Publications by authors named "Kelly Cleveland"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prognostic microRNA expression signature from examination of colorectal primary and metastatic tumors.

Anticancer Res 2014 Aug;34(8):3957-67

Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI, U.S.A. Center for Computational Molecular Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI, U.S.A. Center for Genomics and Proteomics, Brown University, Providence, RI, U.S.A.

While previous studies have described associations between specific microRNAs and colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis, our understanding of microRNA regulation of metastatic spread remains largely unexplored. To identify microRNAs critical for disease progression, we measured microRNA expression in primary CRC tumors and synchronous liver metastases in 19 cases using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) arrays. We identified 16 microRNAs significantly differentially expressed between primary tumors and liver metastases that distinguish primary tumors and liver metastases by hierarchical clustering. Combinations of microRNAs expressed in the primary tumor and in the metastatic tumor are associated with survival, but these signatures have no microRNAs in common. We found that increased expression of miR-210 and miR-133b in liver metastases compared to primary tumors is associated with lower survival. We propose that evaluating the change in expression between primary and metastatic tumors in each patient may lead to improved biomarker development.
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August 2014

IGF-I attenuates FFA-induced activation of JNK1 phosphorylation and TNFα expression in human subcutaneous preadipocytes.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2013 Sep 25;21(9):1843-9. Epub 2013 May 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Rhode Island Hospital and Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Objective: Free fatty acids (FFAs) are increased in visceral fat and contribute to insulin resistance through multiple mechanisms, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and expression of TNFα. Given that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-mediated proliferation is impaired in omental compared to subcutaneous (SC) preadipocytes, we investigated IGF-I anti-inflammatory action in preadipocytes from SC and omental adipose tissue.

Design And Methods: Preadipocytes isolated from abdominal SC and omental fat of obese subjects were studied in primary culture. Cells were exposed to FFAs with or without IGF-I pretreatment followed by analysis of cytokine expression and JNK phosphorylation. Lentivirus infection was used to express a constitutively active AKT (myr-AKT) in omental preadipocytes.

Results: FFAs increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in SC and omental preadipocytes. IGF-I pretreatment reduced FFA-induced JNK1 phosphorylation and TNFα expression in SC but not omental preadipocytes. Treatment with the JNK1/2 inhibitor SP600125 reduced FFA-induced expression of TNFα. FFAs and MALP-2, a specific TLR2/6 ligand, but not specific ligands for TLR4 and TLR1/2, increased JNK1 phosphorylation. IGF-I completely inhibited MALP-2-stimulated phosphorylation of JNK1. Expression of myr-AKT in omental preadipocytes inhibited FFA-stimulated JNK1 phosphorylation.

Conclusions: IGF-I attenuated FFA-induced JNK1 phosphorylation and TNFα expression through activation of AKT in human subcutaneous but not omental preadipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.20329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3690156PMC
September 2013

Expression microarray analysis identifies novel epithelial-derived protein markers in eosinophilic esophagitis.

Mod Pathol 2013 May 15;26(5):665-76. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital and Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

Gene expression studies in eosinophilic esophagitis support an immune-mediated etiology associated with differential regulation of inflammatory and epithelial-derived genes. We aimed to further characterize epithelial gene expression alterations in eosinophilic esophagitis and to explore the use of immunohistochemistry to identify these alterations. Esophageal biopsies from pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis before and after therapy with topical steroids (N=7) were screened by gene expression microarray and results were validated by RT-PCR. A larger group of eosinophilic esophagitis patients (N=42) was then used to evaluate protein expression by immunohistochemistry compared with reflux patients (N=15) and normal controls (N=17). Microarray and RT-PCR studies identified overexpression of ALOX15 and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced factor 6 (TNFAIP6) and underexpression of filaggrin (FLG), SLURP1 and cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP3) in eosinophilic esophagitis. Immunohistochemistry for ALOX15 was positive in 95% of eosinophilic esophagitis and negative in all controls, all eosinophilic esophagitis after therapy and all reflux biopsies (P<0.001). TNFAIP6 was positive in 88% of eosinophilic esophagitis samples versus 47% of controls, 29% of eosinophilic esophagitis after therapy and 40% of reflux samples (P=0.002). Overexpression of both ALOX15 and TNFAIP6 directly correlated with the degree of eosinophilic infiltration. FLG was positive in 88% of controls and 100% of reflux biopsies, but negative in all eosinophilic esophagitis samples, and its expression was regained in 86% of eosinophilic esophagitis after therapy patients (P<0.001). SLURP1 expression was positive in all controls and reflux samples, but only positive in 5% of eosinophilic esophagitis and was re-expressed to 100% positivity in eosinophilic esophagitis after therapy patients (P<0.001). The majority of controls (89%) and reflux biopsies (100%) were positive for CRISP3 while eosinophilic esophagitis before therapy were positive in 14% of samples (P<0.001) with partial recovery after treatment (43%, P=0.105). This study identified five epithelial-derived markers differentially expressed in eosinophilic esophagitis easily detectable by immunohistochemistry with potential diagnostic utility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2013.41DOI Listing
May 2013

MicroRNA profiling in mucosal biopsies of eosinophilic esophagitis patients pre and post treatment with steroids and relationship with mRNA targets.

PLoS One 2012 16;7(7):e40676. Epub 2012 Jul 16.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital, the Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Background: The characterization of miRNAs and their target mRNAs involved in regulation of the immune process is an area of intense research and relatively little is known governing these processes in allergic inflammation. Here we present novel findings defining the miRNA and mRNA transcriptome in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an increasing recognized allergic disorder.

Methods: Esophageal epithelial miRNA and mRNA from five paired biopsies pre- and post-treatment with glucocorticosteroids were profiled using Taqman and Affymetrix arrays. Validation was performed on additional paired biopsies, untreated EoE specimens and normal controls. Differentially regulated miRNAs and mRNAs were generated, within which miRNA-mRNA target pairs with high predicted confidence were identified.

Results: Compared to the post-glucocorticoid treated esophageal mucosa, of all the 377 miRNA sequences examined, 32 miRNAs were significantly upregulated and four downregulated in the pre-treated biopsies. MiR-214 was the most upregulated (150 fold) and miR-146b-5b, 146a, 145, 142-3p and 21 were upregulated by at least 10 fold. Out of 12 miRNAs chosen for validation by qRT-PCR, five (miR-214, 146b-5p, 146a, 142-3p and 21) were confirmed and 11 shared the same trend. When the expression of the 12 miRNAs in the EoE mucosa was compared to unrelated normal mucosa, six (miR-214, 146b-5p, 146a, 21, 203, and 489) showed similar significant changes as in the paired samples and 10 of them shared the same trend. In the same five pairs of samples used to profile miRNA, 311 mRNAs were down-regulated and 35 were up-regulated in pre-treated EoE mucosa. Among them, 164 mRNAs were identified as potential targets of differentially regulated miRNAs. Further analysis revealed that immune-related genes, targeted and non-targeted by miRNAs, were among the most important genes involved in the pathogenesis of EoE.

Conclusions: Our findings add to the accumulating body of data defining a regulatory role for miRNA in immune and allergic processes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0040676PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3398046PMC
March 2013

EGF regulates survivin stability through the Raf-1/ERK pathway in insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells.

BMC Mol Biol 2010 Aug 31;11:66. Epub 2010 Aug 31.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

Background: Postnatal expansion of the pancreatic β-cell mass is required to maintain glucose homeostasis immediately after birth. This β-cell expansion is regulated by multiple growth factors, including glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). These mitogens signal through several downstream pathways (AKT, ERK, STAT3, and JNK) to regulate the survival and proliferation of β-cells. Survivin, an oncofetal protein with both pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic properties, is a known transcriptional target of both IGF-1 and EGF in cancer cells. Here, we analyzed the effects of the β-cell mitogens IGF-1 and EGF on survivin regulation in the established pancreatic β-cell model cell lines, MIN6 and INS-1 and in primary mouse islets.

Results: In pancreatic β-cells, treatment with glucose, insulin, or EGF increased survivin protein levels at early time points. By contrast, no significant effects on survivin were observed following IGF-1 treatment. EGF-stimulated increases in survivin protein were abrogated in the presence of downstream inhibitors of the Raf-1/MEK/ERK pathway. EGF had no significant effect on survivin transcription however it prolonged the half-life of the survivin protein and stabilized survivin protein levels by inhibiting surviving ubiquitination.

Conclusions: This study defines a novel mechanism of survivin regulation by EGF through the Raf-1/MEK/ERK pathway in pancreatic β-cells, via prolongation of survivin protein half-life and inhibition of the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation pathway. This mechanism may be important for regulating β-cell expansion after birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2199-11-66DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2940765PMC
August 2010

Two novel proteins that are linked to insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) receptors by the Grb10 adapter and modulate IGF-I signaling.

J Biol Chem 2003 Aug 27;278(34):31564-73. Epub 2003 May 27.

Division of Endocrinology and the Hallett Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, USA.

Grb10 is a protein that binds to the intracellular domains of activated tyrosine kinase receptors, including insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and insulin receptors. This occurs through the interaction of two C-terminal Grb10 motifs (BPS and Src homology domains) with receptor phosphotyrosine residues. Published data from transfection/overexpression studies support both positive and negative regulatory effects of Grb10, thus leaving its physiological role unclear. Because Grb10 has the structure of an adapter protein, the objective of this study was to determine whether Grb10 links other proteins to IGF-I receptors and thus modulates IGF-I signaling. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, the N terminus of Grb10 was shown to interact with two novel proteins, designated GIGYF1 (Grb10 interacting GYF protein 1) and GIGYF2. Mutation analysis indicates that a 17-amino acid sequence in GIGYF1 and GIGYF2, homologous to the GYF domain described previously, binds to tandem proline-rich regions in the N terminus of Grb10. In IGF-I receptor-expressing R+ fibroblasts, there is detectable binding of a Myc-tagged fragment of GIGYF1 to Grb10 in the basal state. Stimulation with IGF-I results in increased binding of GIGYF1 to Grb10 and transient binding of both Grb10 and GIGYF1 to IGF-I receptors, presumably via the adapter function of Grb10. At later time points, GIGYF1 dissociates, but Grb10 remains linked to IGF-I receptors. Overexpression of the Grb10 binding fragment of GIGYF1 in R+ cells results in a significant increase in IGF-I-stimulated receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. In conclusion, we have identified two members of a novel protein family, which become transiently linked to IGF-I receptors by the Grb10 adapter protein following IGF-I stimulation. Grb10 and GIGYFs may act cooperatively to regulate receptor signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M211572200DOI Listing
August 2003