Publications by authors named "Kelly Colletti"

12 Publications

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Bioanalytical challenges and unique considerations to support pharmacokinetic characterization of bispecific biotherapeutics.

Bioanalysis 2019 Mar 19;11(5):427-435. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Genentech,1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

Compared with conventional (monospecific) therapeutics, bispecific protein therapeutics present unique challenges for pharmacokinetic (PK) characterization - namely, the characterization of multiple functional domains as well as the consideration of biotransformation or interference by the formation of antitherapeutic antibodies against each functional domain. PK characterization is essential to the success of the overall drug development plan and for molecules with multiple binding domains; multiple bioanalytical methods may be needed to answer critical questions for each phase of drug development. The number of bispecific protein therapeutics entering drug development continues to increase, and therefore, a bioanalytical strategy for the PK characterization of bispecific molecules and study of their in vivo structure-function relationship is needed. This review presents case studies and a regulatory perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2018-0146DOI Listing
March 2019

11th GCC Closed Forum: cumulative stability; matrix stability; immunogenicity assays; laboratory manuals; biosimilars; chiral methods; hybrid LBA/LCMS assays; fit-for-purpose validation; China Food and Drug Administration bioanalytical method validation.

Bioanalysis 2018 Apr 27;10(7):433-444. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Worldwide Clinical Trials, Austin, TX, USA.

The 11th Global CRO Council Closed Forum was held in Universal City, CA, USA on 3 April 2017. Representatives from international CRO members offering bioanalytical services were in attendance in order to discuss scientific and regulatory issues specific to bioanalysis. The second CRO-Pharma Scientific Interchange Meeting was held on 7 April 2017, which included Pharma representatives' sharing perspectives on the topics discussed earlier in the week with the CRO members. The issues discussed at the meetings included cumulative stability evaluations, matrix stability evaluations, the 2016 US FDA Immunogenicity Guidance and recent and unexpected FDA Form 483s on immunogenicity assays, the bioanalytical laboratory's role in writing PK sample collection instructions, biosimilars, CRO perspectives on the use of chiral versus achiral methods, hybrid LBA/LCMS assays, applications of fit-for-purpose validation and, at the Global CRO Council Closed Forum only, the status and trend of current regulated bioanalytical practice in China under CFDA's new BMV policy. Conclusions from discussions of these topics at both meetings are included in this report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2018-0014DOI Listing
April 2018

Conference Report: Bioanalysis-related topics presented at the International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars.

Authors:
Kelly S Colletti

Bioanalysis 2013 Mar;5(5):529-31

Laboratory Sciences, Charles River, 6995 Longley Lane, Reno, NV 89511, USA.

This conference of approximately 30 professionals attracted a diverse group of attendees, whose expertise spanned the broad topics of development, production, testing and regulation of biosimilars. The topics covered during this meeting were varied in scope due to the breadth of knowledge of the attendees. Topics of discussion included: biowaivers for small molecules; patent law and interpretation of the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act; analytical tools for the characterization of a biosimilar; novel production methods; bioanalytical methods; immunogenicity considerations; formulation techniques; and the characterization of the glycosylation of biosimilars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.12.330DOI Listing
March 2013

Identification of human cytomegalovirus UL84 virus- and cell-encoded binding partners by using proteomics analysis.

J Virol 2008 Jan 24;82(1):96-104. Epub 2007 Oct 24.

University of Nevada-Reno, Department of Microbiology, Howard Bldg. 210, Reno, NV 89557, USA.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL84 is a phosphoprotein that shuttles from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and is required for oriLyt-dependent DNA replication and viral growth. UL84 was previously shown to interact with IE2 (IE86) in infected cells, and this interaction down-regulates IE2-mediated transcriptional activation in transient assays. UL84 and IE2 were also shown to cooperatively activate a promoter within HCMV oriLyt. UL84 alone can interact with an RNA stem-loop within oriLyt and is bound to this structure within the virion. In an effort to investigate the binding partners for UL84 in infected cells, we pulled down UL84 from protein lysates prepared from HCMV-infected human fibroblasts by using a UL84-specific antibody and resolved the immunoprecipitated protein complexes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We subsequently identified individual proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem time of flight analysis. This analysis revealed that UL84 interacts with viral proteins UL44, pp65, and IE2. In addition, a number of cell-encoded proteins were identified, including ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, casein kinase II (CKII), and the multifunctional protein p32. We also confirmed the interaction between UL84 and IE2 as well as the interaction of UL84 with importin alpha. UL44, pp65, and CKII interactions were confirmed to occur in infected and cotransfected cells by coimmunoprecipitation assays followed by Western blotting. Ubiquitination of UL84 occurred in the presence and absence of the proteasome activity inhibitor MG132 in infected cells. The identification of UL84 binding partners is a significant step toward the understanding of the function of this significant replication protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01559-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2224362PMC
January 2008

Overexpression of the kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus transactivator K-Rta can complement a K-bZIP deletion BACmid and yields an enhanced growth phenotype.

J Virol 2007 Dec 3;81(24):13519-32. Epub 2007 Oct 3.

Department of Microbiology, Cell and Molecular Biology Program, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) ORF50 encodes a transactivator, K-Rta, which functions as the switch from latent to lytic virus replication. K-bZIP interacts with K-Rta and can repress its transactivation activity for some viral promoters. Both K-Rta and K-bZIP are required for origin-dependent DNA replication. To determine the role of K-bZIP in the context of the viral genome, we generated a recombinant HHV8 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) with a deletion in the K-bZIP open reading frame. This BACmid, BAC36DeltaK8, displayed an enhanced growth phenotype with respect to virus production and accumulation of virus-encoded mRNAs measured by real-time PCR when K-Rta was used to induce the virus lytic cycle. Conversely, induction of the virus lytic cycle using tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate/n-butyrate resulted in no virus production and an aberrant gene expression pattern from BAC36DeltaK8-containing cells compared to wild-type (wt) BAC. This null virus phenotype was efficiently complemented by the expression of K-bZIP in trans, restoring virus production to wt BAC levels. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that subcellular localization of K-Rta was unchanged; however, a disruption of LANA subcellular localization was observed in cells harboring BAC36DeltaK8, suggesting that K-bZIP influences LANA localization. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that K-bZIP interacts with LANA in BCBL-1 cells and in cotransfection assays. Lastly, the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that, in an environment where K-Rta is overexpressed and in the absence of K-bZIP, K-Rta binds to CAAT enhancer binding protein alpha sites within oriLyt, suggesting that it is K-Rta that supplies an essential replication function and that K-bZIP may serve to augment or facilitate the interaction of K-Rta with oriLyt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00832-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2168825PMC
December 2007

Human cytomegalovirus UL84 interacts with an RNA stem-loop sequence found within the RNA/DNA hybrid region of oriLyt.

J Virol 2007 Jul 25;81(13):7077-85. Epub 2007 Apr 25.

University of Nevada--Reno, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Howard Bldg., Reno, NV 89557, USA.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic DNA replication is initiated at the complex cis-acting oriLyt region, which spans nearly 3 kb. DNA synthesis requires six core proteins together with UL84 and IE2. Previously, two essential regions were identified within oriLyt. Essential region I (nucleotides [nt] 92209 to 92573) can be replaced with the constitutively active simian virus 40 promoter, which in turn eliminates the requirement for IE2 in the origin-dependent transient-replication assay. Essential region II (nt 92979 to 93513) contains two elements of interest: an RNA/DNA hybrid domain and an inverted repeat sequence capable of forming a stem-loop structure. Our studies now reveal for the first time that UL84 interacts with a stem-loop RNA oligonucleotide in vitro, and although UL84 interacted with other nucleic acid substrates, a specific interaction occurred only with the RNA stem-loop. Increasing concentrations of purified UL84 produced a remarkable downward-staircase pattern, which is not due to a nuclease activity but is dependent upon the presence of secondary structures, suggesting that UL84 modifies the conformation of the RNA substrate. Cross-linking experiments show that UL84 possibly changes the conformation of the RNA substrate. The addition of purified IE2 to the in vitro binding reaction did not affect binding to the stem-loop structure. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays performed using infected cells and purified virus show that UL84 is bound to oriLyt in a region adjacent to the RNA/DNA hybrid and the stem-loop structure. These results solidify UL84 as the potential initiator of HCMV DNA replication through a unique interaction with a conserved RNA stem-loop structure within oriLyt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00058-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1933308PMC
July 2007

Human cytomegalovirus UL84 is a phosphoprotein that exhibits UTPase activity and is a putative member of the DExD/H box family of proteins.

J Biol Chem 2005 Mar 1;280(12):11955-60. Epub 2005 Feb 1.

University of Nevada-Reno, Department of Microbiology & Immunology and the Cell and Molecular Biology Program, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL84 is required for lytic DNA replication and is proposed to be the key factor in initiation of viral DNA synthesis. We now show that UL84 has a high degree of homology to the DExD/H (where x can be any amino acid) box family of helicases, displays UTPase activity, and is phosphorylated at serine residues. Affinity column-purified UL84-FLAG fusion protein was used in an in vitro nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) assay to show that UL84 has NTPase activity, preferring UTP. This UTPase activity was linear with respect to enzyme concentration and slightly enhanced by the addition of nucleic acid substrates. UL84 UTPase was the highest at low salt concentrations, a pH of 7.5, and a temperature of 45 degrees C. The enzyme preferred Mg2+ as the divalent cation but was also able to catalyze the UTPase reaction in the presence of Mn2+, Ca2+, and Zn2+ albeit at lower levels. The evidence presented here suggests that the UL84 UTPase activity may be part of an energy-generating system for helicase activity associated with the initiation of HCMV DNA replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.C400603200DOI Listing
March 2005

Human cytomegalovirus DNA replication requires transcriptional activation via an IE2- and UL84-responsive bidirectional promoter element within oriLyt.

J Virol 2004 Nov;78(21):11664-77

Department of Microbiology and Cell and Molecular Biology Program, University of Nevada-Reno, Howard Bldg., Reno, NV 89557, USA.

Amplification of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic origin (oriLyt) in human fibroblasts is dependent upon six core replication proteins and UL84, IE2, and UL36-38. Using a telomerase-immortalized human fibroblast cell line (T-HFs), oriLyt-dependent DNA replication no longer required the gene products of UL36-38. To determine the role of IE2 in DNA replication in human fibroblasts, we examined potential IE2-binding sites within HCMV oriLyt. We now show that a strong bidirectional promoter (oriLyt(PM)) (nucleotides 91754 to 92030) is located in the previously identified core region of the origin and is required for efficient amplification of oriLyt. It was determined that a 14-bp novel DNA motif (oriLyt promoter activation element), which was initially identified as a binding element for the immediate-early protein IE2, was essential for oriLyt(PM) activity. In Vero cells the oriLyt(PM) was constitutively active and strongly repressed by IE2, but it was reactivated by UL84. In contrast, transfection of the oriLyt(PM) into human fibroblasts resulted in a very low basal level of promoter activity that was dramatically up-regulated upon infection with HCMV. Cotransfection assays demonstrated that the transfection of UL84 along with IE2 transactivated the oriLyt(PM) in human fibroblasts. Further activation was observed upon cotransfection of the set of plasmids expressing the entire replication complex. Efficient oriLyt amplification in the absence of IE2 in human fibroblasts was observed by replacing the oriLyt(PM) with the simian virus 40 early promoter. Under these conditions, however, UL84 was still required for amplification of oriLyt. These results suggest that the mechanism of initiation of HCMV lytic replication in part involves transcriptional activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.78.21.11664-11677.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC523242PMC
November 2004

Human cytomegalovirus UL84 oligomerization and heterodimerization domains act as transdominant inhibitors of oriLyt-dependent DNA replication: evidence that IE2-UL84 and UL84-UL84 interactions are required for lytic DNA replication.

J Virol 2004 Sep;78(17):9203-14

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, Nevada, USA.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL84 encodes a 75-kDa protein required for oriLyt-dependent DNA replication and interacts with IE2 in infected and transfected cells. UL84 localizes to the nucleus of transfected and infected cells and is found in viral replication compartments. In transient assays it was shown that UL84 can interfere with the IE2-mediated transactivation of the UL112/113 promoter of HCMV. To determine whether UL84 protein-protein interactions are necessary for lytic DNA synthesis, we purified UL84 and used this protein to generate a monoclonal antibody. Using this antibody, we now show that UL84 forms a stable interaction with itself in vivo. The point of self-interaction maps to a region of the protein between amino acids 151 and 200, a domain that contains a series of highly charged amino acid residues. Coimmunoprecipitation assays determined that UL84 interacts with a protein domain present within the first 215 amino acids of IE2. We also show that an intact leucine zipper domain of UL84 is required for a stable interaction with IE2 and UL84 leucine zipper mutants fail to complement oriLyt-dependent DNA replication. UL84 leucine zipper mutants no longer interfere with IE2-mediated transactivation of the UL112/113 promoter, confirming that the leucine zipper is essential for a functional interaction with IE2. In addition, we demonstrate that both the leucine zipper and oligomerization domains of UL84 can act as transdominant-negative inhibitors of lytic replication in the transient assay, strongly suggesting that both an IE2-UL84 and a UL84-UL84 interaction are required for DNA synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.78.17.9203-9214.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC506931PMC
September 2004

Amplification of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 lytic origin of DNA replication is dependent upon a cis-acting AT-rich region and an ORF50 response element and the trans-acting factors ORF50 (K-Rta) and K8 (K-bZIP).

Virology 2004 Jan;318(2):542-55

Department of Microbiology and the Cell and Molecular Biology Program, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), has significant sequence homology to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In cell culture, HHV8 is primarily latent, and viral genes associated with lytic replication are not expressed. Two lytic origins of DNA replication (oriLyt) are present within the HHV8 genome and are composed of an AT-rich region adjacent to GC-rich DNA sequences. We have now identified essential cis- and trans-acting elements required for oriLyt-dependent DNA replication. The transient replication assay was used to show that two AT-rich elements, three consensus AP1 transcription factor-binding sites, an ORF50 response element (RE), and a consensus TATA box motif are essential for efficient origin-dependent DNA replication. Transient transfection of luciferase reporter constructs indicated that the downstream region of the HHV8 oriLyt responds to ORF50 and suggests that part of the oriLyt may be an enhancer/promoter. In addition, a transient cotransfection-replication assay elucidated the set of trans-acting factors required for lytic DNA replication. These factors consist of homologues to the core replication proteins: ORF6 (ssDNA binding protein), ORF9 (DNA polymerase), ORF40-41 (primase-associated factor), ORF44 (helicase), ORF56 (primase), and ORF59 (polymerase processivity factor) common to all herpesviruses along with ORF50 (K-Rta) and K8 (K-bZIP).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2003.10.016DOI Listing
January 2004

Human cytomegalovirus UL84 localizes to the cell nucleus via a nuclear localization signal and is a component of viral replication compartments.

J Virol 2002 Sep;76(17):8931-8

Department of Microbiology and the Cell and Molecular Biology Program, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA.

The UL84 open reading frame encodes a protein that is required for origin-dependent DNA replication and interacts with the immediate-early protein IE2 in lytically infected cells. Transfection of UL84 expression constructs showed that UL84 localized to the nucleus of transfected cells in the absence of any other viral proteins and displayed a punctate speckled fluorescent staining pattern. Cotransfection of all the human cytomegalovirus replication proteins and oriLyt, along with pUL84-EGFP, showed that UL84 colocalized with UL44 (polymerase accessory protein) in replication compartments. Experiments using infected human fibroblasts demonstrated that UL84 also colocalized with UL44 and IE2 in viral replication compartments in infected cells. A nuclear localization signal was identified using plasmid constructs expressing truncation mutants of the UL84 protein in transient transfection assays. Transfection assays showed that UL84 failed to localize to the nucleus when 200 amino acids of the N terminus were deleted. Inspection of the UL84 amino acid sequence revealed a consensus putative nuclear localization signal between amino acids 160 and 171 (PEKKKEKQEKK) of the UL84 protein.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC136984PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jvi.76.17.8931-8938.2002DOI Listing
September 2002

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) contains two functional lytic origins of DNA replication.

J Virol 2002 Aug;76(15):7890-6

Department of Microbiology and Cell and Molecular Biology Program, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA.

We used a transient-transfection replication assay to identify two functional copies of the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) lytic origin of DNA replication (oriLyt). BCLB-1 cells were transfected with HHV8 subgenomic fragments containing the putative lytic origin along with a plasmid expressing viral transactivator open reading frame (ORF) 50. The HHV8 left-end oriLyt (oriLyt-L) lies between ORFs K4.2 and K5 and is composed of a region encoding various transcription factor binding sites and an A+T-rich region and a G+C repeat region. The right-end oriLyt (oriLyt-R) maps between ORF 69 and vFLIP, a region similar to the RRV oriLyt, and is an inverted duplication of oriLyt-L.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC136389PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jvi.76.15.7890-7896.2002DOI Listing
August 2002