Publications by authors named "Keefai Yeong"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Changes in Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Surgery for Hip Fractures Following the Initiation of Orthogeriatric Service: Temporal Trend Analysis.

Calcif Tissue Int 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX, Surrey, UK.

The Blue Book published by the British Orthopaedic Association and British Geriatrics Society, together with the introduction of National Hip Fracture Database Audit and Best Practice Tariff, have been influential in improving hip fracture care. We examined ten-year (2009-2019) changes in hip fracture outcomes after establishing an orthogeriatric service based on these initiatives, in 1081 men and 2891 women (mean age = 83.5 ± 9.1 years). Temporal trends in the annual percentage change (APC) of outcomes were identified using the Joinpoint Regression Program v4.7.0.0. The proportions of patients operated beyond 36 h of admission fell sharply during the first two years: APC =  - 53.7% (95% CI - 68.3, - 5.2, P = 0.003), followed by a small rise thereafter: APC = 5.8% (95% CI 0.5, 11.3, P = 0.036). Hip surgery increased progressively in patients > 90 years old: APC = 3.3 (95% CI 1.0, 5.8, P = 0.011) and those with American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade ≥ 3: APC = 12.4 (95% CI 8.8, 16.1, P < 0.001). There was a significant decline in pressure ulcers amongst patients < 90 years old: APC =  - 17.9 (95% CI - 32.7, 0.0, P = 0.050) and also a significant decline in mortality amongst those > 90 years old: APC =  - 7.1 (95% CI - 12.6, - 1.3, P = 0.024). Prolonged length of stay (> 23 days) declined from 2013: APC =  - 24.6% (95% CI - 31.2, - 17.4, P < 0.001). New discharge to nursing care declined moderately over 2009-2016 (APC =  - 10.6, 95% CI - 17.2, - 2.7, P = 0.017) and sharply thereafter (APC =  - 47.5%, 95%CI - 71.7, - 2.7, P = 0.043). The rate of patients returning home was decreasing (APC =  - 2.9, 95% CI - 5.1, - 0.7, P = 0.016), whilst new discharge to rehabilitation was increasing (APC = 8.4, 95% CI 4.0, 13.0; P = 0.002). In conclusion, the establishment of an orthogeriatric service was associated with a reduction of elapsed time to hip surgery, a progressive increase in surgery carried out on high-risk adults and a decline in adverse outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-021-00906-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Increased Association With Malnutrition and Malnourishment in Older Adults Admitted With Hip Fractures Who Have Cognitive Impairment and Delirium, as Assessed by 4AT.

Nutr Clin Pract 2021 Oct 23;36(5):1053-1058. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: The Royal College of Physicians recently introduced the 4AT (Alertness, Abbreviated Mental Test-4, Attention, and Acute change or fluctuating course) for screening cognitive impairment and delirium. Here, we examined the association of the 4AT with nutrition status in patients admitted to a hospital with hip fractures between January 1, 2016, and June 6, 2019.

Methods: Nutrition status was assessed using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and the 4AT was assessed within 1 day after hip surgery. χ Tests and logistic regression were conducted to assess the association of nutrition status with 4AT scores, adjusted for age and sex.

Results: From 1082 patients aged 60-103 years, categorized into 4AT scores of 0, 1-3, or ≥4, the prevalence of malnutrition risk was 15.5%, 27.3%, and 39.6% and malnourishment was 4.1%, 13.2%, and 11.3%, respectively. Compared with the 4AT = 0 cohort, a 4AT score = 1-3 was associated with an increased malnutrition risk (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.1) or malnourishment (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.1-6.3). For a 4AT score ≥4, corresponding ORs were 4.0 (95% CI, 2.8-5.9) and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.9-6.8). Overall, there was a significant positive association: as 4AT scores increased, so did malnutrition risk.

Conclusions: Among older adults admitted with hip fractures, high 4AT scores, which are suggestive of cognitive impairment and delirium, identified patients at increased malnutrition risk. These findings lend further support for the use of 4AT to identify patients who are at increased health risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ncp.10614DOI Listing
October 2021

Clinical outcomes in patients admitted to hospital with cervical spine fractures or with hip fractures.

Intern Emerg Med 2021 Aug 26;16(5):1207-1213. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX, Surrey, UK.

Patients admitted with a cervical fracture are twice as likely to die within 30 days of injury than those with a hip fracture. However, guidelines for the management of cervical fractures are less available than for hip fractures. We hypothesise that outcomes may differ between these types of fractures. We analysed 1359 patients (406 men, 953 women) with mean age of 83.8 years (standard deviation = 8.7) admitted to a National Health Service hospital in 2013-2019 with a cervical (7.5%) or hip fracture (92.5%) of similar age. The association of cervical fracture (hip fracture as reference), hospital length of stay (LOS), co-morbidities, age and sex with outcomes (acute delirium, new pressure ulcer, and discharge to residential/nursing care) was assessed by stepwise multivariate logistic regression. Acute delirium without history of dementia was increased with cervical fractures: odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-4.7, age ≥ 80 years: OR = 3.5 (95% CI = 1.9-6.4), history of stroke: OR = 1.8 (95% CI = 1.0-3.1) and ischaemic heart disease: OR = 1.9 (95% CI = 1.1-3.6); pressure ulcers was increased with cervical fractures: OR = 10.9 (95% CI = 5.3-22.7), LOS of 2-3 weeks: OR = 3.0 (95% CI = 1.2-7.5) and LOS of ≥ 3 weeks: OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 2.2-11.0; and discharge to residential/nursing care was increased with cervical fractures: OR = 3.2 (95% CI = 1.4-7.0), LOS of ≥ 3 weeks: OR = 4.4 (95% CI = 2.5-7.6), dementia: OR = 2.7 (95% CI = 1.6-4.7), Parkinson's disease: OR = 3.4 (95% CI = 1.3-8.8), and age ≥ 80 years: OR = 2.7 (95% CI = 1.3-5.6). In conclusion, compared with hip fracture, cervical fracture is more likely to associate with acute delirium and pressure ulcers, and for discharge to residency of high level of care, independent of established risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-020-02567-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310478PMC
August 2021

Prevalence and consequences of malnutrition and malnourishment in older individuals admitted to hospital with a hip fracture.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 04 7;75(4):645-652. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TD, UK.

Background/objectives: Major causes of hip fractures are osteoporosis and falls, both of which are determined by nutrition. Information on the nutritional status of patients admitted to hospital with a hip fracture is lacking. In this study, we assessed determinants and adverse outcomes associated with malnutrition and malnourishment.

Methods: Nutritional status, assessed using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool protocol, was compared to age and residency prior to admission, and outcomes during hospital stay and at discharge.

Results: A total of 1239 patients admitted with a hip fracture (349 men, 890 women), aged 60-100 years. Compared with well-nourished individuals, the prevalences of malnutrition risk or malnourishment were higher in older age groups and those from residential or nursing care. Those with risk of malnutrition or malnourishment stayed in hospital longer by 3.0 days (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-4.5 days; p < 0.001) and 3.1 days (95% CI, 0.7-5.5 days; p = 0.011), respectively. Compared with the well-nourished group, malnourished individuals had increased: (1) risk for failure to mobilise within 1 day of surgery (rates = 17.9 versus 27.0%; odds ratio (OR) = 1.6 (95% CI, 1.0-2.7), p = 0.045); (2) pressure ulcers (rates = 1.0% versus 5.0%; OR = 5.5 (95% CI, 1.8-17.1), p = 0.006); (3) in-patient mortality (rates = 4.5% versus 10.1%; OR = 2.3 (95% CI, 1.1-4.8) p = 0.033) and (4) discharge to residential/nursing care: rates = 4.3% versus 11.1%; OR = 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.6), p = 0.022.

Conclusions: Inadequate nutrition is common in patients admitted to hospital with a hip fracture, which in turn predisposes them to a number of complications. More research on nutritional support should be directed to this group to prevent or minimise hip fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-00774-5DOI Listing
April 2021

The Ability of the Nottingham Hip Fracture Score to Predict Mobility, Length of Stay and Mortality in Hospital, and Discharge Destination in Patients Admitted with a Hip Fracture.

Calcif Tissue Int 2020 10 11;107(4):319-326. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, UK.

The Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS) has been developed for predicting 30-day and 1-year mortality after hip fracture. We hypothesise that NHFS may also predict other adverse events. Data from 666 patients (190 men, 476 women), aged 60.2-103.4 years, admitted with a hip fracture to a single centre from 1/10/2015 and 7/12/2017 were analysed. The ability of NHFS to predict mobility within 1 day after surgery, length of stay (LOS) find mortality, and discharge destination was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves and two-graph plots. The area under the curve (95% confidence interval [CI]) for predicting mortality was 67.4% (58.4-76.4%), prolonged LOS was 59.0% (54.0-64.0%), discharge to residential/nursing care was 62.3% (54.0-71.5%), and any two of failure to mobilise, prolonged LOS or discharge to residential/nursing care was 64.8% (59.0-70.6%). NHFS thresholds at 4 and 7 corresponding to the lower and upper limits of intermediate range where sensitivity and specificity equal 90% were identified for mortality and prolonged LOS, and 4 and 6 for discharge to residential/nursing care, which were used to create three risk categories. Compared with the low risk group (NHFS = 0-4), the high risk group (NHFS = 7-10 or 6-10) had increased risk of in-patient mortality: rates = 2.0% versus 7.1%, OR (95% CI) = 3.8 (1.5-9.9), failure to mobilise within 1 day of surgery: rates = 18.9% versus 28.3%, OR = 1.7 (1.0-2.8), prolonged LOS (> 17 days): rates = 20.3% versus 33.9%, OR = 2.2 (1.3-3.3), discharge to residential/nursing care: rates = 4.5% vs 12.3%, OR = 3.0 (1.4-6.4), and any two of failure to mobilise, prolonged LOS or discharge to residential/nursing care: rates = 10.5% versus 28.6%, 3.4 (95% CI 1.9-6.0), and stayed 4.1 days (1.5-6.7 days) longer in hospital. High NHFS associates with increased risk of mortality, prolonged LOS and discharge to residential/nursing care, lending further support for its use to identify adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-020-00722-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497295PMC
October 2020

Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers and obstructive sleep apnea: Two underrecognized causes of nocturia?

Neurourol Urodyn 2020 06 21;39(5):1612-1614. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Ashford and St. Peter's Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Chertsey, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.24359DOI Listing
June 2020

Associations of 4AT with mobility, length of stay and mortality in hospital and discharge destination among patients admitted with hip fractures.

Age Ageing 2020 04;49(3):411-417

Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Royal Holloway, University of London, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK.

Background: the 4AT (Alertness, Abbreviated Mental Test-4, Attention and Acute change or fluctuating course), a tool to screen cognitive impairment and delirium, has recently been recommended by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. We examined its ability to predict health outcomes among patients admitted with hip fractures to a single hospital between January 2018 and June 2019.

Methods: the 4AT was performed within 1 day after hip surgery. A 4AT score of 0 means unlikely delirium or severe cognitive impairment (reference group); a score of 1-3 suggests possible chronic cognitive impairment, without excluding possibility of delirium; a score ≥ 4 suggests delirium with or without chronic cognitive impairment. Logistic regression, adjusted for: age; sex; nutritional status; co-morbidities; polypharmacy; and anticholinergic burden, used the 4AT to predict mobility, length of stay (LOS), mortality and discharge destination, compared with the reference group.

Results: from 537 (392 women, 145 men: mean = 83.7 ± standard deviation [SD] = 8.8 years) consecutive patients, 522 completed the 4AT; 132 (25%) had prolonged LOS (>2 weeks) and 36 (6.8%) died in hospital. Risk of failure to mobilise within 1 day of surgery was increased with a 4AT score ≥ 4 (OR = 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-4.3). Prolonged LOS was increased with 4AT scores of 1-3 (OR = 2.4, 95%CI = 1.4-4.1) or ≥4 (OR = 3.1, 95%CI = 1.9-6.7). In-patient mortality was increased with a 4AT score ≥ 4 (OR = 3.1, 95%CI = 1.2-8.2) but not with a 4AT score of 1-3. Change of residence on discharge was increased with a 4AT score ≥ 4 (OR = 3.1, 95%CI = 1.4-6.8). These associations persisted after excluding patients with dementia. 4AT score = 1-3 and ≥ 4 associated with increased LOS by 3 and 6 days, respectively.

Conclusions: for older adults with hip fracture, the 4AT independently predicts immobility, prolonged LOS, death in hospital and change in residence on discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afz161DOI Listing
April 2020

Predictive model of length of stay in hospital among older patients.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2019 Jul 6;31(7):993-999. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, UK.

Background: Most National Health Service (NHS) hospital bed occupants are older patients because of their frequent admissions and prolonged length of stay (LOS). We evaluated demographic and clinical factors as predictors of LOS in a single NHS Trust and derived an equation to estimate LOS.

Methods: Stepwise logistic and linear regressions were used to predict prolonged LOS (upper-quintile LOS > 17 days) and LOS respectively, from demographic factors and acute and pre-existing conditions.

Results: Of 374 (men:women = 127:247) admitted patients (20% to orthogeriatric, 69% to general medical and 11% to surgical wards), median age of 85 years (IQR = 78-90), 77 had acute first hip fracture; 297 had previous hip fracture (median time since previous fracture = 2.4 years) and 21 (7.1%) had recurrent hip fracture, with median time since first fracture = 2.4 years. Median LOS was 6.5 days (IQR = 1.8-14.8), and 38 (10.2%) died after 4.8 days (IQR = 1.6-14.3). Prolonged LOS was associated with discharge to places other than usual residence: OR = 3.1 (95% CI 1.7-5.7), acute stroke: OR = 10.1 (3.7-26.7), acute first hip fractures: OR = 6.8 (3.1-14.8), recurrent hip fractures: OR = 9.5 (3.2-28.7), urinary tract infection/pneumonia: OR = 4.0 (2.1-8.0), other acute fractures: OR = 9.8 (3.0-32.3) and malignancy: OR = 15.0 (3.1-71.8). Predictive equation showed estimated LOS was 11.6 days for discharge to places other than usual residence, 15 days for pre-existing or acute stroke, 9-14 days for acute and recurrent hip fractures, infections, other acute fractures and malignancy; these factors together explained 32% of variability in LOS.

Conclusions: A useful estimate of outcome and LOS can be made by constructing a predictive equation from information on hospital admission, to provide evidence-based guidance for resource requirements and discharge planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-018-1033-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6589144PMC
July 2019

Improving consent in patients undergoing surgery for fractured neck of femur.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2018 May;79(5):284-287

Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Ashford and St Peter's Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Chertsey, Surrey KT16 0QA.

Background Neck of femur fractures and their subsequent operative fixation are associated with high rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Consenting in this setting is suboptimal with the Montgomery court ruling changing the perspective of consent. This quality improvement project assessed the adequacy of consenting against British Orthopaedic Association-endorsed guidance and implemented a series of changes to improve the documentation of risks associated with surgery for fractured neck of femur. Methods Seventy consecutive patients who underwent any operative fixation of a neck of femur fracture were included over a 6-month period at a single centre. Patients unable to consent or without electronic notes were excluded. Consent forms were analysed and the documented potential risks or complications associated with surgery were compared to British Orthopaedic Association-endorsed guidance. A series of changes (using the plan, do study, act (PDSA) approach) was implemented to improve the adequacy of consent. Results Documentation of four out of 12 potential risks or complications was recorded in <50% of cases for patients with intracapsular fractures (n=35), and documentation of seven out of 12 potential risks or complications was recorded in <50% of cases for patients with extracapsular fractures (n=35). Re-audit following raising awareness and attaching consent guidance showed 100% documentation of potential risks or complications in patients with intracapsular and extracapsular fractures (n=70). A neck of femur fracture-specific consent form has been implemented which will hopefully lead to sustained improvement. Conclusions Consenting patients with fractured neck of femur for surgery in the authors' unit was suboptimal when compared to British Orthopaedic Association-endorsed consent guidance. This project has shown that ensuring such guidance is readily available has improved the adequacy of consent. The authors hope that introduction of a neck of femur fracture-specific consent form within their unit will lead to sustained adequate documentation of risks associated with surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2018.79.5.284DOI Listing
May 2018

Home is where our journey begins - getting more patients home after a hip fracture with an orthopaedic supportive discharge team.

Future Healthc J 2017 Jun;4(2):131-133

Ashford and St Peter's NHS Foundation Trust, Chertsey, UK.

Hip fracture (neck of femur fracture (NOF)) patients spend a significant amount of time in hospitals, recuperating after the acute event and undergoing rehabilitation. This model of care increases the risk of institutionalisation and may lead to hospital-related harm. An orthopaedic supportive discharge team was set up using a £90,000 grant from the Ashford and St Peter's NHS Foundation Trust's Innovation Fund and care was improved using plan-do-study-act cycles. The team was operational from the 1 March 2014 with the capacity to support eight patients. Engagement meetings were held with patients, GPs and community partners. To reduce risk of readmission, patients were given fast track access to fracture and geriatric clinics. The team's capacity increased to 12 patients through efficiency and introduction of cross-specialty working. The addition of a nurse and therapy assistant - coupled with further improvement in processes - increased capacity still further to 20 patients. In 2 years, 459 patients (211 NOFs) were referred to orthopaedic supportive discharge. Home-to-home discharges improved from 53.9% to 66.3% and length of stay reduced from 21.5 to 14.03 days, enabling a rehabilitation ward to be closed with significant cost savings for NOF patients. 99.6% of patients using orthopaedic supportive discharge provided positive feedback. Orthopaedic supportive discharge should be part of NOF services as it is cost effective, increases home-to-home discharges and reduces length of stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/futurehosp.4-2-131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6502623PMC
June 2017

Hip fracture outcomes in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Clin Med (Lond) 2017 Jun;17(Suppl 3):s20

Orthogeriatrics Department, Ashford and St Peter's NHS Trust, Chertsey, Surrey, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.17-3-s20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334136PMC
June 2017

Reducing mortality from hip fractures: a systematic quality improvement programme.

BMJ Qual Improv Rep 2014 19;3(1). Epub 2014 Sep 19.

Ashford & St. Peter's NHS Trust.

Hip fracture is one of the most serious consequences of falls in the elderly, with a mortality of 10% at one month and 30% at one year. Elderly patients with hip fractures have complex medical, surgical, and rehabilitation needs, and a well-coordinated multidisciplinary team approach is essential for the best outcome. The model of best practice for hip fracture care is set out in the Orthopaedic Blue Book and is incentivised by the best practice tariff. In 2009 to 2010, only 39.6% of our patients were being operated on within 36 hours, 19% achieved best practice tariff [1], and mortality was 7.8%. We were ranked as one of the worst hospitals to achieve best practice tariff [1] and our mortality was average. The orthogeriatrics team at Ashford & St Peter's NHS Trust (SPH) was implemented in 2010. Through a system redesign, regular governance meetings, audits and quality improvement projects, we have managed to improve care for our patients and reduce mortality. Over the last three years we have successfully achieved best care for our hip fracture patients, demonstrating a steady improvement in our attainment of the best practice tariff and a reduction in mortality to 5.3% in 2013, which ranks us amongst the best trusts nationally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjquality.u205006.w2103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4949608PMC
August 2016

Improving Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) care on a Trauma and Orthopaedics ward.

BMJ Qual Improv Rep 2013 27;2(1). Epub 2013 Feb 27.

Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) blockage rate was audited over a two month period on the Trauma & Orthopaedics ward at our District General Hospital. A 70% (five out of seven) PICC blockage rate was observed. High blockage rates lead to potential treatment complications, delays in delivery of treatment, increase in costs, and reduction in patient satisfaction. The factors contributing to the significant blockage rate include, long and contradictory PICC care guidelines, no information sheets in the patient notes, lack of training and awareness about care of, and flushing of, PICC lines, and lack of accountability for PICC flushing. Our project aimed to achieve a greater rate of PICC patency. We produced one succinct and comprehensive PICC care guideline, carried out staff training sessions, introduced a sticker reminding staff to flush the PICC line after use, and introduced a prescription of weekly heparin saline and PRN saline flushes (for monitoring and accountability). We used questionnaires to assess competency of hospital staff pre-teaching (doctors 6%, nurses 0%), and post-teaching (doctors 70%, nurses 38%). Blockage rate data post-intervention is pending. Education improved awareness of guidelines amongst staff and we anticipate that the proposed interventions will translate into reduced blockage rates, improving patient outcomes and reducing costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjquality.u464.w354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4652731PMC
January 2016

Improving transmission rates of electronic discharge summaries to GPs.

BMJ Qual Improv Rep 2013 17;2(1). Epub 2013 Sep 17.

Discharge summaries are a vital tool to communicate information from Hospital to Primary Care teams; updating GPs about what happened during an admission, and handing over care detailing any follow up care required. Historically, Discharge Summaries have been posted to hospitals, increasing costs for hospitals, creating administrative work for GP practices receiving the letters, and resulting in some letters being lost or delayed in reaching the GP, with implications for patient safety if follow up requests are not received and acted upon. In an effort to improve patient care, the Clinical Commissioning Group in Surrey drew up a contract with Ashford and St Peter's Foundation Trust, aiming to increase the percentage of discharge summaries sent electronically from the rate of 9% sent within 24 hours, to over 75%. This contract set targets of 50% in May, 65% in June, and 80% in July. Financial penalties would be imposed if targets were not achieved, starting in June 2013. The Trust set up a working group comprising of doctors, IT personnel and ward PAs to devise a multi-pronged solution to achieve this target. The electronic discharge summary system was reviewed and improvements were designed and developed to make the process of signing off letters easier, and transmission of signed off letters became automated rather than requiring manual transmission by ward PAs. Presentations and leaflets to explain the importance of prompt completion and transmission of discharge summaries were given to Doctors to improve compliance using the revised IT system. Figures on transmission rates were automatically emailed to key stakeholders every day (Ward PAs, Divisional Leads) showing performance on each ward. This helped identify areas requiring more intervention. Areas (e.g. Day Surgery) that had not used electronic discharge summaries were engaged with, and persuaded to take part. As a result, transmission rates of Discharge Summaries within 24 hours of patient discharge increased from 9% on May 11th 2013, to 76% by June 29th 2013. This has improved communication with GPs, led to more reliable handover of care, and reduced costs for the Trust (both in processing and postage costs, and by avoiding fines).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjquality.u756.w1013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4652718PMC
January 2016

Improving patient discharge process using electronic medication input tool and on-line guide to arranging follow-ups.

BMJ Qual Improv Rep 2013 17;2(1). Epub 2013 Sep 17.

Complete, accurate and timely discharge summaries (TTOs) enable effective communication between hospital teams and GPs. It can prevent adverse events and reduce hospital readmission rates (1). If the discharge summary does not contain important information (e.g. follow-up arrangements, accurate discharge medication list), or if follow-up arrangements are not made, then patient care and outcome can be adversely affected (2,3). An electronic Medication Input Wizard was developed to improve the quality and reduce the error rates of TTOs. The Wizard makes entering drug information faster; prompts for reasons medication changes; provides examples for Controlled Drug (CD) prescribing; and prompts to refer patients taking warfarin to anticoagulation clinic. An on-line guide was developed which explains how to arrange investigations and appointments. Retrospective studies of TTOs were carried out before and after these interventions, analysing documentation of medication and completion of intended follow-up arrangements. A baseline audit found 65% of medication changes on TTOs were not clearly documented, and only 8% with changes documented reasons. 40% of prescriptions for CDs were incorrect delaying discharge by 4.9 hours per patient. 80% of intended follow-ups actually happened. After intervention, TTOs written using the Wizard had 100% of medication changes documented, and 75% were documented with reasons. CD errors decreased to 28% (76% of errors were done without using the Wizard). Follow-up arrangements that occurred increased to 86%. A survey showed 78% of Doctors reported the Wizard was faster than typing the details in separate textboxes, and 94% believed it was beneficial. Systems should be optimised to encourage better documentation of medication details and reduce prescribing errors. Guides that explain how to make follow-up arrangements should be accessible to Doctors, to make sure follow-ups are organised correctly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjquality.u756.w711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4652709PMC
January 2016

Improving patient follow-up after inpatient stay.

BMJ Qual Improv Rep 2012 24;1(1). Epub 2012 Oct 24.

Ashford and St Peters NHS Foundation Trust.

Follow-up is a vital part of ongoing patient safety. It allows for subsequent investigations to be checked and acted upon, encourages specialist review of patients and ensures that patients with chronic conditions receive the appropriate secondary care input. This study aims to highlight and quantify current problems with how follow-up arrangements are made within our hospital and provide a suitable solution to ensure that these problems are minimised. 20 sets of clinical notes were analysed for plans of follow-up and then compared with the discharge summaries produced. Hospital computer systems were used to find out which interventions happened, and when, to get the baseline data. A simple follow-up prompt sheet was introduced and a further 20 sets of notes were audited to complete the study. Patient follow-up improved after the introduction of a simple follow-up prompt sheet but highlighted the need for a complete change in the way follow up is arranged at our hospital. There is a need for an online system for requesting follow-up appointments in our hospital. This is vital given the 24 hour environment that we work in with many patients being discharged out of normal working hours. This is currently being discussed with management and we hope that the introduction will be imminent to improve the future safety of all patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjquality.u474.w148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4652674PMC
January 2016

Geriatrician input into nursing homes reduces emergency hospital admissions.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2012 Sep-Oct;55(2):331-7. Epub 2011 Nov 21.

Ashford & St. Peter's Hospital, Guildford Road, Chertsey, Surrey, KT16 0PZ, United Kingdom.

Nursing home residents are often very dependent, very frail and have complex care needs. Effective partnerships between primary and secondary care will be of benefit to these residents. We looked at 1954 admission episodes to our Trust from April 2006 to March 2009 inclusive. 3 nursing homes had the highest number of multiple admissions (≥ 4). Four strategies to reduce hospital admissions were used at these nursing homes for 3 months. An alert was also sent to the geriatrician if one of the residents was admitted so that their discharge from hospital could be expedited. The project was then extended for another 4 months with 6 nursing homes. The results showed that geriatrician input into nursing homes had a significant impact on admissions from nursing homes (χ(2)(2)=6.261, p < 0.05). The second part of the project also showed significant impact on admissions (χ(2)(2) = 12.552, p < 0.05). Furthermore, in both parts of the project the length of stay in hospital for the residents was reduced. Geriatricians working together with co-ordinated multidisciplinary teams are well placed to manage the care needs of frail, elderly care home residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2011.10.014DOI Listing
January 2013
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