Publications by authors named "Ke Zhang"

1,442 Publications

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Biomineralized zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 nanoparticles enable polymerase/endonuclease synergetic amplification reaction in living cells for sensitive microRNA imaging.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Bio-Sensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Changsha, China.

In this work, we have implemented a polymerase and endonuclease synergetic amplification reaction in living cells for intracellular miRNA imaging by using biomineralized ZIF-8 NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02577eDOI Listing
August 2021

Analysis of volatiles from feces of released Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii) in Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) spawning habitat.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 2;11(1):15671. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Key Laboratory of Non-Invasive Research Technology for Endangered Species, School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China.

The absolute dominant species that infests wild population of Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii) is Gasterophilus pecorum, and feces of released Przewalski's horse, a habitat odor, plays an important role in mating and ovipositing locations of G. pecorum. To screen out unique volatiles for attracting G. pecorum, volatiles from fresh feces of released horses at stages of pre-oviposition (PREO), oviposition (OVIP), and post-oviposition (POSO) of G. pecorum, and feces with three different freshness states (i.e., Fresh, Semi-fresh, and Dry) at OVIP were collected by dynamic headspace adsorption and determined by automatic thermal desorption GC-MS. Results show that there were significant differences in fecal volatiles within both test conditions. Of the five most abundant volatiles from the five individual samples, the most important volatile was ammonium acetate at OVIP/Fresh, followed by acetophenone (Semi-fresh), toluene (PREO, OVIP and POSO), butanoic acid (OVIP and Semi-fresh), acetic acid (PREO, POSO and Semi-fresh), 1,6-octadiene,3,7-dimethyl-,(S)- (PREO, OVIP and POSO), 1,5,9-undecatriene,2,6,10-trimethyl-,(Z)- (PREO and Semi-fresh) and caprolactam (all conditions), which seem to be critical substances in oviposition process of G. pecorum. The findings may be beneficial to development of G. pecorum attractants, facilitating prevention and control of infection by G. pecorum to released Przewalski's horse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95162-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Five major two components systems of Staphylococcus aureus for adaptation in diverse hostile environment.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jul 30:105119. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus is an eminent and opportunistic human pathogen that can colonize in the intestines, skin tissue and perineal regions of the host and cause severe infectious diseases.The presence of complex regulatory network and existence of virulent gene expression along with tuning metabolism enables the S. aureus to adopt the diversity of environments. Two component system (TCS) is a widely distributed mechanism in S. aureus that permit it for changing gene expression profile in response of environment stimuli. TCS usually consist of transmembrane histidine kinase (HK) and cytosolic response regulator. S. aureus contains totally 16 conserved pairs of two component systems, involving in different signalling mechanisms. There is a connection among these regulatory circuits and they can easily have effect on each other's expression. This review has discussed five major types of TCS in S. aureus and covers the recent knowledge of their virulence gene expression. We can get more understanding towards staphylococcal pathogenicity by getting insights about gene regulatory pathways via TCS, which can further provide implications in vaccine formation and new ways for drug design to combat serious infections caused by S. aureus in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105119DOI Listing
July 2021

Direct infusion-tandem mass spectrometry combining with data mining strategies enables rapid chemome characterization of medicinal plants: A case study of Polygala tenuifolia.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Jul 24;204:114281. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100029, China. Electronic address:

Data-independent MS spectrum acquisition after fragmenting the precursor ion cohort with 1 Da bin, termed as MS/MS, offers an opportunity to achieve rapid chemome characterization when being coupled with direct infusion (DI). Some post-acquisition data processing strategies, such as mass defect filtering (MDF), diagnostic fragment ion filtering (DFIF), and neutral loss filtering (NLF), facilitate data extraction from massive dataset, and moreover, molecular weight (MW) imprinting allows rapid capturing those reported components. Here, DI-MS/MS was employed to acquire cubic spectral dataset, and the strategies such as MW imprinting, MDF, DFIF, and NLF, were subsequently applied to filter the structural information. The integrated pipeline was utilized for the chemome characterization of Polygala tenuifolia, a famous edible medicinal plant. To aid information filtering, an in-house chemical library was built by comprehensively collecting structural information from some available databases. A single analytical run was completed within 5 min. For MS spectrum processing, MW imprinting was firstly applied to capture the compounds in the chemical library, and "five-point" MDF frames were employed to pursue saponins, oligosaccharide esters, and xanthones. Regarding MS spectral plot, DFIF and NLF were deployed to search information-of-interest. Structural identification was accomplished by carefully correlating precursor ions and MS spectra, applying the well-defined mass cracking rules, and referring to literature information as well as available databases. A total of 109 compounds, mainly saponins (40 ones), oligosaccharide esters (29 ones), and xanthones (19 ones), were captured and structurally annotated. MS spectra were also implemented for chemome comparison between Polygala tenuifolia and several similar plants belonging to Polygala genus, resulting in the observation of significant inter- and intra-species differences. Above all, DI-MS/MS is a promising choice for high-throughput chemome profiling of, but not limited to, medicinal plants, in particular when being integrated with post-acquisition data processing strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114281DOI Listing
July 2021

Direct infusion-tandem mass spectrometry combining with data mining strategies enables rapid chemome characterization of medicinal plants: A case study of Polygala tenuifolia.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Jul 24;204:114281. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100029, China. Electronic address:

Data-independent MS spectrum acquisition after fragmenting the precursor ion cohort with 1 Da bin, termed as MS/MS, offers an opportunity to achieve rapid chemome characterization when being coupled with direct infusion (DI). Some post-acquisition data processing strategies, such as mass defect filtering (MDF), diagnostic fragment ion filtering (DFIF), and neutral loss filtering (NLF), facilitate data extraction from massive dataset, and moreover, molecular weight (MW) imprinting allows rapid capturing those reported components. Here, DI-MS/MS was employed to acquire cubic spectral dataset, and the strategies such as MW imprinting, MDF, DFIF, and NLF, were subsequently applied to filter the structural information. The integrated pipeline was utilized for the chemome characterization of Polygala tenuifolia, a famous edible medicinal plant. To aid information filtering, an in-house chemical library was built by comprehensively collecting structural information from some available databases. A single analytical run was completed within 5 min. For MS spectrum processing, MW imprinting was firstly applied to capture the compounds in the chemical library, and "five-point" MDF frames were employed to pursue saponins, oligosaccharide esters, and xanthones. Regarding MS spectral plot, DFIF and NLF were deployed to search information-of-interest. Structural identification was accomplished by carefully correlating precursor ions and MS spectra, applying the well-defined mass cracking rules, and referring to literature information as well as available databases. A total of 109 compounds, mainly saponins (40 ones), oligosaccharide esters (29 ones), and xanthones (19 ones), were captured and structurally annotated. MS spectra were also implemented for chemome comparison between Polygala tenuifolia and several similar plants belonging to Polygala genus, resulting in the observation of significant inter- and intra-species differences. Above all, DI-MS/MS is a promising choice for high-throughput chemome profiling of, but not limited to, medicinal plants, in particular when being integrated with post-acquisition data processing strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114281DOI Listing
July 2021

An efficient, economical, and easy mass production biochar supported zero-valent iron composite derived from direct-reduction natural goethite for Cu(II) and Cr(VI) remove.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 12;285:131539. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Key Laboratory of Biohydrometallurgy of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China. Electronic address:

In this study, a novel biochar-supported zero-valent iron (ZVI) composite was synthesised by a one-pot co-pyrolysis reduction method, and was used to remove Cu(II) and Cr(VI). The raw materials for the composite were derived from natural bagasse/straw and goethite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis were used to characterise the biochar and biochar-supported ZVI composites. Batch removal experiments on the effects of the initial pH and citric acid concentrations were performed as well as kinetic studies and isotherm experiments. The composite materials showed better Cu(II) and Cr(VI) removal performance than single biochar and mineral. The removal of Cu(II) and Cr(VI) is pH-dependent, and proceeds via heterogeneous multilayer chemisorption. Electrochemical analysis revealed that straw biochar-supported ZVI composite exhibited greater electrical conductivity and electron transfer rate than pure biochar and ZVI. FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) elucidated the uptake mechanism, showing that Cu(II) and Cr(VI) were easily adsorbed onto the biochar surface and were then reduced by ZVI. These results indicate that biochar-supported ZVI composite is effective for heavy metal remediation, which is economical, environment-friendly, and suitable for mass production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131539DOI Listing
July 2021

N-methyladenosine demethylase ALKBH5 suppresses malignancy of esophageal cancer by regulating microRNA biogenesis and RAI1 expression.

Oncogene 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of China.

N-Methyladenosine (mA) is the most prevalent epigenetic RNA modification and is vital in regulating malignancies. The roles of mA modifiers on noncoding RNAs have not been fully investigated in esophageal cancer. By screening all mA modifiers, ALKBH5 was the most potent member related to patient outcomes and suppressing esophageal cancer malignancy in cell and animal models. It demethylated pri-miR-194-2 and inhibited miR-194-2 biogenesis through an mA/DGCR8-dependent manner. RAI1, previously considered as a circadian clock transcriptional regulator, was the main target of miR-194-2. It enhanced transcription of Hippo pathway upstream genes by binding to their 3'UTR and suppressed YAP/TAZ nuclear translocation. The ALKBH5/miR-194-2/RAI1 axis was also validated in clinical samples. In addition, the increased malignancy by low ALKBH5 was abolished by the YAP inhibitor verteporfin. Our findings uncover a critical role of ALKBH5 in miRNAs biogenesis and provide novel insight for developing treatment strategies in esophageal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01966-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Boosted polysulfides regulation by iron carbide nanoparticles-embedded porous biomass-derived carbon toward superior lithium-sulfur batteries.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 10;605:129-137. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

CAS Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China; Center of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Shantou 515031, China. Electronic address:

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are greatly expected to be the favored alternatives in the next-generation energy-storage technologies due to their exceptional advantages. However, the shuttle effect and sluggish reaction kinetics of polysulfides largely hamper the practical success of Li-S batteries. Herein, a unique iron carbide (FeC) nanoparticles-embedded porous biomass-derived carbon (FeC-PBC) is reported as the excellent immobilizer and promoter for polysulfides regulation. Such a distinctive composite strongly couples the vast active sites of FeC nanoparticles and the conductive network of porous biomass-derived carbon. Therefore, FeC-PBC is endowed with outstanding adsorptivity and catalytic effect toward inhibiting the shuttle effect and facilitating the redox kinetics of polysulfides, demonstrated by the detailed experimental demonstrations and theoretical calculation. With these synergistic effects, the FeC-PBC/S electrode embraces a superb capacity retention of 82.7% at 2C over 500 cycles and an excellent areal capacity of 4.81 mAh cm under the high-sulfur loading of 5.2 mg cm. This work will inspire the design of advanced hosts based on biomass materials for polysulfides regulation in pursuing the superior Li-S batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.07.044DOI Listing
July 2021

Identifying Lung Cancer Patients Suitable for Segmentectomy: A Brief Review.

Front Surg 2021 8;8:637441. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Key Laboratory of Minimally Invasive Techniques & Rapid Rehabilitation of Digestive System Tumor of Zhejiang Province, Linhai, China.

In 1995, a clinical randomized controlled study (RCT) conducted by the Lung Cancer Study Group (LCSG) pointed out that the lobectomy was the gold standard for treating early lung cancer. However, with the development of technology, the results of several retrospective studies have shown that the efficacy of pulmonary segmentectomy is equivalent to that of lobectomy. Currently, it is still controversial whether segmental resection or lobectomy should be performed for early lung cancer. Thus, we aim to summarize the indications of segmentectomy. To conduct the review, previous researches involving indications of segmentectomy were collected from the literature using Pubmed. These articles were published and accepted in English in the medical literature from 2013 to 2020. We have focused on segmentectomy and its indications. A total of 176 articles were retrieved from the Pubmed database, of which 31 articles included indications for segmentectomy. We summarized the relevant content, and the potential and prospect of segmentectomy for the treatment of lung cancer were emphasized. These findings have a number of important implications for future practice. Pulmonary segmentectomy is a very vital surgical procedure for select patients with lung cancer, which provides a novel approach for the treatment of lung cancer and the survival of lung cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2021.637441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295684PMC
July 2021

The Distributional Characteristics of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions on Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping and Their Correlation With Clinical Severity.

Front Neurol 2021 9;12:647519. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Radiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have a wide spectrum of severity and responses to therapy; the personalization of treatment relies on sensitive and specific biomarkers. Previous studies have suggested that susceptibility contrast in demyelinated plaques is associated with iron-related pathology in multiple sclerosis which may indicate clinical severity. The aims of this study were to characterize the spatial distribution of MS lesions with different iron patterns by using quantitative susceptibility mapping and to explore neuroradiological findings that correlate with poor clinical outcome. Twenty-six patients with relapsing-remitting MS [14 men, 12 women; mean age, 29 ± 8 (standard deviation) years; age range, 21-52 years] were included in this study. Differences in lesion number, T2 volume, and susceptibility were compared among lesions subcategorized by location and by the presence or absence of a hyperintense rim on quantitative susceptibility mapping. Associations between these imaging features and clinical outcomes including Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and annual relapse rates were investigated. A total of 811 unifocal MS lesions were included, and their QSM patterns were nodular hyperintensity with no rim (rim-, 540, 67%) or with a hyperintense rim on the edge (rim+, 172, 21%) and nodular isointensity (99, 12%). Rim+ lesions had significantly larger volume (115 ± 142 vs. 166 ± 185 mm, < 0.001) and lower susceptibility (4 ± 15 vs. 8 ± 16 ppb, < 0.05) than rim- lesions. More rim+ lesions were found in periventricular areas [median, 45%; interquartile range (IQR), 36%], whereas a larger proportion of rim- lesions were distributed in juxtacortical (median, 32%; IQR, 21%) and deep white matter (median, 38%; IQR, 22%) areas. The annual relapse rate was positively correlated with the proportion of periventricular rim+ lesions ( < 0.001, = 0.65) and the proportion of subtentorial rim+ lesions ( < 0.05, = 0.40). Additionally, a significant association was found between the burden of periventricular rim+ lesions (β = 0.64, < 0.001) and the burden of subtentorial rim- lesions (β = 0.36, < 0.05). A high number or lesion burden of periventricular rim+ lesions or subtentorial lesions is associated with frequent clinical relapses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.647519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299522PMC
July 2021

[Causes analysis of mastoid cavity infection after mastoidectomy and key techniques of revision mastoidectomy].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jun;35(6):521-524

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,Peking University Third Hospital,Beijing,100191,China.

To analyze the causes of infected mastoid cavity after mastoidectomy and explore the key techniques of revision mastoidectomy. Ninety-two patients, who underwent revision mastoidectomy due to mastoid cavity infection after mastoidectomy were retrospectively analyzed. There were 56 cases of canal wall up mastoidectomy plus tympanoplasty and 36 cases of canal wall down mastoidectomy plus tympanoplasty in previous surgery. The interval between the previous operation and this revision ranged from 7 months to 50 years, with a median of 9 years. By reviewing the general clinical data, preoperative HRCT scan of temporal bone and intraoperative findings, the defects of the previous operation and the region of the lesion were analyzed and counted. Out of the 92 cases, 7 cases(7.6%) had sigmoid sinus antedisplacement and low-lying middle cranial fossa, and 45 cases(48.9%) with facial nerve canal loss. Among the 36 patients who underwent canal wall down mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty, mastoid cells were removed in completely; 26 patients had high facial ridge, accounting for 72.2%(26/36). The defects of the previous operation included: stenosis of external auditory meatus(65/92, 70.7%), obstruction of Eustachian tube(11/92, 12.0%), and tympanitis(2/92, 2.2%). Residual or recurrent lesions were most common in mastoid process and tympanic sinus(50/92, 54.3%), followed by attic cell and anterior cavity(44/92, 47.8%), posterior tympanic cavity(29/92, 31.5%), perilabyrinthine cells(13/92, 14.1%), sinus meningeal angle(13/92, 14.1%), cells behind the facial nerve(12/92, 13.0%), Eustachian tube(10/92, 10.9%), and hypotympanum(9/92, 9.8%). The main causes of mastoid cavity infecion after mastoidectomy include incomplete removal of the lesion and inadequate drainage conditions. The key techniques of revisional mastoidectomy include disc-shaped operative cavity, skeletonization of mastoid process, reduction of facial nerve ridge, management of Eustachian tube and conchaplasty. The above techniques are also key in the first operation in order to improve the success rate of operation and avoid revision operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2021.06.008DOI Listing
June 2021

Developmental validation of the Microreader™ RM-Y ID System: a new rapidly mutating Y-STR 17-plex system for forensic application.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Forensic Genetics, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences & Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, 3-16 Renmin South Road, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are widely applied to evolutionary, genealogical, and kinship analyses of male linages in forensic studies, but these low to midrange mutated Y-STRs typically fail to separate related males from the same paternal lineage. Recently, rapidly mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs) have been demonstrated to improve the differentiation of male relatives and individuals. The Microreader™ RM-Y ID System is a new RM Y-STR kit that is capable of simultaneously amplifying 17 RM Y-STRs. Herein, to verify the efficiency and accuracy of the Microreader™ RM-Y ID System, developmental validation was conducted, including PCR-based studies, sensitivity, stability, species specificity, mixture, stutter percentage, and precision studies. Full profiles could be obtained when the hematin concentration was 250 μM, humic acid concentration was 1500 ng/μl, and tannic acid concentration was 200 ng/μl. Full profiles of the mixture of males/males could be detected up to a ratio of 19:1, and full profiles of females/males could always be detected even at ratios up to 24,000:1. Moreover, the forensic characteristics of 250 DNA-confirmed father-son pairs were analysed. The results showed that these 17 RM Y-STRs had high power for forensic discrimination (HD = 1) in the Chinese Han population, and the mutation rates were in the range of 4 × 10 (95% CI 1.00 × 10 to 2.21 × 10, DYS464) to 8.8 × 10 (95% CI 5.60 × 10 to 1.30 × 10, DYF399S1), indicating that the kit was effective for RM Y-STR studies and absolute individualisation of interrelated male individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-021-02632-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Analysis on the relationship between winter precipitation and the annual variation of horse stomach fly community in arid desert steppe, Northwest China (2007-2019).

Integr Zool 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Key Laboratory of Non-Invasive Research Technology for Endangered Species, School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

Gasterophilus spp. have been found to be widespread in reintroduced Przewalski's horses in the Kalamaili Nature Reserve (Northwest China). However, data on the annual variation in Gasterophilus infections are lacking. To analyze the epidemiological features and determine the cause of the annual variation in Gasterophilus infections, we treated 110 Przewalski's horses with ivermectin and collected Gasterophilus larvae from fecal samples each winter from 2007 to 2019. All 110 Przewalski's horses studied were found to be infected by Gasterophilus spp., and a total of 141,379 larvae were collected. Six species of Gasterophilus were identified with the following prevalence: G. pecorum (100%), G. nasalis (96.36%), G. nigricornis (94.55%), G. haemorrhoidalis (56.36%), G. intestinalis (59.09%), and G. inermis (3.64%). The mean infection intensity of Gasterophilus spp. larvae in Przewalski's horses was 1,285 ± 653. G. pecorum (92.96 ± 6.71%) was the most abundant species. The intensity of Gasterophilus spp. (r = -0.561, p < 0.046) was significantly correlated with winter precipitation. Our findings confirmed that, in the Kalamaili Nature Reserve, gasterophilosis is a severe parasitic disease in Przewalski's horses. Winter precipitation at the beginning of the year can indirectly affect the intensity and composition of Gasterophilus spp. in Przewalski's horses at the end of the year. Therefore, the water-related ecological regulation should be carried out to help reduce the parasite infection of Przewalski's horses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12578DOI Listing
July 2021

KG4SL: knowledge graph neural network for synthetic lethality prediction in human cancers.

Bioinformatics 2021 07;37(Suppl_1):i418-i425

School of Information Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China.

Motivation: Synthetic lethality (SL) is a promising gold mine for the discovery of anti-cancer drug targets. Wet-lab screening of SL pairs is afflicted with high cost, batch-effect, and off-target problems. Current computational methods for SL prediction include gene knock-out simulation, knowledge-based data mining and machine learning methods. Most of the existing methods tend to assume that SL pairs are independent of each other, without taking into account the shared biological mechanisms underlying the SL pairs. Although several methods have incorporated genomic and proteomic data to aid SL prediction, these methods involve manual feature engineering that heavily relies on domain knowledge.

Results: Here, we propose a novel graph neural network (GNN)-based model, named KG4SL, by incorporating knowledge graph (KG) message-passing into SL prediction. The KG was constructed using 11 kinds of entities including genes, compounds, diseases, biological processes and 24 kinds of relationships that could be pertinent to SL. The integration of KG can help harness the independence issue and circumvent manual feature engineering by conducting message-passing on the KG. Our model outperformed all the state-of-the-art baselines in area under the curve, area under precision-recall curve and F1. Extensive experiments, including the comparison of our model with an unsupervised TransE model, a vanilla graph convolutional network model, and their combination, demonstrated the significant impact of incorporating KG into GNN for SL prediction.

Availability And Implementation: : KG4SL is freely available at https://github.com/JieZheng-ShanghaiTech/KG4SL.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btab271DOI Listing
July 2021

Epigenetic heterogeneity promotes acquired resistance to BET bromodomain inhibition in ovarian cancer.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(6):3021-3038. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai, China.

BET bromodomain inhibitors (BETi) are promising therapeutic regimens for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, early-stage clinical trials indicate that drug tolerance may limit their anti-tumor efficacy. Here, we show that JQ1-refractory EOC cells acquire reversible resistance to BET inhibition and remain dependent on BRD4 function. The insensitivity is driven by a unique non-genetic mechanism that involves clonal selection for a pre-existing cell subpopulation with ample acetylated histones and sufficient nuclear phase-separated BRD4 droplets to counteract BETi antagonism. A vertical combination approach by co-blocking BET proteins and downstream Aurora kinases proves to achieve more complete responses than single inhibitors. Collectively, our study implicates epigenetic heterogeneity in therapeutic resistance to chromatin-targeted agents and proposes a rational strategy to address this anticipated clinical dilemma.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263684PMC
June 2021

Functional reorganization of brain regions into a network in childhood absence epilepsy: A magnetoencephalography study.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Jul 8;122:108117. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Epilepsy is considered as a network disorder. However, it is unknown how normal brain activity develops into the highly synchronized discharging activity seen in disordered networks. This study aimed to explore the epilepsy brain network and the significant re-combined brain areas in childhood absence epilepsy (CAE).

Methods: Twenty-two children with CAE were recruited to study the neural source activity during ictal-onset and interictal periods at frequency bands of 1-30 Hz and 30-80 Hz with magnetoencephalography (MEG) scanning. Accumulated source imaging (ASI) was used to analyze the locations of neural source activity and peak source strength.

Results: Most of the participants had more active source activity locations in the ictal-onset period rather than in the interictal period, both at 1-30 Hz and 30-80 Hz. The frontal lobe (FL), the temporo-parietal junction (T-P), and the parietal lobe (PL) became the main active areas of source activity during the ictal period, while the precuneus (PC), cuneus, and thalamus were relatively inactive.

Conclusions: Some brain areas become more excited and have increased source activity during seizures. These significant brain regions might be re-combined to form an epilepsy network that regulates the process of absence seizures.

Significance: The study confirmed that important brain regions are reorganized in an epilepsy network, which provides a basis for exploring the network mechanism of CAE development. Imaging findings may provide a reference for clinical characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108117DOI Listing
July 2021

Exogenous melatonin improves the salt tolerance of cotton by removing active oxygen and protecting photosynthetic organs.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jul 10;21(1):331. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation/Key Laboratory of Crop Growth regulation of Hebei Province/College of Agronomy, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, 071001, Hebei, China.

Background: As damage to the ecological environment continues to increase amid unreasonable amounts of irrigation, soil salinization has become a major challenge to agricultural development. Melatonin (MT) is a pleiotropic signal molecule and indole hormone, which alleviates the damage of abiotic stress to plants. MT has been confirmed to eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS) by improving the antioxidant system and reducing oxidative damage under adversity. However, the mechanism by which exogenous MT mediates salt tolerance by regulating the photosynthetic capacity and ion balance of cotton seedlings still remains unknown. In this study, the regulatory effects of MT on the photosynthetic system, osmotic modulators, chloroplast, and anatomical structure of cotton seedlings were determined under 0-500 μM MT treatments with salt stress induced by treatment with 150 mM NaCl.

Results: Salt stress reduces the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO concentration, transpiration rate, PSII photochemical efficiency, PSII actual photochemical quantum yield, the apparent electron transfer efficiency, stomata opening, and biomass. In addition, it increases non-photochemical quenching. All of these responses were effectively alleviated by exogenous treatment with MT. Exogenous MT reduces oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation by reducing salt-induced ROS and protects the plasma membrane from oxidative toxicity. MT also reduces the osmotic pressure by reducing the salt-induced accumulation of Na and increasing the contents of K and proline. Exogenous MT can facilitate stomatal opening and protect the integrity of cotton chloroplast grana lamella structure and mitochondria under salt stress, protect the photosynthetic system of plants, and improve their biomass. An anatomical analysis of leaves and stems showed that MT can improve xylem and phloem and other properties and aides in the transportation of water, inorganic salts, and organic substances. Therefore, the application of MT attenuates salt-induced stress damage to plants. Treatment with exogenous MT positively increased the salt tolerance of cotton seedlings by improving their photosynthetic capacity, stomatal characteristics, ion balance, osmotic substance biosynthetic pathways, and chloroplast and anatomical structures (xylem vessels and phloem vessels).

Conclusions: Our study attributes help to protect the structural stability of photosynthetic organs and increase the amount of material accumulation, thereby reducing salt-induced secondary stress. The mechanisms of MT-induced plant tolerance to salt stress provide a theoretical basis for the use of MT to alleviate salt stress caused by unreasonable irrigation, fertilization, and climate change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03082-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8272334PMC
July 2021

Knee Arthroplasty in Klippel-Trénaunay Syndrome with 3-Dimensional-Printed Patient-Specific Instruments: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 07 9;11(3). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Orthopaedics, Peking University International Hospital, Beijing, China.

Case: Using a multidisciplinary team approach, a cemented posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty was performed using 3-dimensional-printed patient-specific instruments (PSI) in a 34-year-old man with symptomatic end-stage knee osteoarthritis secondary to Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS). At 1-year follow-up, the patient was able to walk without pain and return to work.

Conclusion: Knee arthroplasty is rare in patients with KTS. Compared with traditional instrumentation, PSI provides the benefit of minimal tissue dissection which can be advantageous in patients with altered anatomy such as KTS. Multidisciplinary cooperation is vital in terms of dealing with multiple comorbidities in KTS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.20.00922DOI Listing
July 2021

Root Morphology and Rhizosphere Characteristics Are Related to Salt Tolerance of and L.

Front Plant Sci 2021 21;12:677767. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, China.

Halophytes are capable of resisting salinity, and their root system is the part in direct contact with the saline soil environment. The aim of this study was to compare the responses of root morphology and rhizosphere characteristics to salinity between a halophyte, (suaeda), and a glycophyte, L. (sugar beet). The soil salt content was set to four levels (0.7, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.7%) by NaCl-treated plants. We investigated the soil pH, EC, nutrients and soil, plant ion (Na, Cl, K, and Mg) concentration to evaluate the rhizospheric processes, and salt tolerance of suaeda by the root mat method. The highest biomass was in the 1.2% salt level for suaeda and in the 0.7% salt level for sugar beet. The root length and root surface area of suaeda showed similar trends to biomass, but the root diameter decreased by 11.5-17.9% with higher salinity. The Na, Cl, and K accumulations in the shoot of suaeda displayed higher than that in sugar beet, while the Mg accumulation was lower in suaeda than that in sugar beet. High salinity resulted in increased pH and EC values in the rhizosphere for suaeda, but lower values of these parameters for sugar beet. Under high salinity, the Olsen phosphorus content was 0.50 g·kg and 0.99 g·kg higher in the rhizosphere than in the non-rhizosphere for suaeda and sugar beet. We concluded that the two species [halophyte, (suaeda), and a glycophyte, L. (sugar beet)] showed diverse approaches for nutrient absorption under salinity stress. Suaeda altered its root morphology (smaller root diameter and longer roots) under salt stress to increase the root surface area, while sugar beet activated rhizospheric processes to take up more nutrients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.677767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255919PMC
June 2021

Low miR-1231 expression predicts poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer and accelerates cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

Biomark Med 2021 Aug 5;15(11):831-840. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212001, China.

miRNAs have been found to be involved in the tumor progression. This study aimed to assess the prognostic significance and biological function of miRNA-1231 (miR-1231) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expression of miR-1231 was measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. The prognosis value of miR-1231 was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression analysis. The biological function of miR-1231 was further studied. Expression of miR-1231 in NSCLC patients and NSCLC cell lines were decreased. MiR-1231 was an independent prognostic biomarker. Overexpression of miR-1231 inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Downregulated expression of miR-1231 serves as a prognostic biomarker of NSCLC and may be a potential therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/bmm-2020-0313DOI Listing
August 2021

HBV Integration Induces Complex Interactions between Host and Viral Genomic Functions at the Insertion Site.

J Clin Transl Hepatol 2021 Jun 25;9(3):399-408. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Key Laboratory of Genomic and Precision Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV), one of the well-known DNA oncogenic viruses, is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In infected hepatocytes, HBV DNA can be integrated into the host genome through an insertional mutagenesis process inducing tumorigenesis. Dissection of the genomic features surrounding integration sites will deepen our understanding of mechanisms underlying integration. Moreover, the quantity and biological activity of integration sites may reflect the DNA damage within affected cells or the potential survival benefits they may confer. The well-known human genomic features include repeat elements, particular regions (such as telomeres), and frequently interrupted genes (e.g., telomerase reverse transcriptase [i.e. ], lysine methyltransferase 2B [i.e. ], cyclin E1 [], and cyclin A2 []). Consequently, distinct genomic features within diverse integrations differentiate their biological functions. Meanwhile, accumulating evidence has shown that viral proteins produced by integrants may cause cell damage even after the suppression of HBV replication. The integration-derived gene products can also serve as tumor markers, promoting the development of novel therapeutic strategies for HCC. Viral integrants can be single copy or multiple copies of different fragments with complicated rearrangement, which warrants elucidation of the whole viral integrant arrangement in future studies. All of these considerations underlie an urgent need to develop novel methodology and technology for sequence characterization and function evaluation of integration events in chronic hepatitis B-associated disease progression by monitoring both host genomic features and viral integrants. This endeavor may also serve as a promising solution for evaluating the risk of tumorigenesis and as a companion diagnostic for designing therapeutic strategies targeting integration-related disease complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14218/JCTH.2021.00062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237140PMC
June 2021

Genetic Determinants for Bacterial Osteomyelitis: A Focused Systematic Review of Published Literature.

Front Genet 2021 17;12:654792. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory process characterized by progressive bone destruction. Moreover, chronic bacterial osteomyelitis is regarded as a difficult-to-treat clinical entity due to its long-standing course and frequent infection recurrence. However, the role of genetic factors in the occurrence and development of bacterial osteomyelitis is poorly understood. We performed a systematic review to assess the frequency of individual alleles and genotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among patients with bacterial osteomyelitis and healthy people to identify whether the SNPs are associated with the risk of developing bacterial osteomyelitis. Then, gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes analyses were performed to identify the potential biological effects of these genes on the pathogenesis of bacterial osteomyelitis. Fourteen eligible studies containing 25 genes were analyzed. In this review, we discovered that the SNPs in (), , and increased the risk of bacterial osteomyelitis, whereas those in and could protect against osteomyelitis. The bioinformatic analysis indicated that these osteomyelitis-related genes were mainly enriched in inflammatory reaction pathways, suggesting that inflammation plays a vital role in the development of bacterial osteomyelitis. Furthermore, functional notation for 25 SNPs in 17 significant genes was performed using the RegulomeDB and NCBI databases. Four SNPs (rs1143627, rs16944, rs2430561, and rs2070874) had smaller scores from regulome analysis, implying significant biological function. We systematically summarized several SNPs linked to bacterial osteomyelitis and discovered that these gene polymorphisms could be a genetic factor for bacterial osteomyelitis. Moreover, further large-scale cohort studies are needed to enhance our comprehensive understanding of the development of osteomyelitis to provide earlier individualized preventions and interventions for patients with osteomyelitis in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.654792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248359PMC
June 2021

Autoimmune Diseases Are Linked to Type IIb Autoimmune Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria.

Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2021 Jul;13(4):545-559

Dermatological Allergology, UCARE Charité, Allergie-Centrum-Charité, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: Patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) have an increased risk for comorbid autoimmune diseases. In this retrospective multicenter study of CSU patients, we evaluated clinical and laboratory features of CSU associated with a higher risk of comorbid autoimmune diseases.

Methods: We analyzed records of CSU patients (n = 1,199) for a history or presence of autoimmune diseases. Patients were diagnosed with type IIb autoimmune CSU (aiCSU) if all 3 tests were positive: autologous serum skin test (ASST), basophil histamine release assay (BHRA) and/or basophil activation test (BAT), and IgG autoantibodies against FcεRIα/IgE detected by immunoassay.

Results: Twenty-eight percent of CSU patients had at least 1 autoimmune disease. The most prevalent autoimmune diseases were Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) (≥ 21%) and vitiligo (2%). Two percent of CSU patients had ≥ 2 autoimmune diseases, most frequently HT plus vitiligo. Comorbid autoimmune diseases, in patients with CSU, were associated with female sex, a family history of autoimmune diseases, and higher rates of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism ( < 0.001). Presence of autoimmune diseases was linked to aiCSU ( = 0.02). The risks of having autoimmune diseases were 1.7, 2.9 and 3.3 times higher for CSU patients with a positive ASST, BHRA and BAT, respectively. In CSU patients, markers for autoimmune diseases, antinuclear antibodies and/or IgG anti-thyroid antibodies were associated with non-response to omalizumab treatment ( = 0.013).

Conclusions: In CSU, autoimmune diseases are common and linked to type IIb autoimmune CSU. Our results suggest that physicians assess and monitor all adult patients with CSU for signs and symptoms of common autoimmune diseases, especially HT and vitiligo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4168/aair.2021.13.4.545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255350PMC
July 2021

FXYD6 Regulates Chemosensitivity by Mediating the Expression of Na+/K+-ATPase 1 and Affecting Cell Autophagy and Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer.

Biomed Res Int 2021 9;2021:9986376. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of General Surgery, Changde First People's Hospital, Changde, Hunan 415000, China.

Purpose: Chemoresistance is a challenge of improving chemotherapeutic efficacy and prolonging survival time for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC); it is the major cause of frequent recurrence, rapid metastasis, and poor prognosis for CRC patients. FXYD6 is a regulator of Na+/K+-ATPase which is depressed in chemoresistant CRC patients. However, the biological roles of FXYD6 on regulating chemoresistance in CRC are still unclear.

Methods: GSE3964 and GSE69657 from GEO DataSets were used to analyze the relationship of genes and chemoresistance. The FXYD6 expression level was detected by western blotting and real-time PCR and also analyzed from TCGA DataSet. To investigate the functional role of FXYD6 and ATP-1, FXYD6 and ATP-1 functional cell models were constructed. Drug sensitivity and cell proliferation were performed by MTT assay. Autophagy and apoptosis were conducted by autophagy fluorescence analysis and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Autophagy and apoptosis markers were tested by western blotting.

Results: FXYD6 was downregulated in CRC resistant patients and irinotecan- (Iri-) resistant SW620 cells (SW620/Iri). FXYD6 silence inhibited cell apoptosis and enhanced prosurvival autophagy, whereas FXYD6 overexpression produced the opposite effect which alleviated the drug resistance to irinotecan and oxaliplatin of CRC cells. FXYD6 regulates chemosensitivity by mediating the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase 1 and affecting cell autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancer.

Conclusion: FXYD6 functions as a chemosensitivity regulator which may predict the curative effect of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9986376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208849PMC
June 2021

Pollution Haven Hypothesis of Global CO, SO, NO-Evidence from 43 Economies and 56 Sectors.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 18;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

College of Control Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China.

With the development of trade liberalization, the pollutants emissions embodied in global trade are increasing. The pollution haven hypothesis caused by trade has aroused wide attention. The fragmentation of international production has reshaped trade patterns. The proportion of intermediate product trade in global trade is increasing. However, little has been done to study the pollution haven of different pollutants under different trade patterns. In this paper, major environmental pollutants CO (carbon dioxide), SO (sulfur dioxide), and NO (nitrogen oxides) are selected as the research objects. This study investigated the global pollution haven phenomenon in 43 countries and 56 major industries from 2000 to 2014. Based on the MRIO model, the trade mode is divided into three specific patterns: final product trade, intermediate product trade in the last stage of production, and the trade related to the global value chain. The results show that trade liberalization could reduce global CO, SO, and NOx emissions, and intermediate product trade has a more significant emission reduction effect than final product trade. Trade's impacts on each country are various, and the main drivers are also different. For example, the European Union avoids becoming a pollution haven mainly through the trade related to the global value chain. The suppressed emissions under this trade pattern are 71.8 Mt CO, 2.2 Mt SO, 2.2 Mt NO. India avoids most pollutants emissions through intermediate product trade. China has become the most serious pollution haven through final product trade. The trade pattern could increase China 829.4 Mt CO, 4.5 Mt SO, 2.6 Mt NO emissions in 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296498PMC
June 2021

Broad Impact of Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP 2 (EPAC2) on Respiratory Viral Infections.

Viruses 2021 06 21;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0372, USA.

The recently discovered exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC), compared with protein kinase A (PKA), is a fairly new family of cAMP effectors. Soon after the discovery, EPAC has shown its significance in many diseases including its emerging role in infectious diseases. In a recent study, we demonstrated that EPAC, but not PKA, is a promising therapeutic target to regulate respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication and its associated inflammation. In mammals, there are two isoforms of EPAC-EPAC1 and EPAC2. Unlike other viruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Ebola virus, which use EPAC1 to regulate viral replication, RSV uses EPAC2 to control its replication and associated cytokine/chemokine responses. To determine whether EPAC2 protein has a broad impact on other respiratory viral infections, we used an EPAC2-specific inhibitor, MAY0132, to examine the functions of EPAC2 in human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and adenovirus (AdV) infections. HMPV is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Pneumoviridae, which also includes RSV, while AdV is a double-stranded DNA virus. Treatment with an EPAC1-specific inhibitor was also included to investigate the impact of EPAC1 on these two viruses. We found that the replication of HMPV, AdV, and RSV and the viral-induced immune mediators are significantly impaired by MAY0132, while an EPAC1-specific inhibitor, CE3F4, does not impact or slightly impacts, demonstrating that EPAC2 could serve as a novel common therapeutic target to control these viruses, all of which do not have effective treatment and prevention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13061179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233786PMC
June 2021

3-Benzoylisoxazolines by 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition: Chloramine-T-Catalyzed Condensation of α-Nitroketones with Dipolarophiles.

Molecules 2021 Jun 8;26(12). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resource and Utilisation, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832002, China.

In this study, 3-benzoylisoxazolines were synthesized by reacting alkenes with various α-nitroketones using chloramine-T as the base. The scope of α-nitroketones and alkenes is extensive, including different alkenes and alkynes to form various isoxazolines and isoxazoles. The use of chloramine-T, as the low-cost, easily handled, moderate base for 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is attractive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227129PMC
June 2021

Visible-Light-Induced C(sp)-C(sp) Coupling Reaction for the Regioselective Synthesis of 3-Functionalized Coumarins.

J Org Chem 2021 07 30;86(14):9552-9562. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, People's Republic of China.

A photocatalysis strategy for the regioselective synthesis of 3-functionalized coumarins is reported. With visible light irradiation, a direct and regioselective C(sp)-C(sp) coupling reaction of 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acrylates with ethers or thioethers occurs by using Ru(bpy)Cl·6HO as a photocatalyst and TBHP as an oxidant. The cascade process involves alkenylation of the C(sp)-H bond of ethers and lactonization, furnishing 3-alkylated coumarins as the final products. This approach is characterized by a broad substrate scope, mild reaction conditions, and simplified operation. The synthesis of 3-alkylated coumarins could be realized by a one-pot procedure, starting from commercially available salicylaldehyde.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c00848DOI Listing
July 2021

The ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte predicts interstitial lung disease and its prognosis in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome: a retrospective analysis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jun 16;10(6):6493-6501. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Scientific Research and Experiment Center, Meizhou City People's Hospital, Meizhou, Meizhou, China.

Background: During the course of disease, some patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) develop interstitial lung disease (ILD), which leads to a poor prognosis. There is currently a lack of methods to identify high-risk patients with ILD and predict the prognosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the predictive value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) for the occurrence of ILD and its prognosis in patients with pSS.

Methods: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients with pSS admitted to our hospital from May 2009 to November 2020 were included. The patients were divided into either an ILD group or a non-interstitial pneumonia [non-ILD (NILD)] group. We compared the baseline data of the two groups of participants, and the participants were followed up (≥1 year) at clinic visits. Logistic multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors related to ILD and prognosis in patients with pSS.

Results: A total of 217 patients with pSS were included, of which 71 (32.7%) participants were diagnosed with ILD (ILD group) at the time of pSS diagnosis, and 146 (67.3%) participants had no obvious ILD (NILD group). Based on follow-up results, logistic multivariate analysis revealed that NLR [relative risk (RR) =1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15 to 4.73], age (RR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.06 to 3.66), non-regular treatment (RR =1.39, 95% CI: 1.03 to 3.38), ALB <35 g/L (RR =1.32, 95% CI: 1.05 to 3.17), and elevated CRP (RR =1.44, 95% CI: 1.10 to 4.53) were associated with the occurrence of ILD in participants with pSS during follow-up. Age (RR =1.28, 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.25), NLR (RR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.57), non-regular treatment (RR =1.51, 95% CI: 1.18 to 3.01), and ILD (RR =2.05, 95% CI: 1.36 to 4.72) were related to all-cause death during follow-up.

Conclusions: The NLR is a risk factor for ILD in patients with pSS. The higher the NLR, the worse the prognosis; ILD significantly increases the risk of death in patients with pSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-1043DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of low- and high-temperature thermal-alkaline pretreatments on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Oct 12;337:125400. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

To compare the effects of low- and high-temperature thermal-alkaline pretreatments (LTTAP, 60 ± 1 °C, pH 12.0 ± 0.1, 30 min and HTTAP, 160 ± 1 °C, pH 12.0 ± 0.1, 30 min, respectively) on anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge, long-term and semi-continuous experiments were conducted in three laboratory continuous stirred tank reactors. The experimental results showed that the two pretreatments increased the methane yield of sludge from 89.20 ± 2.41 mL/g added volatile solids (VS) to 117.50 ± 5.27 mL/g added VS (LTTAP) and 156.40 ± 2.99 mL/g added VS (HTTAP). After AD, the reduction of sludge (volatile solid) increased from 32.91 ± 0.27% to 44.17 ± 1.53% (LTTAP), and 50.86 ± 1.18% (HTTAP), and the abundance of pathogenic bacteria decreased from 6.53% to 0.38% (LTTAP) and 0.14% (HTTAP). LTTAP enhanced both hydrogentrophic and acetoclastic methanogenis and HTTAP only enhanced acetoclastic methanogenis. Additionally, the energy efficiency of HTTAP and its subsequent AD was lower than that of LTTAP and its subsequent AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125400DOI Listing
October 2021
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