Publications by authors named "Keizo Yonemori"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Characterization of a gene regulatory network underlying astringency loss in persimmon fruit.

Planta 2018 Mar 29;247(3):733-743. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan.

Main Conclusion: Transcriptome analysis of a persimmon population segregating for an astringency trait in fruit suggested central roles for a limited number of transcriptional regulators in the loss of proanthocyanidin accumulation. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki; 2n = 6x = 90) accumulates a large amount of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in its fruit, resulting in an astringent taste. Persimmon cultivars are classified into four types based on the nature of astringency loss and the amount of PAs at maturity. Pollination constant and non-astringent (PCNA)-type cultivars stop accumulating PAs in the early stages of fruit development and their fruit can be consumed when still firm without the need for artificial deastringency treatments. While the PCNA trait has been shown to be conferred by a recessive allele at a single locus (ASTRINGENCY; AST), the exact genetic determinant remains unidentified. Here, we conducted transcriptome analyses to elucidate the regulatory mechanism underlying this trait using developing fruits of an F population segregating for the PCNA trait. Comparisons of the transcriptomes of PCNA and non-PCNA individuals and hierarchical clustering revealed that genes related to the flavonoid pathway and to abiotic stress responses involving light stimulation were expressed coordinately with PA accumulation. Furthermore, coexpression network analyses suggested that three putative transcription factors were central to the PA regulatory network and that at least DkMYB4 and/or DkMYC1, which have been reported to form a protein complex with each other for PA regulation, may have a central role in the differential expression of PA biosynthetic pathway genes between PCNA and non-PCNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-017-2819-0DOI Listing
March 2018

Cuticular membrane of Fuyu persimmon fruit is strengthened by triterpenoid nano-fillers.

PLoS One 2013 24;8(9):e75275. Epub 2013 Sep 24.

Science Research Center, Kochi University, Kochi-shi, Kochi, Japan.

The mechanical defensive performance of fruit cuticular membranes (CMs) is largely dependent on the molecular arrangement of their constituents. Here, we elucidated nano-sized interactions between cutin and triterpenoids in the cuticular matrix of Fuyu persimmon fruits (Diospyroskaki Thunb. cv. Fuyu), focusing on the mechanical properties using a combination of polymer analyses. The fruit CMs of Fuyu were primarily composed of wax (34.7%), which was predominantly triterpenoids followed by higher aliphatic compounds, and cutin (48.4%), primarily consisting of 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid and 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid. Based on the tensile tests of the CM, the removal of wax lead to a considerable decrease in the maximum stress and elastic modulus accompanied by an increase in the maximum strain, indicating that wax is of significant importance for maintaining the mechanical strength of the CM. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction and relaxation time measurements using solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the triterpenoids in the cuticular matrix construct a nanocomposite at a mixing scale below 20-24 nm; however, the higher aliphatic compounds did not exhibit clear interactions with cutin. The results indicated that the triterpenoids in the cuticular matrix endow toughness to the CM by functioning as a nanofiller.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0075275PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3782500PMC
July 2014

Seasonal abscisic acid signal and a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, DkbZIP5, regulate proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in persimmon fruit.

Plant Physiol 2012 Feb 21;158(2):1089-102. Epub 2011 Dec 21.

Laboratory of Pomology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that contribute to plant protection and crop quality. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) has a unique characteristic of accumulating large amounts of PAs, particularly in its fruit. Normal astringent-type and mutant nonastringent-type fruits show different PA accumulation patterns depending on the seasonal expression patterns of DkMyb4, which is a Myb transcription factor (TF) regulating many PA pathway genes in persimmon. In this study, attempts were made to identify the factors involved in DkMyb4 expression and the resultant PA accumulation in persimmon fruit. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) and an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor resulted in differential changes in the expression patterns of DkMyb4 and PA biosynthesis in astringent-type and nonastringent-type fruits depending on the development stage. To obtain an ABA-signaling TF, we isolated a full-length basic leucine zipper (bZIP) TF, DkbZIP5, which is highly expressed in persimmon fruit. We also showed that ectopic DkbZIP5 overexpression in persimmon calluses induced the up-regulation of DkMyb4 and the resultant PA biosynthesis. In addition, a detailed molecular characterization using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and transient reporter assay indicated that DkbZIP5 recognized ABA-responsive elements in the promoter region of DkMyb4 and acted as a direct regulator of DkMyb4 in an ABA-dependent manner. These results suggest that ABA signals may be involved in PA biosynthesis in persimmon fruit via DkMyb4 activation by DkbZIP5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.111.191205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3271745PMC
February 2012

Effects of seasonal temperature changes on DkMyb4 expression involved in proanthocyanidin regulation in two genotypes of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit.

Planta 2011 May 12;233(5):883-94. Epub 2011 Jan 12.

Laboratory of Pomology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Persimmon fruits accumulate a large amount of proanthocyanidin (PA). Fruits of the mutant non-astringent (NA) type lose their ability to accumulate PA at an early stage of fruit development, whereas fruits of the normal astringent (A) type sustain PA accumulation until ripening. This allelotype is determined by the genotype of a single ASTRINGENCY (AST) locus. It is possible that the reduction in PA accumulation in NA-type fruits is due to phenological down-regulation of DkMyb4 (a PA regulator) and the resultant down-regulation of structural genes in the PA pathway. In this study, attempts were made to identify the regulatory mechanisms of phenological PA accumulation in A- and NA-type fruits, focusing particularly on the effects of ambient temperature. Continuous cool temperature conditions caused sustained expression of DkMyb4 in NA-type fruits, as well as in A-type fruits, resulting in increased expression of PA pathway genes and PA accumulation. However, the expression of some A/NA phenotypic marker genes was not significantly affected by the cool temperature conditions. In addition, PA composition in NA-type fruits exposed to cool temperatures differed from that in A-type fruits. These results indicate that a cool ambient temperature may have induced DkMyb4 expression and resultant PA accumulation, but did not directly affect the expression of the AST gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-010-1346-zDOI Listing
May 2011

DkMyb2 wound-induced transcription factor of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.), contributes to proanthocyanidin regulation.

Planta 2010 Oct 6;232(5):1045-59. Epub 2010 Aug 6.

Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that contribute to the protection of a plant against biotic and abiotic stresses. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) accumulates abundant PAs in each plant organ, and some potential Myb-like transcription factors (Myb-TFs) involved in the production of PAs have been isolated. In this study, we aimed to molecularly characterize one of them, DkMyb2, which was placed in a subclade including a PA regulator of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), TRANSPARENT TESTA2 (TT2), and was co-induced with PA pathway genes after wound stress. Ectopic DkMyb2 overexpression caused significant up-regulation of PA pathway genes in transgenic persimmon calluses and significant accumulation of PA, and increased mean degree of polymerization of PAs in transgenic kiwifruit calluses. Analysis of the DNA-binding ability of DkMyb2 by electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that DkMyb2 directly binds to the AC-rich cis-motifs known as AC elements in the promoters of the two PA pathway genes in persimmon, DkANR, and DkLAR. Furthermore, a transient reporter assay using a dual-luciferase system demonstrated direct transcriptional activation of DkANR and DkLAR by DkMyb2. We also discuss subfunctionalization of two PA regulators in persimmon, DkMyb2 and DkMyb4, as well as PA regulators in other plant species from the viewpoint of their ability to bind to cis-motifs and their functions in transcriptional activation. Our results provide insight into the multiple regulatory mechanisms that control PA metabolism by Myb-TFs in persimmon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-010-1241-7DOI Listing
October 2010

DkMyb4 is a Myb transcription factor involved in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in persimmon fruit.

Plant Physiol 2009 Dec 25;151(4):2028-45. Epub 2009 Sep 25.

Laboratory of Pomology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that contribute to the protection of the plant and also to the taste of the fruit, mainly through astringency. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is unique in being able to accumulate abundant PAs in the fruit flesh. Fruits of the nonastringent (NA)-type mutants lose their ability to produce PA at an early stage of fruit development, while those of the normal astringent (A) type remain rich in PA until fully ripened. The expression of many PA pathway genes was coincidentally terminated in the NA type at an early stage of fruit development. The five genes encoding the Myb transcription factor were isolated from an A-type cultivar (Kuramitsu). One of them, DkMyb4, showed an expression pattern synchronous to that of the PA pathway genes in A- and NA-type fruit flesh. The ectopic expression of DkMyb4 in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) induced PA biosynthesis but not anthocyanin biosynthesis. The suppression of DkMyb4 in persimmon calluses caused a substantial down-regulation of the PA pathway genes and PA biosynthesis. Furthermore, analysis of the DNA-binding ability of DkMyb4 showed that it directly binds to the MYBCORE cis-motif in the promoters of the some PA pathway genes. All our results indicate that DkMyb4 acts as a regulator of PA biosynthesis in persimmon and, therefore, suggest that the reduction in the DkMyb4 expression causes the NA-type-specific down-regulation of PA biosynthesis and resultant NA trait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.109.146985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2785967PMC
December 2009

Expression balances of structural genes in shikimate and flavonoid biosynthesis cause a difference in proanthocyanidin accumulation in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit.

Planta 2009 Oct 8;230(5):899-915. Epub 2009 Aug 8.

Laboratory of Pomology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Persimmon fruits accumulate a large amount of proanthocyanidin (PA) during development. Fruits of pollination-constant and non-astringent (PCNA) type mutants lose their ability to produce PA at an early stage of fruit development, while fruits of the normal (non-PCNA) type remain rich in PA until fully ripened. To understand the molecular mechanism for this difference, we isolated the genes involved in PA accumulation that are differentially expressed between PCNA and non-PCNA, and confirmed their correlation with PA content and composition. The expression of structural genes of the shikimate and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways and genes encoding transferases homologous to those involved in the accumulation of phenolic compounds were downregulated coincidentally only in the PCNA type. Analysis of PA composition using the phloroglucinol method suggested that the amounts of epigallocatechin and its 3-O-gallate form were remarkably low in the PCNA type. In the PCNA type, the genes encoding flavonoid 3'5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) for epigallocatechin biosynthesis showed remarkable downregulation, despite the continuous expression level of their competitive genes, flavonoid 3' hydroxylation (F3'H) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). We also confirmed that the relative expression levels of F3'5'H to F3'H, and ANR to LAR, were considerably higher, and the PA composition corresponded to the seasonal expression balances in both types. These results suggest that expressions of F3'5'H and ANR are important for PA accumulation in persimmon fruit. Lastly, we tested enzymatic activity of recombinant DkANR in vitro, which is thought to be an important enzyme for PA accumulation in persimmon fruits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-009-0991-6DOI Listing
October 2009

Molecular identification of 1-Cys peroxiredoxin and anthocyanidin/flavonol 3-O-galactosyltransferase from proanthocyanidin-rich young fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

Planta 2009 Sep 30;230(4):841-55. Epub 2009 Jul 30.

Laboratory of Pomology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) accumulate large amounts of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in the early stages of development. Astringent (A)-type fruits remain rich in soluble PAs even after they reach full-mature stage, whereas non-astringent (NA)-type fruits lose these compounds before full maturation. As a first step to elucidate the mechanism of PA accumulation in this non-model species, we used suppression subtractive hybridization to identify transcripts accumulating differently in young fruits of A- and NA-type. Interestingly, only a few clones involved in PA biosynthesis were identified in A-NA libraries. Represented by multiple clones were those encoding a novel 1-Cys peroxiredoxin and a new member of family 1 glycosyltransferases. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses confirmed correlation of the amount of PAs and accumulation of transcripts encoding these proteins in young persimmon fruits. Furthermore, the new family 1 glycosyltransferase was produced in Escherichia coli and shown to efficiently catalyze galactosylation at 3-hydroxyl groups of several anthocyanidins and flavonols. These findings suggest a complex mechanism of PA accumulation in persimmon fruits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-009-0989-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2729980PMC
September 2009

Differential expression of dehydrin in flower buds of two Japanese apricot cultivars requiring different chilling requirements for bud break.

Tree Physiol 2006 Dec;26(12):1559-63

Laboratory of Pomology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

In this study, we investigated seasonal changes in protein profiles in dormant flower buds of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Siebold Zucc.) cultivars 'Ellching', from subtropical Taiwan, and 'Nanko', from temperate Japan. One protein, isolated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of flower bud extracts, was shown by peptide sequencing to be a dehydrin (the group of D-11 LEA (late embryogenesis-abundant) proteins). Patterns of dehydrin protein and transcript accumulation differed between the cultivars, with greater accumulations and longer persistence in 'Nanko' than in 'Ellching'. These differences correspond with the greater requirement for chilling to break flower bud dormancy in 'Nanko' than in 'Ellching'. Our study supports the findings of earlier work comparing dehydrin expression in the bark tissue of the evergreen and deciduous peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) genotypes, and suggests that the role of dehydrin during the dormant season is common to all Prunus species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/26.12.1559DOI Listing
December 2006

Genomic distribution of three repetitive DNAs in cultivated hexaploid Diospyros spp. (D. kaki and D. virginiana) and their wild relatives.

Genes Genet Syst 2003 Aug;78(4):301-8

Laboratory of Pomology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

To understand the genomic organization of Diospyros species with different ploidy levels, we cloned three different repetitive DNAs and compared their genomic distributions in ten Diospyros species, including hexaploid D. kaki and D. virginiana. Genomic Southern hybridization demonstrated that the EcoRV-repetitive DNA was present in tandem in the genomes of D. glandulosa (2n=2x=30), D. oleifera (2n=2x=30), D. lotus (2n=2x=30), D. virginiana (2n=6x=90) and D. kaki (2n=6x=90). All of these species except D. virginiana also contained the HincII-repetitive DNA in tandem. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that the EcoRV- and HincII-repetitive DNAs were predominantly located at the proximal or centromeric regions of chromosomes. The DraI-repetitive sequence cloned from D. ehretioides (2n=2x=30) was not found in the other Diospyros species tested. This suggests that D. ehretioides has a genomic organization different from that of the other Diospyros species. Speciation of hexaploid Diospyros species is also discussed with respect to the genomic distribution of the three repetitive DNAs cloned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1266/ggs.78.301DOI Listing
August 2003
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