Publications by authors named "Ke Liu"

1,194 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy and safety of danoprevir plus sofosbuvir in GT 1, 2, 3, or 6 chronic hepatitis C patients with or without cirrhosis in China.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26312

Department of Infectious Diseases, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University.

Abstract: All-oral direct-acting antiviral therapies are becoming the choice for hepatitis C (HCV) treatment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ritonavir-boosted danoprevir (DNVr) plus sofosbuvir±ribavirin on HCV genotype 1, 2, 3, or 6 in the real world in China.In this observational, prospective, multicenter cohort, we enrolled a total of 58 patients with HCV genotype 1, 2, 3, or 6 patients from July 2018 to December 2019. All patients were treated with DNVr plus sofosbuvir ± ribavirin for 12 weeks and then followed up for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the rate of sustained virologic response at week 12 after the end of treatment (SVR12). The secondary endpoint was virologic response rate at end-of-treatment and adverse event outcome.Of the 58 patients who were enrolled, 5.2% (n = 3) had genotype 1a; 43.1% (n = 25) had HCV genotype 1b; 17.2% (n = 10) had genotype 2a; 5.2% (n = 3) had genotype 3a; 8.6% (n = 5) had genotype 3b; and 20.7% (n = 12) had genotype 6a. The virologic response rate at end-of-treatment was 100% (58/58). The HCV-RNA results of 5 patients were absent at week 12 after treatment. Among the 53 patients, SVR12 rate achieved 100% (53/53) with DNVr plus sofosbuvir ± ribavirin treatment in patients with HCV genotype 1b, 2a, 3, and 6a. For compensated cirrhosis and noncirrhosis patients, SVR12 was 100% with DNVr plus sofosbuvir ± ribavirin treatment. No serious event was observed during the treatment and follow-up. Only 5 patients had mild adverse events.DNVr plus sofosbuvir ± ribavirin for 12 weeks provided 100% SVR12 in a broad patient population and were well tolerated, which may be a promising regimen for CHC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026312DOI Listing
June 2021

Analysis of the Responsiveness of Latanoprost, Travoprost, Bimatoprost, and Tafluprost in the Treatment of OAG/OHT Patients.

J Ophthalmol 2021 25;2021:5586719. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, Changsha Aier Eye Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Aim: Within the clinical setting, some patients have been identified as lacking in response to PGAs. This meta-analysis study aimed to evaluate the responsiveness of latanoprost, travoprost, bimatoprost, and tafluprost in OAG/OHT patients, latanoprost nonresponders (LNRs), and the IOP-reducing efficacy and safety.

Methods: A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. The primary clinical endpoint was the number of responders at the end of the study. The secondary clinical endpoint was the IOP reduction at the endpoint from baseline. Safety evaluation included five common adverse events: conjunctival hyperemia, hypertrichosis, ocular burning, ocular itching, and foreign-body sensation.

Results: Eleven articles containing ten RCTs were included in this meta-analysis study. The results highlighted that, in the OAG/OHT population, there was no statistically significant difference in the responsiveness of the four PGAs. Bimatoprost had a better IOP-reducing efficacy than latanoprost. There was no significant difference in the IOP-reducing efficacy of travoprost, latanoprost, and tafluprost. In LNRs, the responsiveness of bimatoprost, travoprost, and latanoprost did not show statistical differences. Bimatoprost reduced IOP with a greater extent than latanoprost and travoprost in LNRs, while there was no significant difference in the IOP-reducing efficacy of travoprost and latanoprost. No serious adverse events occurred with the treatment of the four PGAs. The prevalence of conjunctival hyperemia due to bimatoprost or tafluprost was significantly higher than that of latanoprost. Other adverse events had no significant difference between the four drugs.

Conclusion: The existing studies cannot prove that latanoprost, travoprost, bimatoprost, and tafluprost have different responsiveness in OAG/OHT patients. Switching to bimatoprost or travoprost cannot achieve a significant improvement in responsiveness in LNRs. Bimatoprost has a better IOP-reducing efficacy than latanoprost and travoprost. No serious adverse events occurred during treatment with any medication we studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5586719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169256PMC
May 2021

Flexible and Transparent Oligothiophene--Carborane-Containing Hybrid Films for Nonlinear Optical Limiting Based on Efficient Two-Photon Absorption.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, P. R. China.

Structure-property relationship for fluorophores with favorable nonlinear optical (NLO) properties are promising topics in organic chemistry and material science. Herein, a series of terthiophene--carborane dyads and triads covalently linked with different end-capping styles were readily synthesized and comprehensively investigated. Quantitative values of the crystal and packing structures, photophysical parameters including aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and two-photon absorption (2PA) were provided. Significant impact of carborane unit for introducing the AIE characteristic has been investigated in contrast to the parent oligothiophene. All the obtained fluorophores exhibit maximum absorption around 370 nm in THF and emit bright reddish photoluminscence with absolute fluorescence quantum yields above 16% in solid states. Intramolecular charge communication between oligothiophene and carborane plays important roles in the related NLO properties. These results are supported well by the time-dependent DFT theoretical calculations. Effective 2PA cross sections (δ = 95-355 [email protected] nm) and transition dipole moments of the derivatives are variable for different end-capping styles. Their potential applications as optical limiting materials based on the 2PA mechanism in solutions and doped PDMS films were further evaluated. Taken together, this work provides an understanding of their structure-property relationship, and flexible PDMS films as outstanding candidates for practical applications in optical limiting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c07835DOI Listing
June 2021

Benefit-finding experiences of cervical cancer survivors in rural Yunnan province, China: A qualitative study.

Nurs Open 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

Aim: To explore and describe cervical cancer patients' benefit-finding experiences in rural China.

Design: The phenomenological approach was used in this qualitative study.

Methods: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 patients, from July to August of 2019. The data, which were collected, were analysed using the Colaizzi analysis procedure.

Results: According to the analysis results, the four benefit-finding experience themes of the cervical cancer patients were, respectively, determined to be as follows: Health cognition and behaviour changes; reshaping of personal strength; focussing on relationships with others; and facing life positively.

Conclusions: The individual's cognition of health and their own strong qualities, and their external social support systems and information obtained and transmitted through interpersonal interactions, can promote the benefit finding. The findings suggest that medical staff should understand the traditional concepts of their patients, use their positive psychological potential, and build targeted nursing measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nop2.962DOI Listing
June 2021

In situ reduction triggers the highly sensitive detection of pesticide by classic gold nanoparticle and quantum dots nanocomposite.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 24;1172:338679. Epub 2021 May 24.

College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China; Interdisciplinary Sciences Institute, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Fluorescence "turn on" method is always preferable for target detection under the urgent demand to develop point-of-care portable sensors in practical applications due to its higher selectivity and less false positives. However, there is only few reports of pesticide monitoring based on this strategy so far most probably ascribed to its poor hydrophilicity and reactivity. In this work, triggered by reductant tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP), initially fluorescence-quenched gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)-decorated quantum dots (QDs)-embedded nanobead shows obvious fluorescence "turn on" signal response to thiram with concentration response range of 0.01-20 μM and limit of detection (LOD) of 7 nM due to the target-induced dissociation of Au NPs from the surface of probe nanobead. Moreover, paper sensor has been successfully developed by immersing commercial drainage membrane in probe solution for visual detection of thiram with the ultrahigh LOD (50 nM) by the naked eye. More importantly, this work, for the first time, reported an in situ reduction strategy to improve the interaction between target and nanoprobe and thus bring obvious signal output for pesticide detection with high sensitivity, demonstrating the potential to expand the detection scope of nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338679DOI Listing
August 2021

Dual-Phase Emission AIEgen with ICT Properties for VOC Chromic Sensing.

Anal Chem 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, P. R. China.

In a film-based fluorescence sensor, luminogens are of vital importance since they play the role of probes or indicators. Traditional organic luminogens like pyrene show high luminescence quantum yields in dilute solutions, but their applications are usually limited by the aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect and bad photochemical stability. Thus, this paper reports a novel aggregation-induced emission luminogen (AIEgen) containing both pyrene and -carborane (CB-PY), which possesses unique dual-phase emission both in solution and solid state and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) properties, fulfilling the gap between ACQ and AIE compounds. Importantly, the fluorophore presents extraordinary stability that there was almost no attenuation in the emission intensity of CB-PY in the solid state after 4 months of exposure at ambient conditions. It is these merits that make CB-PY exhibit outstanding sensing performances for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), where the fluorescence test strip shows fast, reversible, and visual discrimination of four organic solvents with varied polarities. Moreover, 92, 95, and 98 gasolines could be discriminated with CB-PY, showing different colors under UV illumination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00980DOI Listing
June 2021

Interobserver variability in target volume delineation in definitive radiotherapy for thoracic esophageal cancer: a multi-center study from China.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Jun 9;16(1):102. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, 100730, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To investigate the interobserver variability (IOV) in target volume delineation of definitive radiotherapy for thoracic esophageal cancer (TEC) among cancer centers in China, and ultimately improve contouring consistency as much as possible to lay the foundation for multi-center prospective studies.

Methods: Sixteen cancer centers throughout China participated in this study. In Phase 1, three suitable cases with upper, middle, and lower TEC were chosen, and participants were asked to contour a group of gross tumor volume (GTV-T), nodal gross tumor volume (GTV-N) and clinical target volume (CTV) for each case based on their routine experience. In Phase 2, the same clinicians were instructed to follow a contouring protocol to re-contour another group of target volume. The variation of the target volume was analyzed and quantified using dice similarity coefficient (DSC).

Results: Sixteen clinicians provided routine volumes, whereas ten provided both routine and protocol volumes for each case. The IOV of routine GTV-N was the most striking in all cases, with the smallest DSC of 0.37 (95% CI 0.32-0.42), followed by CTV, whereas GTV-T showed high consistency. After following the protocol, the smallest DSC of GTV-N was improved to 0.64 (95% CI 0.45-0.83, P = 0.005) but the DSC of GTV-T and CTV remained constant in most cases.

Conclusion: Variability in target volume delineation was observed, but it could be significantly reduced and controlled using mandatory interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-020-01691-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188796PMC
June 2021

Oral Microbiota of Children Is Conserved across Han, Tibetan and Hui Groups and Is Correlated with Diet and Gut Microbiota.

Microorganisms 2021 May 11;9(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, No. 222 Tianshuinanlu, Lanzhou 730000, China.

The oral microbiota can be affected by several factors; however, little is known about the relationship between diet, ethnicity and commensal oral microbiota among school children living in close geographic proximity. In addition, the relationship between the oral and gut microbiota remains unclear. We collected saliva from 60 school children from the Tibetan, Han and Hui ethnicities for a 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and comparison with previously collected fecal samples. The study revealed that and were the dominant phyla in the oral microbiota. The Shannon diversity was lowest in the Tibetan group. A PCA showed a substantial overlap in the distribution of the taxa, indicating a high degree of conservation among the oral microbiota across ethnic groups while the enrichment of a few specific taxa was observed across different ethnic groups. The consumption of seafood, poultry, sweets and vegetables was significantly correlated with multiple oral microbiotas. Furthermore, 123 oral genera were significantly associated with 191 gut genera. A principal coordinate analysis revealed that the oral microbiota clustered separately from the gut microbiota. This work extends the findings of previous studies comparing microbiota from human populations and provides a basis for the exploration of the interactions governing the tri-partite relationship between diet, oral microbiota and gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151815PMC
May 2021

Temporal and spatial distributions and sources of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition in western Taihu Lake, China.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 27;284:117465. Epub 2021 May 27.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Sustainable Forestry, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Heavy metals in atmospheric dust can directly pollute the soil, water and sediment, causing serious harm to human health. In this study, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition in western Taihu Lake were studied. We established 10 sampling sites to collect atmospheric deposition for two years in different seasons. The atmospheric deposition flux follows the order urban area (95.6 g m·a) > suburban area (80.2 g m·a) > forestland (56.8 g m·a). The concentrations of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition show trends of high values in the winter and low values in the summer and are significantly negatively correlated with distance from the city. The pollution level of I-Cd is 6, which is very high, and that of E-Cd is 219, which means high risk. Heavy metals in atmospheric deposition are mainly taken up via hand-mouth intake, and the harm to children is significantly higher than the harm to adults. The highest health risk assessment values for the four analyzed heavy metals in atmospheric deposition are located near the city and in suburbs (within 5 km of the city center), that is, in areas where human activities are concentrated. The health risk assessment values in areas outside the suburbs are low; these areas are less affected by human activities. The health risk assessment values of heavy metals in the winter and spring are higher than those in the summer and autumn. The Pb isotope ratios show that the main sources of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition and local soil are human activities, such as industry and coal combustion, with less input from natural sources. Heavy metals in atmospheric deposition in the western part of Taihu Lake not only directly threaten local human health but also enter Taihu Lake, posing a serious threat to the Taihu Lake ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117465DOI Listing
May 2021

Preparation of Low Grain Boundary Perovskite Crystals with Excellent Performance: The Inhibition of Ammonium Iodide.

ACS Omega 2021 May 7;6(19):12858-12865. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Food and Chemical Engineering, Shaoyang University, Shaoyang 422000, People's Republic of China.

For the study, we prepared a low grain boundary three-dimensional CHNHPbI crystal (3D-MAPbI) on TiO nanoarrays by inhibition of ammonium iodide and discussed the formation mechanism of the crystal. Based on the 3D-MAPbI crystal, solar cells showed modified performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 19.3%, which increases by 36.8% in contrast to the counterparts. We studied the internal photocurrent conversion process. The highest external quantum efficiency is up to 92%, and the electron injection efficiency is remarkably facilitated where the injection time decreases by 37.8% compared to the control group. In addition, based on 3D-MAPbI, solar cells showed excellent air stability, which possesses 78.3% of the initial PCE, even though they were exposed to air for 30 days. Our results demonstrate a promising approach for the fabrication of perovskite solar cells with high efficiency and stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154220PMC
May 2021

Laser fabricated carbon quantum dots in anti-solvent for highly efficient carbon-based perovskite solar cells.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 11;600:691-700. Epub 2021 May 11.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, China. Electronic address:

Additive passivation can be an effective strategy to regulate and control the properties of organic-inorganic halide perovskite film. In this article, carbon quantum dots (CQDs), fabricated by non-focused laser irradiation of carbon nanomaterial diluted in anti-solvent ethyl acetate, denoted as EACQDs, were adopted for perovskite film defect passivation and modification of carbon-based CHNHPbI perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The size of EACQDs can be tuned by manipulating the laser fluence. The morphology of perovskite film was uncovered through scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. After embedding of EACQDs, the defect in perovskite crystal was reduced, resulting in the decreased carrier recombination and accelerated carrier transportation, which were demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence. As a consequence, with the optimization of 0.01 mg/mL EACQDs (1064 nm-300 mJ·pulse·cm-10 min), the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of carbon-based PSCs achieved a maximum value of 16.43%, which improved 23.81% when compared with the pristine PSCs of 13.27%. Furthermore, the EACQDs optimized PSCs also exhibited an excellent stability and still retained 86% of its initial PCE after 50-day storage at the room atmosphere with a humidity of 30-50%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.05.034DOI Listing
May 2021

EYA2 suppresses the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma via SOCS3-mediated blockade of JAK/STAT signaling.

Mol Cancer 2021 May 27;20(1):79. Epub 2021 May 27.

National Translational Science Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Cell Biology, State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, China.

Background: Somatic mutations are involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, but the genetic mechanism associated to hepatocarcinogenesis remains poorly understood. We report that Eyes absent homolog 2 (EYA2) suppresses the HCC progression, while EYA2(A510E) mutation identified by exome sequencing attenuates the tumor-inhibiting effect of EYA2.

Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on six pairs of human HCC primary tumors and matched adjacent tissues. Focusing on EYA2, expression level of EYA2 in human HCC samples was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Loss- and gain-of-function studies, hepatocyte-specific deletion of EYA2 (Eya2) in mice and RNA sequencing analysis were used to explore the functional effect and mechanism of EYA2 on HCC cell growth and metastasis. EYA2 methylation status was evaluated using Sequenom MassARRAY and publicly available data analysis.

Results: A new somatic mutation p.Ala510Glu of EYA2 was identified in HCC tissues. The expression of EYA2 was down-regulated in HCC and associated with tumor size (P = 0.001), Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage (P = 0.016) and tumor differentiation (P = 0.048). High level of EYA2 was correlated with a favorable prognosis in HCC patients (P = 0.003). Results from loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments suggested that knockdown of EYA2 enhanced, while overexpression of EYA2 attenuated, the proliferation, clone formation, invasion, and migration of HCC cells in vitro. Delivery of EYA2 gene had a therapeutic effect on inhibition of orthotopic liver tumor in nude mice. However, EYA2(A510E) mutation led to protein degradation by unfolded protein response, thus weakening the inhibitory function of EYA2. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of EYA2 in mice dramatically promoted diethylnitrosamine-induced HCC development. EYA2 was also down-regulated in HCC by aberrant CpG methylation. Mechanically, EYA2 combined with DACH1 to transcriptionally regulate SOCS3 expression, thus suppressing the progression of HCC via SOCS3-mediated blockade of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

Conclusions: In our study, we identified and validated EYA2 as a tumor suppressor gene in HCC, providing a new insight into HCC pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-021-01377-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8157759PMC
May 2021

Robotic surfaces with reversible, spatiotemporal control for shape morphing and object manipulation.

Sci Robot 2021 Apr;6(53)

Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91105, USA.

Continuous and controlled shape morphing is essential for soft machines to conform, grasp, and move while interacting safely with their surroundings. Shape morphing can be achieved with two-dimensional (2D) sheets that reconfigure into target 3D geometries, for example, using stimuli-responsive materials. However, most existing solutions lack the ability to reprogram their shape, face limitations on attainable geometries, or have insufficient mechanical stiffness to manipulate objects. Here, we develop a soft, robotic surface that allows for large, reprogrammable, and pliable shape morphing into smooth 3D geometries. The robotic surface consists of a layered design composed of two active networks serving as artificial muscles, one passive network serving as a skeleton, and cover scales serving as an artificial skin. The active network consists of a grid of strips made of heat-responsive liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) containing stretchable heating coils. The magnitude and speed of contraction of the LCEs can be controlled by varying the input electric currents. The 1D contraction of the LCE strips activates in-plane and out-of-plane deformations; these deformations are both necessary to transform a flat surface into arbitrary 3D geometries. We characterize the fundamental deformation response of the layers and derive a control scheme for actuation. We demonstrate that the robotic surface provides sufficient mechanical stiffness and stability to manipulate other objects. This approach has potential to address the needs of a range of applications beyond shape changes, such as human-robot interactions and reconfigurable electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scirobotics.abf5116DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of bevacizumab combined with oxaliplatin intrathoracic injection on tumor markers and survival rate in patients with malignant pleural effusion of lung cancer.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(4):2899-2906. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University Nanning 530021, Guangxi, China.

Objective: This study aims to explore the therapeutic effects of bevacizumab combined with oxaliplatin on patients with malignant pleural effusion of lung cancer.

Methods: A total of 109 patients with malignant pleural effusion of lung cancer admitted to our hospital from March 2015 to April 2017 were selected as research objects. Among them, 59 patients treated with bevacizumab combined with oxaliplatin intrathoracic injection were enrolled in the observation group, and another 50 patients treated with oxaliplatin intrathoracic injection were enrolled in the regular group. Clinical efficacy and safety of the two groups were compared, as well as the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and tumor markers before and after treatment. The two groups of patients were followed up for 3 years to compare their prognosis, survival and quality of life.

Results: The cure rate of the observation group was higher than that of the regular group ( < 0.05), but there was no difference in the incidence of adverse reactions ( > 0.05). After treatment, VEGF, VEGFR and tumor markers in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the regular group ( < 0.05), while the survival rate and quality of life of the observation group were significantly higher than those in the regular group ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Bevacizumab combined with oxaliplatin intrathoracic injection is effective in treating malignant pleural effusion of lung cancer.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129278PMC
April 2021

Differential diagnosis of benign and malignant vertebral fracture on CT using deep learning.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of deep learning using ResNet50 in differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral fracture on CT.

Methods: A dataset of 433 patients confirmed with 296 malignant and 137 benign fractures was retrospectively selected from our spinal CT image database. A senior radiologist performed visual reading to evaluate six imaging features, and three junior radiologists gave diagnostic prediction. A ROI was placed on the most abnormal vertebrae, and the smallest square bounding box was generated. The input channel into ResNet50 network was 3, including the slice with its two neighboring slices. The diagnostic performance was evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation. After obtaining the malignancy probability from all slices in a patient, the highest probability was assigned to that patient to give the final diagnosis, using the threshold of 0.5.

Results: Visual features such as soft tissue mass and bone destruction were highly suggestive of malignancy; the presence of a transverse fracture line was highly suggestive of a benign fracture. The reading by three radiologists with 5, 3, and 1 year of experience achieved an accuracy of 99%, 95.2%, and 92.8%, respectively. In ResNet50 analysis, the per-slice diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 0.90, 0.79, and 85%. When the slices were combined to ve per-patient diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 0.95, 0.80, and 88%.

Conclusion: Deep learning has become an important tool for the detection of fractures on CT. In this study, ResNet50 achieved good accuracy, which can be further improved with more cases and optimized methods for future clinical implementation.

Key Points: • Deep learning using ResNet50 can yield a high accuracy for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant vertebral fracture on CT. • The per-slice diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 0.90, 0.79, and 85% in deep learning using ResNet50 analysis. • The slices combined with per-patient diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 0.95, 0.80, and 88% in deep learning using ResNet50 analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08014-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Arsenic co-carcinogenesis: Inhibition of DNA repair and interaction with zinc finger proteins.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA. Electronic address:

Arsenic is widely present in the environment and is associated with various population health risks including cancers. Arsenic exposure at environmentally relevant levels enhances the mutagenic effect of other carcinogens such as ultraviolet radiation. Investigation on the molecular mechanisms could inform the prevention and intervention strategies of arsenic carcinogenesis and co-carcinogenesis. Arsenic inhibition of DNA repair has been demonstrated to be an important mechanism, and certain DNA repair proteins have been identified to be extremely sensitive to arsenic exposure. This review will summarize the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of arsenic carcinogenesis and co-carcinogenesis, including DNA damage induction and ROS generation, particularly how arsenic inhibits DNA repair through an integrated molecular mechanism which includes its interactions with sensitive zinc finger DNA repair proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2021.05.009DOI Listing
May 2021

Efficient calibration method of total polarimetric errors in a channeled spectropolarimeter.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):3623-3628

An efficient calibration method of total polarimetric errors in a channeled spectropolarimeter (CSP) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Total polarimetric errors, including alignment and retardance errors as well as those caused by nonideal retarders and the polarizer in CSP, are considered and calibrated. We first construct the calibrated modulation matrix of CSP by directly measuring the Mueller matrix spectrum of the polarization module in CSP. Compared to previously reported calibration works that required 1074 measurements, our calibration requires only 16 individual measurements, which reduces the measurement time by 67-fold while ensuring high accuracy with a maximum rms error less than 0.02. Further experimental test on three types of different CSP systems confirms the efficiency, reliability, and accuracy of the proposed calibration method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.424381DOI Listing
May 2021

Doxycycline Significantly Enhances Induction of iPSCs to Endoderm by Enhancing survival via AKT Phosphorylation.

Hepatology 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide an important tool for the generation of patient-derived cells, including hepatocyte-like cells, via developmental cues through an endoderm intermediate. However, most iPSC lines fail to differentiate into endoderm, with induction resulting in apoptosis. To address this issue, we built upon published methods to develop an improved protocol. We discovered that doxycycline dramatically enhances the efficiency of iPSC to endoderm differentiation by inhibiting apoptosis and promoting proliferation via the AKT (protein kinase B) pathway. We tested this new protocol in more than 70 iPSC lines, 90% of which consistently formed complete sheets of endoderm. Endoderm generated by our method achieves similar transcriptomic profiles, expression of endoderm protein markers, and the ability to be further differentiated to downstream lineages. Furthermore, this method achieves a four-fold increase in endoderm cell number and will accelerate studies of human diseases in vitro and facilitate the expansion of iPSC-derived cells for transplantation studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31898DOI Listing
May 2021

Porphyromonas gingivalis infection exacerbates oesophageal cancer and promotes resistance to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Br J Cancer 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

VCU Philips Institute for Oral Health Research, Department of Oral and Craniofacial Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry, Richmond, VA, USA.

Background: The effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) infection on oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) prognosis, chemotherapeutic efficacy, and oesophageal cancer cell apoptosis resistance and proliferation remain poorly understood.

Methods: Clinicopathological data from 312 ESCC oesophagectomy patients, along with the computed tomography imaging results and longitudinal cancerous tissue samples from a patient subset (n = 85) who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), were analysed. Comparison of overall survival and response rate to NACT between Pg-infected and Pg-uninfected patients was made by multivariate Cox analysis and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours v.1.1 criteria. The influence of Pg on cell proliferation and drug-induced apoptosis was examined in ESCC patients and validated in vitro and in vivo.

Results: The 5-year overall survival was lower in Pg-positive patients, and infection was associated with multiple clinicopathological factors and pathologic tumour, node, metastasis stage. Of the 85 patients who received NACT, Pg infection was associated with a lower response rate and 5-year overall survival. Infection with Pg resulted in apoptosis resistance in ESCC and promoted ESCC cell viability, which was confirmed in longitudinal cancerous tissue samples. Pg-induced apoptosis resistance was dependent on fimbriae and STAT3.

Conclusions: Pg infection is associated with a worse ESCC prognosis, reduced chemotherapy efficacy, and can potentiate the aggressive behaviour of ESCC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01419-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Relationship between Honesty-Humility and Cyberbullying Perpetration: A Moderated Mediation Model.

J Interpers Violence 2021 May 12:8862605211016346. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Education, Renmin University of China, Beijing, China.

Previous studies have verified the roles of big five personalities in cyberbullying perpetration (CP). The Big Five model has been revised to include an additional dimension, called Honesty-Humility (HH). It is not clear whether HH would be associated with CP. Thus, the effect of HH on CP was examined. To further explore this influencing mechanism, materialism was examined as a mediator, and parental psychological control (PPC) was examined as a moderator in the relationship between HH and CP. A total of 1,004 Chinese adolescents ( = 12.95, =1.12) participated in this study using a cross-sectional design and multiple questionnaires, namely, the Honesty-Humility subscale of the 24-item Brief HEXACO Inventory, the Revised Cyber Bullying Inventory, the Material Values Scale for Children, and the Parental Control Questionnaire. Correlation analyses indicated that CP, materialism, and PPC were significantly and positively correlated with each other, and were significantly and negatively associated with HH. The mediation model revealed that materialism played a mediating role in the relationship between HH and CP. The moderated mediation model revealed that stronger PPC strengthened the direct associations of HH with materialism and CP, and further strengthened the indirect relationship between HH and CP. Specifically, Chinese adolescents with lower levels of HH were more likely to build material values and further engaged in cyberbullying perpetration, when they perceived stronger PPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/08862605211016346DOI Listing
May 2021

Aptamer-based lateral flow assay on-site biosensors.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Apr 24;186:113279. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

School of Information and Communication Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731, China. Electronic address:

The lateral flow assay (LFA) is a widely used paper-based on-site biosensor that can detect target analytes and obtain test results in several minutes. Generally, antibodies are utilized as the biorecognition molecules in the LFA. However, antibodies selected using an in vivo process not only may risk killing the animal hosts and causing errors between different batches but also their range is restricted by the refrigerated conditions used to store them. To avoid these limitations, aptamers screened by an in vitro process have been studied as biorecognition molecules in LFAs. Based on the sandwich or competitive format, the aptamer-based LFA can accomplish on-site detection of target analytes. Since aptamers have a distinctive ability to undergo conformational changes, the adsorption-desorption format has also been exploited to detect target analytes in aptamer-based LFAs. This paper reviews developments in aptamer-based LFAs in the last three years for the detection of target analytes. Three formats of aptamer-based LFAs, i.e., sandwich, competitive, and adsorption-desorption, are described in detail. Based on these formats, signal amplification strategies and multiplexed detection are discussed in order to provide an overview of aptamer-based LFAs for on-site detection of target analytes. In addition, the potential commercialization and future perspectives of aptamer-based LFAs for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 are given to support the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113279DOI Listing
April 2021

Highly Permeable Polyamide Nanofiltration Membrane Mediated by an Upscalable Wet-Laid EVOH Nanofibrous Scaffold.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 7;13(19):23142-23152. Epub 2021 May 7.

Key Laboratory of Textile Fiber and Products, Ministry of Education, Hubei International Scientific and Technological Cooperation Base of Intelligent Textile Materials & Application, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430200, China.

For energy-saving purposes, the pursuit of ultrahigh permeance nanofiltration membranes without sacrificing selectivity is never-ending in desalination, wastewater treatment, and industrial product separation. Herein, we reported a novel facile route to engineer a highly porous and superhydrophilic nanofibrous substrate to mediate the interfacial polymerization between trimesoyl chloride and piperazine, generating an ultrathin PA active layer (∼13 nm) with a hierarchical crumpled surface. The wet laying process and subsequent plasma treatment endowed a rougher and more hydrophilic surface for ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) nanofibers in the thin compact nanofibrous scaffold (∼9 μm) with a mean pore size of 210 nm, radically different from the nanofibrous membrane by other methods. Nanofibrous scaffold with these features provide abundant thin-thick alternative continuous water layers between nanofibers and organic phase, facilitating the formation of the abovementioned PA layer. As a result, an ultrahigh permeance of 42.25 L·m h bar and a reasonably high rejection of 95.97% to 1000 ppm NaSO feed solution were obtained, superior to most state-of-the-art NF membranes reported so far. Our work provides an easy and scalable method to fabricate advanced PA NF membranes with outstanding performance, highlighting its great potential in liquid separation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02776DOI Listing
May 2021

Salivary Porphyromonas gingivalis predicts outcome in oral squamous cell carcinomas: a cohort study.

BMC Oral Health 2021 05 3;21(1):228. Epub 2021 May 3.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School & Hospita1 of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Studies suggest Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) increased the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, fimA genotypes distribution of Pg, the origination of Pg in tissue, and its prognostic value are inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the frequency of fimA genotypes in OSCC patients, study the association between Pg and OSCC, and explore the prognostic value of Pg.

Methods: The abundance of Pg in saliva from the OSCC group and the OSCC-free group was analysed by qPCR. The presence of Pg was explored in OSCC tissue and para-cancerous tissue by in situ hybridization. The frequency of fimA genotypes in saliva and OSCC tissue was determined by PCR, then PCR products were sequenced and compared. Clinical data were extracted, and patients followed up for a median period of 23 months. Clinicopathological variables were compared with the abundance of Pg using Pearson Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. The disease-free survival (DFS) rate was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank tests.

Results: Comparing the OSCC-free group, 95 patients with OSCC showed a high abundance of Pg in saliva (P = 0.033), and OSCC tissue showed strong in situ expression of Pg compared with paired normal tissue. Patients with OSCC showed a dominant distribution of Pg with genotype I + Ib (21.1%), II (31.6%), and IV (21.1%). FimA genotypes detected in saliva were in accordance with those in OSCC tissue, there was, moreover, a significant similarity in amplified Pg fragments. Of the 94 responsive OSCC patients, the recurrence rate was 26.6% (25/94). Overabundance of Pg in saliva showed advanced pathologic staging (P = 0.008), longer disease-free time (P = 0.029) and lower recurrence rate (P = 0.033). The overabundance of Pg in saliva was associated with improved disease-free survival (P = 0.049).

Conclusions: This study indicated that Pg might involve in the pathogenesis of OSCC, Pg carrying fimA I, Ib, II, and IV were prevalent genotypes in patients with OSCC, the provenance of Pg in OSCC tissue might be from the salivary microbial reservoir, and the abundance of Pg in saliva might consider as a favorable potential prognostic indicator in OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01580-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091688PMC
May 2021

Recent advances in polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (Berk.): Isolation, structures and bioactivities.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 20;358:129883. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Food Science & Engineering, Northwest University, No. 229 Taibai North Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069, China. Electronic address:

Lentinus edodes, an important edible mushroom cultivated in East Asia for thousands of years, has been widely used as food and medicinal ingredient worldwide. Modern phytochemistry studies have demonstrated that L. edodes is very rich in bioactive polysaccharides, especially the β-glucans. Over the past two decades, the isolation, chemical properties, and bioactivities of polysaccharides from fruiting bodies, mycelium and fermentation broth of L. edodes have been drawing much attention from scholars around the world. It has been demonstrated that L. edodes polysaccharides possess various remarkable biological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-aging, anti-inflammation, immunomodulatory, antiviral, and hepatoprotection effects. This review summarizes the recent development of polysaccharides from L. edodes including the isolation methods, structural features, bioactivities and mechanisms, and their structure-activity relationship, which can provide useful research underpinnings and update information for their further application as therapeutic agents and functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129883DOI Listing
October 2021

A sensitive and quantitative prognosis of C-reactive protein at picogram level using mesoporous silica encapsulated core-shell up-conversion nanoparticle based lateral flow strip assay.

Talanta 2021 Aug 23;230:122335. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Automation Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731, PR China. Electronic address:

C- reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive indicator for infectious or inflammatory diseases in human which can reflect the body's inflammation latency and early pathophysiological changes. The most common detection method of serum CRP is ELISA that has been proved to be expensive and time-consuming, restricting its use in point-of-care application. In this paper, we demonstrated a lateral flow system for CRP quantification by using mesoporous silica (mSiO) coated up-converting nanoparticles (UCNPs) (denoted as [email protected]) as fluorescent labels. The up-converting core can emit strong green fluorescence signals under NIR excitation light (980 nm) with excellent photostability, high signal-to-noise ratio and low background fluorescence. By wrapping ultrathin mSiO outside, the core-shell structured [email protected] exhibits good dispersity and stability meanwhile maintains strong fluorescence emission. Besides, the mSiO shell provides further functionalities for antibody linkage. By using a portable fluorescence sensor, we reached a CRP detection limit of 0.05 ng/mL and a linear range from 0.1 ng/mL-50 ng/mL, and the detection time was no more than 8 min. The lateral flow test strips exhibit great stability in CRP quantification (CV%<5) and have a life time of more than 1 week at ambient temperature. Furthermore, the proposed system can work with a cloud-enabled smartphone through Bluetooth for Internet of Medical Things application. This CRP detection method proves to be rapid and easy-operated, which has great potential in early inflammatory disease perception in the point-of-care tests and future's 5G-enabled remote healthcare management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122335DOI Listing
August 2021

[Effect characteristics and mechanism of acupuncture in autonomic nerve regulation].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2021 Apr;46(4):335-41

Key Laboratory of Acupuncture and Medicine Research of Ministry of Education; School of Acupuncture and Tuina, School of Regimen and Rehabilitation, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect characteristics and mechanism of acupuncture in autonomic nerve regulation through a comprehensive literature analysis.

Methods: CNKI and PubMed databases were searched for the studies on acupuncture in autonomic nerve regulation in the past 30 years, and Excel was used to perform a descriptive analysis of research subjects, intervention methods, intervention sites (acupoint selection), intervention parameters, and effect mechanism of acupuncture.

Results: A total of 202 studies were included, among which there were 51 clinical studies, mostly on the nervous system and the circulatory system; Neiguan (PC6), Zusanli (ST36), Fengchi (GB20), and Hegu (LI4) were the most frequently used acupoints, manual acupuncture was the most common intervention method, most of the acupoints selected were in the extremities, head, face, and neck, and heart rate variability was the main parameter for evaluation. Among the 151 animal experimental studies, there were many studies on the digestive system and the circulatory system; "Zusanli" (ST36), "Neiguan" (PC6), and "Shenmen" (HT7) were the most frequently used acupoints, electroacupuncture was the most common intervention method, most of the acupoints selected were in the extremities, and the main effect mechanism was to regulate the central vagus nerve activity and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP).

Conclusion: Acupuncture has a good effect on autonomic nerve regulation. The acupoints in extremities, head, and face are mainly used in studies. The main action pathways are central vagus nerve activity and CAP, as demonstrated in the animal experiments. Acupuncture has specific effect characteristics, which are closely associated with the acupoints, methods, and parameters of stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.200665DOI Listing
April 2021

Frequency, predictors, and prognosis of heart failure with improved left ventricular ejection fraction: a single-centre retrospective observational cohort study.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

The Fuwai Yunnan Cardiovascular Hospital, Department of Arrhythmia, Kunming Medical University, The No. 528# of North Shahe Road, Kunming, 650032, China.

Aims: An improved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFiEF) was observed across heart failure (HF) patients with a reduced or mid-range ejection fraction (HFrEF or HFmrEF, respectively). We postulated that HFiEF patients are clinically distinct from non-HFiEF patients.

Methods And Results: A total of 447 patients hospitalized due to a clinical diagnosis of HF (LVEF <50% at baseline) were enrolled from September 2017 to September 2019. Echocardiogram re-evaluation was conducted repeatedly over 6 months of follow-up after discharge. The primary endpoint included the composite of HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Subjects (n = 184) with HFiEF (defined as an absolute LVEF improvement≥10%) were compared with 263 non-HFiEF (defined by <10% improvement in LVEF) subjects. Multivariable Cox regression was performed and identified younger age, smaller left ventricular end diastolic dimension (LVEDD), beta-blocker use, AF ablation and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) as independent predictors of HFiEF. According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, HFiEF subjects had lower cardiac composite outcomes (P = 0.002) and all-cause mortality (P = 0.003) than non-HFiEF subjects. Multivariate Cox survival analysis revealed that non-HFiEF (compared with HFiEF) was an independent predictor of both the primary endpoints (HR = 0.679, 95% CI: 0.451-0.907, P = 0.012), which was driven by all-cause mortality (HR = 0.504, 95% CI: 0.256-0.991, P = 0.047).

Conclusions: These data confirm that compared with non-HFiEF, HFiEF is a distinct HF phenotype with favourable clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13345DOI Listing
May 2021

Microwave-Assisted Chitosan-Functionalized Graphene Oxide as Controlled Intracellular Drug Delivery Nanosystem for Synergistic Antitumour Activity.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Apr 30;16(1):75. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Ophthalmogy, Shanghai General Hospital (Shanghai First People's Hospital), School of Global Health, Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center/Shanghai Eye Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Eye Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Ocular Fundus Diseases, Shanghai Engineering Center for Visual Science and Photomedicine, Shanghai, 200080, People's Republic of China.

To achieve better antitumour efficacy, it is urgent to improve anticancer drug delivery efficiency in targeting cancer cells. In this work, chitosan-functionalized graphene oxide (ChrGO) nanosheets were fabricated via microwave-assisted reduction, which were employed to the intracellular delivery nanosystem for anticancer drug agent in breast cancer cells. Drug loading and release research indicated that adriamycin can be efficiently loaded on and released from the ChrGO nanosheets. Less drug release during delivery and better biocompatibility of ChrGO/adriamycin significantly improve its safety and therapeutic efficacy in HER2-overexpressing BT-474 cells. Furthermore, ChrGO/adriamycin in combination with trastuzumab exhibited synergistic antitumour activity in BT-474 cells, which demonstrated superior therapeutic efficacy compared with each drug alone. Cells treated with trastuzumab (5 μg/mL) or equivalent ChrGO/adriamycin (5 μg/mL) each elicited 54.5% and 59.5% cell death, respectively, while the combination treatment with trastuzumab and ChrGO/adriamycin resulted in a dramatic 88.5% cell death. The dual-targeted therapy displayed higher apoptosis, indicating superior therapeutic efficacy due to the presence of different mechanisms of action. The combined treatment of ChrGO/adriamycin and trastuzumab in BT-474 cells induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which ultimately led to the death of augmented cancer cells. This work has provided a facile microwave-assisted fabrication of ChrGO as a controlled and targeted intracellular drug delivery nanosystem, which is expected to be a novel promising therapy for treating HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03525-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087749PMC
April 2021

Reconfigurable Continuous Meta-Grating for Broadband Polarization Conversion and Perfect Absorption.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610101, China.

As promising building blocks for functional materials and devices, metasurfaces have gained widespread attention in recent years due to their unique electromagnetic (EM) properties, as well as subwavelength footprints. However, current designs based on discrete unit cells often suffer from low working efficiencies, narrow operation bandwidths, and fixed EM functionalities. Here, by employing the superior performance of a continuous metasurface, combined with the reconfigurable properties of a phase change material (PCM), a dual-functional meta-grating is proposed in the infrared region, which can achieve a broadband polarization conversion of over 90% when the PCM is in an amorphous state, and a perfect EM absorption larger than 91% when the PCM changes to a crystalline state. Moreover, by arranging the meta-grating to form a quasi-continuous metasurface, subsequent simulations indicated that the designed device exhibited an ultralow specular reflectivity below 10% and a tunable thermal emissivity from 14.5% to 91%. It is believed that the proposed devices with reconfigurable EM responses have great potential in the field of emissivity control and infrared camouflage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123401PMC
April 2021