Publications by authors named "Keiichiro Tsunoda"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Early detection of cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease with a novel eye tracking test.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 3;427:117529. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan. Electronic address:

Due to an increasing number of dementia patients, the development of a rapid and sensitive method for cognitive assessment is awaited. Here, we examined the usefulness of a novel and short (3 min) eye tracking device to evaluate the cognitive function of normal control (NC, n = 52), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 52), and Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 70) subjects. Eye tracking total score declined significantly in MCI (**p < 0.01 vs NC) and AD (**p < 0.01 vs NC, p < 0.01 vs MCI), and correlated well with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score (r = 0.57, *p < 0.05). Furthermore, the eye tracking test, especially memory and deductive reasoning tasks, effectively discriminated NC, MCI and AD. The present novel eye tracking test clearly discriminated cognitive functions among NC, MCI, and AD subjects, thereby providing an advantage for the early detection of MCI and AD in screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117529DOI Listing
June 2021

The Efficacy of Sertraline, Escitalopram, and Nicergoline in the Treatment of Depression and Apathy in Alzheimer's Disease: The Okayama Depression and Apathy Project (ODAP).

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;76(2):769-772

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Kita-ku, Okayama, Japan.

Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia such as depression and apathy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with a lower quality of life.

Objective: We aimed to determine the efficacy of two antidepressants and one antipathy drug in the treatment of depression and apathy in AD patients.

Methods: In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of sertraline (n = 11; average dose = 31.8 mg), escitalopram (n = 13; average dose = 7.3 mg), and nicergoline (n = 9; average dose = 14.5 mg) in treating depression and apathy over a period of 3 months (M).The 33 patients with AD demonstrated high Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) (>5) or a high Apathy Scale (AS) (>16) scores.

Results: The patients receiving escitalopram treatment showed a significant improvement in GDS score from baseline (8.2±3.5) to 3 M (5.7±2.6, p = 0.04), and the patients receiving sertraline treatment showed a significant improvement in AS score from baseline (20.8±5.2) to 3 M (16.8±6.1, p = 0.05); however, no significant changes were noted in patients receiving nicergoline.

Conclusion: These results provide novel information on the efficacy of sertraline and escitalopram in the treatment of apathy and depression, respectively, in patients with AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200247DOI Listing
May 2021

Neuroprotective effect of CuATSM in mice stroke model by ameliorating oxidative stress.

Neurosci Res 2021 May 24;166:55-61. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

Cu-diacetyl-bis (N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (CuATSM) has both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities, but its therapeutic efficacy for oxidative stress has not been thoroughly investigated in acute ischemic stroke. Here, the present study was designed to assess the efficacies of CuATSM in acute ischemic stroke by comparing with the standard neuroprotective reagent edaravone. Mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAO) for 60 min, and then intravenously administrated with CuATSM (1.5 mg/kg) or edaravone (3 mg/kg) just after the reperfusion, and examined at 1 and 3 d. Compared with the vehicle group, CuATSM treatment decreased infarct volumes and oxidative stress at 3d after tMCAO, which was further enhanced by combined CuATSM + edaravone treatment as compared with single CuATSM group, but not improve neurobehaviors. The present study demonstrated that CuATSM showed strong antioxidative and neuroprotective effects in acute ischemic stroke, which was enhanced by the combination with edaravone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2020.05.009DOI Listing
May 2021

Improvement of a decreased anti-oxidative activity by edaravone in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Aug 15;415:116906. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: The free radical scavenger edaravone is a proven neuroprotective drug for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our objective was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of edaravone for oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity in ALS patients.

Methods: Twenty-two ALS patients with a disease duration of 2 years, treated by edaravone, and 25 control participants were evaluated according to their clinical scores, including ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R), and serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of oxidative stress dROM and anti-oxidative activity OXY.

Results: Serum and CSF markers of anti-oxidative activity OXY were significantly decreased in ALS patients at pre-treatment compared with controls (p < .01), which was improved in the course of edaravone treatment. Both serum and CSF OXY were significantly correlated with ALS clinical scores including ALSFRS-R (*p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001). Furthermore, serum OXY at pre-treatment was significantly correlated with a change in the ALSFRS-R score in the sixth cycle of edaravone treatment (*p < .05).

Conclusions: The present study suggests significant correlations between anti-oxidative activity and ALS clinical severity, and the therapeutic efficacy of edaravone for decreased anti-oxidative activity in ALS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116906DOI Listing
August 2020

Antioxidative effects of a novel dietary supplement Neumentix in a mouse stroke model.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Aug 19;29(8):104818. Epub 2020 May 19.

Departments of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Dentistry and Pharmacy, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama Okayama Japan. Electronic address:

Background: During an acute stroke, reactive oxygen species are overproduced and the endogenous antioxidative defense systems are disrupted. Therefore, antioxidative therapy can be a promising scheme to reduce the severity of stroke. Neumentix is a novel antioxidative supplement produced from a patented mint line and contains a high content of rosmarinic acid (RA). Although Neumentix has proven diverse efficacy and safety in clinical trials, its effect on strokes is unclear.

Methods: Mice that were treated with Neumentix or vehicle for 14 days underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 60 min. Mice were sacrificed 5 days after tMCAO.

Results: Neumentix preserved body weight after tMCAO, showed a high antioxidative effect in serum, and reduced infarction volume compared to the vehicle. The expression of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine was reduced in Neumentix-treated mice.

Conclusion: The antioxidative effect of Neumentix was confirmed. This is the first report to demonstrate the antioxidative effect of Neumentix on strokes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104818DOI Listing
August 2020

A Polyphenolic Complex Attenuates Inflammatory Response and Blood- Brain Barrier Disruption.

Curr Neurovasc Res 2020 ;17(3):286-293

Department of Neurology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Background: Cerebral ischemia causes a strong inflammatory response. Neumentix is a dietary supplement containing 14.9% rosmarinic acid and 29.9% total phenolic content, which has been proved to be beneficial against inflammatory response. Therefore, Neumentix's effect on anti-inflammatory and blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model mice is investigated in this study.

Methods: After the pretreatment of vehicle or Neumentix 134 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) (containing rosmarinic acid 20 mg/kg/d) for 14 days, mice were subjected to tMCAO for 60 min and kept receiving vehicle or Neumentix daily 5 days afterward.

Results: Neumentix treatment ameliorated neurobehavioral impairment in the corner test (5d after tMCAO, **P<0.01), reduced infarct volume (#P<0.05), suppressed expression of ionized calciumbinding adapter molecule-1 (Iba-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (###P<0.001), and improved the integrity of BBB (§P<0.05) at 5 days after tMCAO.

Conclusion: The present study provided an evidence of Neumentix's anti-inflammatory and neuroprotection effect against BBB disruption on experimental tMCAO model mice, suggesting that Neumentix could be a potential therapeutic agent for stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567202617666200517105727DOI Listing
January 2020

Up-regulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors and sphingosine kinase 1 in the peri-ischemic area after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

Brain Res 2020 07 9;1739:146831. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Departments of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Japan.

There is thought to be a strong relationship between sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling and pathophysiolosy of cerebral ischemia. We examined the change of expression and distribution of S1P receptors (S1PRs) and sphingosine kinases (SphKs) after cerebral ischemia in male C57BL6/J mice using immunohistochemical analysis at 1, 5, 14, and 28 days after 30 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). S1PR1, 3, and 5 were transiently induced in the cells, which were morphologically similar to neurons in the peri-infarct lesion with a peak seen at 1 day after tMCAO (p < 0.01 vs. sham control). S1PR2 appeared in the inner layer of vessels in the ischemic core (p < 0.01 vs. sham control) and the peri-infarct lesion (p < 0.01 vs. sham control) at the acute phase after tMCAO. However, SphK1 was strongly induced at 1 and 5 days after tMCAO (p < 0.01 vs. sham control) in the peri-infarct lesion, whereas SphK2 expression did not change. Western blot analysis at 1 and 5 days after 30 min of tMCAO revealed that the expression of S1PRs were transiently enhanced at the acute phase, which was consistent with the immunohistochemical results. Double immunofluorescent analysis revealed S1PR2/NG2- and S1PR2/CD31-, S1PR3/CD31-, and S1PR5/CD31-double positive cells in the peri-infarct lesion 1 day after tMCAO. The present results suggest that S1PRs and SphK1 may be important therapeutic targets for rescuing the peri-infarct lesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2020.146831DOI Listing
July 2020

Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Transplantation Drives Molecular Switch from Autophagy to the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Ischemic Stroke Mice.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 May 1;29(5):104743. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Department of Neurology, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-ku, Okayama Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach for cerebral ischemia, as it elicits multiple neuroprotective effects. However, it remains unclear how BMSC transplantation modulates the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy under cerebral ischemia.

Methods: In the present study, an intermediate level of cerebral ischemia (30 minutes) was chosen to examine the effect of BMSC transplantation on the molecular switch regulating UPS and autophagy. BMSC or vehicle was stereotactically injected into the penumbra 15 minutes after sham operation or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO).

Results: Thirty minutes of tMCAO artery occlusion significantly increased TUNEL-, ubiquitin-, and p62-positive cells (which peaked at 72 hours, 2 hours, and 2 hours after reperfusion, respectively) and ratios of both BAG3/BAG1 and LC3-II/LC3-I at 24 hours after reperfusion. However, intracerebral injection of BMSCs significantly reduced infarct volume and numbers of TUNEL- and p62-positive cells, and improved BAG3/BAG1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratios. In addition, observed increases in ubiquitin-positive cells 2 hours after reperfusion were slightly suppressed by BMSC transplantation.

Conclusions: These data suggest a protective role of BMSC transplantation, which drove the molecular switch from autophagy to UPS in a murine model of ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104743DOI Listing
May 2020

Early Emergence of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Cognitively Normal Subjects and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;73(1):209-215

Department of Neurology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

The world is rapidly aging and facing an increase in the number of dementia patients, so it is important to detect the preclinical stage of dementia in such countries. We examined both cognitive and affective functions among cognitively normal control (n = 218), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 146), and Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 305) subjects using two evaluation tools for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) [Abe's BPSD score (ABS) and mild behavioral impairment (MBI)]. BPSD were present in 12.4% (ABS) and 9.6% (MBI) of cognitively normal people, 34.9% and 32.2% in MCI subjects, and 66.2% and 51.1% in AD patients. Both ABS (§p<0.05) and MBI (§§p < 0.01) score showed worse score with cognitive decline of the Mini-Mental State Examination in the AD group in BPSD-positive participants. Similar correlations were found in all participants in AD group (||||p < 0.01 versus ABS and MBI). Among the subscales in BPSD-positive participants, an apathy/indifference score of ABS and a decreased motivation of MBI showed significant differences in AD patients compared to the control and MCI subjects (**p<0.01). In addition, subscale analyses further showed a downward trend from the control to MCI and AD subjects in four ABS subscales and three MBI subscales. The present study showed the preclinical presence of BPSD in cognitively normal people, more so in MCI subjects, and ABS detected BPSD more sensitively than MBI in all three groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-190669DOI Listing
April 2021

Female dominant association of sarcopenia and physical frailty in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

J Clin Neurosci 2019 Dec 20;70:96-101. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

Associations of sarcopenia and physical frailty in cognitive and affective (depression, apathy, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia) functions of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) were not fully evaluated previously, especially not for gender differences. 165 AD, 84 MCI, and 48 control participants (175 female, 122 male) were evaluated for cognitive, affective, activities of daily living (ADL), and physical functions associated with sarcopenia and physical frailty. In both sexes, cognitive and affective functions, ADL, and physical functions worsened in MCI and AD compared to control subjects. Physical dysfunctions, especially slow gait speed (3 m up and go test), were significantly associated with cognitive, affective, and ADL declines in participants (control subjects, MCI, and AD) of each gender, which were especially noticeable in females. The present study may be the first to suggest significant associations of sarcopenia and physical frailty with cognitive and affective functions of MCI and AD, especially in females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2019.08.062DOI Listing
December 2019

Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion alters amyloid-β transport related proteins in the cortical blood vessels of Alzheimer's disease model mouse.

Brain Res 2019 11 12;1723:146379. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

Abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide defines progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in brain. Here, we investigated expressive changes of two main Aβ transport receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-1 (LRP1) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in a novel AD mice (APP23) with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) model, moreover, examined a protective effect of a free radical scavenger edaravone (Eda). In contrast to wild type (WT) and APP23 mice, CCH strongly accelerated abnormal Aβ40 depositions and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) pathology, increased both LRP1 and RAGE expressions in brain parenchyma, while a decrease of LRP1 and an increase of RAGE were observed in vascular endothelial cells at age 12 months (M) of AD mice. Furthermore, CCH strongly increased expressions of two hypoxia-related proteins hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), two oxidative-related proteins 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and decreased both two vital nutrient transporter proteins major facilitator super family domain containing 2a (Mfsd2a) and glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) expressions. Such the above abnormal pathological changes were significantly ameliorated by edaravone treatment. The present study demonstrated that CCH strongly enhanced primary AD pathology causing double imbalances of Aβ efflux and influx transport related proteins in the cortical blood vessels in AD mice, and that such a neuropathologic abnormality was greatly ameliorated by Eda.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.146379DOI Listing
November 2019

Clinical and Pathological Benefits of Edaravone for Alzheimer's Disease with Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion in a Novel Mouse Model.

J Alzheimers Dis 2019 ;71(1):327-339

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Kitaku, Okayama, Japan.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) often coexist in dementia patients in aging societies. The hallmarks of AD including amyloid-β (Aβ)/phosphorylated tau (pTau) and pathology-related events such as neural oxidative stress and neuroinflammation play critical roles in pathogenesis of AD with CCH. A large number of lessons from failures of drugs targeting a single target or pathway on this so complicated disease indicate that disease-modifying therapies targeting multiple key pathways hold potent potential in therapy of the disease. In the present study, we used a novel mouse model of AD with CCH to investigate a potential therapeutic effect of a free radical scavenger, Edaravone (EDA) on AD with CCH via examining motor and cognitive capacity, AD hallmarks, neural oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Compared with AD with CCH mice at 12 months of age, EDA significantly improved motor and cognitive deficits, attenuated neuronal loss, reduced Aβ/pTau accumulation, and alleviated neural oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. These findings suggest that EDA possesses clinical and pathological benefits for AD with CCH in the present mouse model and has a potential as a therapeutic agent for AD with CCH via targeting multiple key pathways of the disease pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-190369DOI Listing
October 2020

Imaging Hypoxic Stress and the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with Dimethyloxalylglycine in a Mice Model.

Neuroscience 2019 09 22;415:31-43. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a key transcription factor that maintains oxygen homeostasis. Hypoxic stress is related to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and impaired HIF-1α induces motor neuron degeneration in ALS. Dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) upregulates the stability of HIF-1α expression and shows neuroprotective effects, but has not been used in ALS as an anti-hypoxic stress treatment. In the present study, we investigated hypoxic stress in ALS model mice bearing G93A-human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase by in vivo HIF-1α imaging, and treated the ALS mice with DMOG. In vivo HIF-1α imaging analysis showed enhanced hypoxic stress in both the spinal cord and muscles of lower limbs of ALS mice, even at the pre-symptomatic stage. HIF-1α expression decreased as the disease progressed until 126 days of age. DMOG treatment significantly ameliorated the decrease in HIF-1α expression, the degeneration of both spinal motor neurons and myofibers in lower limbs, gliosis and apoptosis in the spinal cord. This was accompanied by prolonged survival. The present study suggests that in vivo bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) HIF-1α imaging is useful for evaluating hypoxic stress in ALS, and that the enhancement of HIF-1α is a therapeutic target for ALS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.06.025DOI Listing
September 2019

A Rare Case of Klinefelter Syndrome Accompanied by Spastic Paraplegia and Peripheral Neuropathy.

Intern Med 2019 Feb 12;58(3):437-440. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Japan.

Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal disorder with a typical karyotype of 47, XXY, accompanied by various neurological symptoms. We herein report the first case of Klinefelter syndrome with a rare mosaic form of 47, XXY and 48, XXXY, combined with both spastic paraplegia and peripheral motor neuropathy. This case showed spasticity and hyperreflexia with pathological reflexes and ankle clonus as well as muscle weakness in all extremities. A motor nerve conduction study and the magnetic motor evoked potential suggested motor axonal neuropathy and corticospinal tract disorders. The present case suggests that Klinefelter syndrome can present with both upper and lower motor neuron degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.1048-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395141PMC
February 2019

Behavioral and affective features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

J Neurol Sci 2017 Oct 18;381:119-125. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

Evaluating the cognitive and behavioral features in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients is important for therapy and care. Fifty-seven ALS, 5 ALS with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (ALS-FTD), 12 FTD patients, and 35 control subjects were evaluated by 10 different tests for cognitive and behavioral (mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Hasegawa dementia rating scale - revised (HDS-R), frontal assessment battery (FAB), Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA), ALS-frontotemporal dementia-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q), and anosognosia scale), affective (depression, apathy, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)), and activities of daily living (ADL) assessments. The motor functions of ALS patients were evaluated by ALS functional rating scale - revised (ALSFRS-R) and modified Norris scale. ALS-FTD-Q scores showed intermediate behavioral disturbances of ALS patients between ALS-FTD and FTD patients and control subjects, but FAB, MoCA, and anosognosia scales did not. Both FAB and MoCA scores were significantly correlated with MMSE and HDS-R in ALS patients, but ALS-FTD-Q was not. ALS-FTD-Q score was significantly correlated with ALSFRS-R, apathy, BPSD, and ADL scores in ALS patients. Thus, in ALS patients, both FAB and MoCA tests were useful to assess frontal cognitive impairments, while ALS-FTD-Q was useful to detect mild behavioral and affective disturbances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2017.08.024DOI Listing
October 2017

A migration case of Kii amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex with the shortest stay in the endemic area and the longest incubation to develop the disease.

J Clin Neurosci 2017 Dec 7;46:64-67. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Department of Neurology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC) is an endemic disease observed in the Kii peninsula, Guam, and Papua. We report a case of a 76-year old man with ALS/PDC of the Kii peninsula of Japan (Kii ALS/PDC). The patient was born and grew up in the Kii peninsula. He moved out at age three, and developed symptoms 73years later. He showed pyramidal sign, parkinsonian symptoms, and mildly impaired cognitive function. I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy showed decreased cardiac sympathetic nerve function, and dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography imaging showed decreased I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane accumulation. Cerebral blood flow showed hypoperfusion. Positron emission tomography showed widespread tau deposition in his brain. This is a migration case of Kii ALS/PDC with the shortest stay in the endemic area and the longest delay to develop the disease, indicating a genetic factor for the disease development in a considerable degree.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2017.08.057DOI Listing
December 2017

Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids (CLIPPERS) with Limbic Encephalitis.

Intern Med 2017 Sep 21;56(18):2513-2518. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Japan.

Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is an inflammatory central nervous system disorder that mainly involves in the brainstem, basal ganglia and cerebellum. We herein report the case of a patient with CLIPPERS, which was diagnosed based on the clinical and radiological features. After initially responded to steroid treatment, the patient developed limbic encephalitis. The patient presented with memory disturbance, a delirious state and emotional incontinence. A cerebrospinal fluid study revealed interleukin-6 elevation and enhanced bilateral hippocampal lesions were observed on MRI. The patient was successfully treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. This is the first case of CLIPPERS with limbic encephalitis involving the bilateral hippocampus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.8533-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5643184PMC
September 2017

Successful Delayed Aortic Surgery for a Patient with Ischemic Stroke Secondary to Aortic Dissection.

Intern Med 2017 Sep 10;56(17):2343-2346. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

Departments of Neurology, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama University, Japan.

The diagnosis of aortic dissection (AD) is sometimes difficult within the limited time window of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for ischemic stroke (IS). A 60-year-old man developed sudden left hemiparesis due to IS. During tPA infusion, his blood pressure dropped and consciousness declined. After transfer to our hospital, carotid duplex ultrasonography led to a diagnosis of AD. Emergency surgery was postponed because of the risk of hemorrhagic transformation. The patient successfully underwent aortic surgery on day 5 and was discharged with a remarkable improvement in his symptoms. Delayed surgery may avoid hemorrhagic transformation in patients with AD-induced IS who have received tPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.8438-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5635312PMC
September 2017

A patient with slowly progressive adult-onset nemaline myopathy and novel compound heterozygous mutations in the nebulin gene.

J Neurol Sci 2017 Feb 30;373:254-257. Epub 2016 Dec 30.

Department of Neurology, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2016.12.069DOI Listing
February 2017

Potential multisystem degeneration in Asidan patients.

J Neurol Sci 2017 Feb 4;373:216-222. Epub 2017 Jan 4.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate a potential multisystem involvement of neurodegeneration in Asidan, in addition to cerebellar ataxia and signs of motor neuron disease.

Methods: We compared the new Asidan patients and those identified in previous studies with Parkinson's disease (PD, n=21), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, n=13) patients using I-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane (I-FP-CIT) dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) and I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy (Asidan, DAT: n=10; MIBG: n=15).

Results: Both the PD and PSP groups served as positive controls for DAT decline. The PD and PSP groups served as a positive and negative control, respectively, of MIBG decline in the early phase H/M ratio. Of the Asidan patients, 60.0% showed DAT decline without evident parkinsonian features and 6.7% showed impaired MIBG in only the delayed phase H/M ratio. Combined with a normal range of the early phase H/M ratio, this phenotype was newly named Declined DAT Without Evident Parkinsonism (DWEP).

Interpretation: The results of present study including DWEP suggest a wider spectrum of neurodegeneration for extrapyramidal and autonomic systems in Asidan patients than expected, involving cerebellar, motor system and cognitive functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2017.01.003DOI Listing
February 2017

A case of very long longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) with necrotizing Vasculitis.

J Neurol Sci 2017 Feb 23;373:152-154. Epub 2016 Dec 23.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2016.12.040DOI Listing
February 2017

Marked hypertriglyceridemia induced by interferon-β1a therapy in a clinically isolated syndrome patient.

J Neurol Sci 2017 Feb 27;373:144-146. Epub 2016 Dec 27.

Department of Neurology, Rheumatology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2016.12.052DOI Listing
February 2017

An AOA2 patient with a novel compound heterozygous SETX frame shift mutations.

J Neurol Sci 2017 Jan 30;372:294-296. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2016.11.074DOI Listing
January 2017
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