Publications by authors named "Kazuyoshi Funato"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Risk factors of poor prognosis and impairment of activities of daily living in patients with hemorrhagic gastroduodenal ulcers.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Jan 6;21(1):16. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, 1 Kanda-Izumi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-8643, Japan.

Background: Impairment of activities of daily living (ADL) due to hemorrhagic gastroduodenal ulcers (HGU) has rarely been evaluated. We analyzed the risk factors of poor prognosis, including mortality and impairment of ADL, in patients with HGU.

Methods: In total, 582 patients diagnosed with HGU were retrospectively analyzed. Admission to a care facility or the need for home adaptations during hospitalization were defined as ADL decline. The clinical factors were evaluated: endoscopic features, need for interventional endoscopic procedures, comorbidities, symptoms, and medications. The risk factors of outcomes were examined with multivariate analysis.

Results: Advanced age (> 75 years) was a significant predictor of poor prognosis, including impairment of ADL. Additional significant risk factors were renal disease (odds ratio [OR] 3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-8.14) for overall mortality, proton pump inhibitor (PPIs) usage prior to hemorrhage (OR 5.80; 95% CI 2.08-16.2), and heart disease (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.11-8.43) for the impairment of ADL. Analysis of elderly (> 75 years) subjects alone also revealed that use of PPIs prior to hemorrhage was a significant predictor for the impairment of ADL (OR 8.24; 95% CI 2.36-28.7).

Conclusion: In addition to advanced age, the presence of comorbidities was a risk of poor outcomes in patients with HGU. PPI use prior to hemorrhage was a significant risk factor for the impairment of ADL, both in overall HGU patients and in elderly patients alone. These findings suggest that the current strategy for PPI use needs reconsideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01580-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789673PMC
January 2021

The fatty-acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 inhibits MICA/B shedding.

Sci Rep 2020 09 23;10(1):15556. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

MICA/B proteins are expressed on the surface of various types of stressed cells, including cancer cells. Cytotoxic lymphocytes expressing natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor recognize MICA/B and eliminate the cells. However, cancer cells evade such immune recognition by inducing proteolytic shedding of MICA/B proteins. Therefore, preventing the shedding of MICA/B proteins could enhance antitumor immunity. Here, by screening a protease inhibitor library, we found that the fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, URB597, suppresses the shedding of MICA/B. URB597 significantly reduced the soluble MICA level in culture medium and increased the MICA level on the surface of cancer cells. The effect was indirect, being mediated by increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3). Knockdown of TIMP3 expression reversed the effect of URB597, confirming that TIMP3 is required for the MICA shedding inhibition by URB597. In contrast, FAAH overexpression reduced TIMP3 expression and the cell-surface MICA level and increased the soluble MICA level. These results suggest that inhibition of FAAH could prevent human cancer cell evasion of immune-mediated clearance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72688-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7512021PMC
September 2020

Long-term survival after palliative argon plasma coagulation for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct.

Clin J Gastroenterol 2021 Feb 10;14(1):314-318. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, 1 Kanda-Izumi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-8643, Japan.

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is an epithelial tumor that can cause obstructive jaundice and cholangitis due to mucin production. Although the effectiveness of argon plasma coagulation in IPNB treatment has been demonstrated, the long-term effect of the therapy is largely unknown. Here, we have presented a patient with IPNB who underwent argon plasma coagulation with a follow-up period of more than 2 years. A 74-year-old woman was referred to our department for treatment of obstructive jaundice. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed marked dilation of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts and thick mucin drainage from the ampulla of Vater. IPNB was diagnosed pathologically from biopsy specimens. Surgery was not recommended because of the extensive intrahepatic spread of the lesion. Endoscopic sphincterotomy, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation, and insertion of a metallic stent could not resolve the obstructive jaundice. Finally, argon plasma coagulation with percutaneous cholangioscopy was performed 3 times over 1 month. After treatment, obstructive jaundice was resolved and the patient's clinical condition has been stable for more than 2 years, except for a single episode of transient cholangitis. In conclusion, argon plasma coagulation may be an alternative to surgery for the palliation of jaundice with IPNB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12328-020-01199-0DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of the Sensitivity to Empiric Antibiotics on Clinical Outcomes after Biliary Drainage for Acute Cholangitis.

Gut Liver 2020 11;14(6):842-849

Department of Gastroenterology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background/aims: Empiric antibiotics are given in combination with biliary drainage for acute cholangitis but sometimes turn out to be insensitive to microorganisms in blood and bile. Clinical outcomes were compared according to sensitivity to microorganisms detected in blood and bile culture to evaluate the impact of sensitivity to empiric antibiotics in cholangitis.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent biliary drainage for acute cholangitis were retrospectively studied. Clinical outcomes such as 30-day mortality, length of hospital stay and high care unit stay, organ dysfunction and duration of fever were compared in three groups: group A (sensitive to both blood and bile culture), group B (sensitive to blood culture alone) and group C (insensitive to both blood and bile culture).

Results: Eighty episodes of cholangitis were classified according to sensitivity results: 42, 32 and six in groups A, B and C. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella were two major pathogens. There were no significant differences in 30-day mortality rate (7%, 0%, and 0%, p=0.244), length of hospital stay (28.5, 21.0, and 20.5 days, p=0.369), organ dysfunction rate (14%, 25%, and 17%, p=0.500), duration of fever (4.3, 3.2, and 3.5 days, p=0.921) and length of high care unit stay (1.4, 1.2, and 1.7 days, p=0.070) in groups A, B and C. Empiric antibiotics were changed in 11 episodes but clinical outcomes appeared to be non-inferior even in 31 episodes of cholangitis who were on inadequate antibiotics throughout the course.

Conclusions: Sensitivity of empiric antibiotics was not associated with clinical outcomes in acute cholangitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl19248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7667925PMC
November 2020

Expression of circular RNA CDR1‑AS in colon cancer cells increases cell surface PD‑L1 protein levels.

Oncol Rep 2019 Oct 19;42(4):1459-1466. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113‑8655, Japan.

The expression of CDR1‑AS, a representative circular RNA, is closely linked with poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancers, such as colon, liver, and pancreatic cancers. Although it is well known that CDR1‑AS antagonizes microRNA‑7 function through its sequence similarities in the brain, its biological function and link with the malignant potential of cancer cells remain unclear, partly due to the difficulties of ectopic expression of circular RNAs. In the present study, SW620, a colon cancer cell line that stably expresses CDR1‑AS RNA circularized, was established using the laccase 2 gene cassette, and its biological function associated with malignant behavior was determined. In contrast to previous studies, cell growth or invasion ability was not altered by CDR1‑AS expression. However, the expression levels of CMTM4 and CMTM6, which were recently recognized as critical regulators of PD‑L1 protein expression at the cell surface, were significantly increased. Accordingly, the cell surface PD‑L1 protein levels were increased in CDR1‑AS‑expressing cells. Notably, the effects were not canceled out by overexpressing microRNA‑7, indicating that the increase in cell surface PD‑L1 in CDR1‑AS‑expressing cells was not dependent on microRNA‑7 function. These results indicated that expression of this circular RNA in cancer cells may lead to poor prognosis by increasing cell surface PD‑L1 levels through microRNA‑7‑independent mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2019.7244DOI Listing
October 2019

Pevonedistat, a Neuronal Precursor Cell-Expressed Developmentally Down-Regulated Protein 8-Activating Enzyme Inhibitor, Is a Potent Inhibitor of Hepatitis B Virus.

Hepatology 2019 05 13;69(5):1903-1915. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern worldwide. To prevent HBV-related mortality, elimination of viral proteins is considered the ultimate goal of HBV treatment; however, currently available nucleos(t)ide analogs rarely achieve this goal, as viral transcription from episomal viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is not prevented. HBV regulatory protein X was recently found to target the protein structural maintenance of chromosomes 5/6 (Smc5/6) for ubiquitination and degradation by DDB1-CUL4-ROC1 E3 ligase, resulting in enhanced viral transcription from cccDNA. This ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal pathway requires an additional ubiquitin-like protein for activation, neuronal precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 8 (NEDD8). Here, we show that pevonedistat, a NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, works efficiently as an antiviral agent. Pevonedistat significantly restored Smc5/6 protein levels and suppressed viral transcription and protein production in the HBV minicircle system in in vitro HBV replication models and in human primary hepatocytes infected naturally with HBV. Conclusion: These results indicate that pevonedistat is a promising compound to treat chronic HBV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30491DOI Listing
May 2019
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