Neuropathol 2016 06 25;131(6):833-45. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, USA.

Low-grade neuroepithelial tumors (LGNTs) are diverse CNS tumors presenting in children and young adults, often with a history of epilepsy. While the genetic profiles of common LGNTs, such as the pilocytic astrocytoma and 'adult-type' diffuse gliomas, are largely established, those of uncommon LGNTs remain to be defined. In this study, we have used massively parallel sequencing and various targeted molecular genetic approaches to study alterations in 91 LGNTs, mostly from children but including young adult patients. These tumors comprise dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs; n = 22), diffuse oligodendroglial tumors (d-OTs; n = 20), diffuse astrocytomas (DAs; n = 17), angiocentric gliomas (n = 15), and gangliogliomas (n = 17). Most LGNTs (84 %) analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) were characterized by a single driver genetic alteration. Alterations of FGFR1 occurred frequently in LGNTs composed of oligodendrocyte-like cells, being present in 82 % of DNETs and 40 % of d-OTs. In contrast, a MYB-QKI fusion characterized almost all angiocentric gliomas (87 %), and MYB fusion genes were the most common genetic alteration in DAs (41 %). A BRAF:p.V600E mutation was present in 35 % of gangliogliomas and 18 % of DAs. Pathogenic alterations in FGFR1/2/3, BRAF, or MYB/MYBL1 occurred in 78 % of the series. Adult-type d-OTs with an IDH1/2 mutation occurred in four adolescents, the youngest aged 15 years at biopsy. Despite a detailed analysis, novel genetic alterations were limited to two fusion genes, EWSR1-PATZ1 and SLMAP-NTRK2, both in gangliogliomas. Alterations in BRAF, FGFR1, or MYB account for most pathogenic alterations in LGNTs, including pilocytic astrocytomas, and alignment of these genetic alterations and cytologic features across LGNTs has diagnostic implications. Additionally, therapeutic options based upon targeting the effects of these alterations are already in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-016-1539-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4866893PMC
June 2016

Influence of FcγRIIa-Expressing Cells on the Assessment of Neutralizing and Enhancing Serum Antibodies Elicited by a Live-Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2015 Dec 12;2(4):ofv172. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Sanofi Pasteur , Lyon , France.

Background.  Recent trials of recombinant, live-attenuated chimeric yellow fever-dengue tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) demonstrated efficacy against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue disease with higher point estimates of efficacy toward dengue virus (DENV)3 and DENV4 and moderate levels toward DENV1 and DENV2. It is interesting to note that serotype-specific efficacy did not correlate with absolute neutralizing antibody (nAb) geometric mean titer (GMT) values measured in a Vero-based plaque reduction neutralization test assay. The absence of Fcγ receptors on Vero cells may explain this observation. Methods.  We performed parallel seroneutralization assays in Vero cells and CV-1 cells that express FcγRIIa (CV-1-Fc) to determine the neutralizing and enhancing capacity of serotype-specific DENV Abs present in CYD-TDV clinical trial sera. Results.  Enhancement of DENV infection was observed in CV-1-Fc cells in naturally exposed nonvaccine sera, mostly for DENV3 and DENV4, at high dilutions. The CYD-TDV-vaccinated sera showed similar enhancement patterns. The CV-1-Fc nAb GMT values were 2- to 9-fold lower than Vero for all serotypes in both naturally infected individuals and CYD-TDV-vaccinated subjects with and without previous dengue immunity. The relative (CV-1-Fc/Vero) GMT decrease for anti-DENV1 and anti-DENV2 responses was not greater than for the other serotypes. Conclusions.  In vitro neutralization assays utilizing FcγRIIa-expressing cells provide evidence that serotype-specific Ab enhancement may not be a primary factor in the serotype-specific efficacy differences exhibited in the CYD-TDV trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofv172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4689971PMC
December 2015