Publications by authors named "Kazuki Abe"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone therapy increases carotid intima-media thickness and plaque score with von Willebrand factor activity elevation in patients with malignant lymphoma.

J Chemother 2021 Oct 18:1-6. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Center for Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Toho University Medical Center Sakura Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

An increased risk for atherosclerosis has been noted in cancer survivors; however, studies that focus on the risk of atherosclerosis in patients treated with chemotherapy are scarce. Therefore, we evaluated 32 patients who received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) therapy for B-cell malignant lymphoma by analysing the changes in atherosclerosis. Just before each treatment course, plasma levels of von Willebrand Factor (vWF) activity were evaluated, and carotid ultrasonography was performed at baseline and after the final treatment. Throughout the follow-up period, plasma vWF levels showed significantly transient increased by approximately 20%-40%. Both mean carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque score (PS) significantly increased during the 36.6 ± 26.0 weeks of observation (mean IMT: 0.724 ± 0.118 to 0.767 ± 0.129 mm; PS: 4.31 ± 3.53 to 4.87 ± 3.88,  < 0.001). Our study suggests that R-CHOP therapy promotes atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1120009X.2021.1988202DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of Conventional Medical Therapy or Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Urinary Albumin in Japanese Subjects with Severe Obesity: An Observational Study.

Obes Facts 2021 Oct 14:1-9. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Center of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Sakura-shi, Japan.

Introduction: In patients with severe obesity, albuminuria can be improved by both conventional medical therapy and bariatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of weight loss achieved through conventional medical therapy or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on albuminuria in Japanese subjects with severe obesity and identify the factors involved.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics including the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) of 340 consecutive subjects with a body mass index ≥35 who received LSG (n = 242) or medical therapy (n = 98) between 2010 and 2018 and were followed for at least 12 months.

Results: The baseline of the UACR was not different between the 2 groups. At the 12-month follow-up, total weight loss (TWL) and decreases in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and loge UACR were greater in the LSG group than in the medical therapy group (body weight; -35.7 kg vs. -8.0 kg, p < 0.001, HbA1c; -1.4% vs. -0.7%, p < 0.001, loge UACR; -0.3 vs. 0.9, p < 0.001). The rate of complete remission of diabetes was significantly higher in the LSG group than in the medical therapy group. At 12 and 36 months (n = 111 in the medical therapy group, n = 56 in the LSG group at 36 months), loge UACR increased in the medical therapy group, while it remained unchanged or decreased in the LSG group. In subjects with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, changes in the loge UACR correlated with percent total body weight loss (%TWL) in both groups at 12 months. Percent TWL contributed independently to the change in the loge UACR, irrespective of whether LSG was performed. In receiver-operating characteristic analysis, a weight loss of 7.8% predicted a decrease in the UACR (∆UACR <0 at 12 months).

Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that albuminuria may increase over time if only medical therapy is continued. To improve albuminuria, weight loss may be more important than whether LSG is performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000519156DOI Listing
October 2021

The Relationship between Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Levels and Body Composition Changes after Sleeve Gastrectomy.

Obes Facts 2021 Oct 14:1-9. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Center for Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Chiba, Japan.

Introduction: We previously reported that preoperative serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a predictor of total weight loss percentage (%TWL) after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). IGF-1 may suppress muscle loss after surgery. IGF-1 almost accurately reflects the growth hormone (GH) secretion status, and GH has lipolytic effects. Therefore, IGF-1 may influence both the maintenance of skeletal muscle and the reduction of adipose tissue after LSG. The identification of the relationship between preoperative serum IGF-1 and body composition changes after LSG can help in understanding the pathophysiology of obesity.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 72 patients with obesity who underwent LSG and were followed up for 12 months. We analyzed the relationship between preoperative serum IGF-1 levels and body composition changes after LSG. A multiple regression model was used.

Results: LSG led to a significant reduction in body weight. Both body fat mass and skeletal muscle mass decreased after LSG. Preoperative serum IGF-1 levels significantly correlated with %TWL, changes in skeletal muscle mass, and body fat mass after LSG. The multiple regression model showed that preoperative serum IGF-1 levels were related to decreased body fat mass and maintaining skeletal muscle mass after LSG.

Discussion/conclusion: Preoperative IGF-1 measurement helps predict not only successful weight loss but also decreases body fat mass and maintains skeletal muscle mass after LSG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000519610DOI Listing
October 2021

Decreased Triglyceride and Increased Serum Lipoprotein Lipase Levels Are Correlated to Increased High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Levels after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

Obes Facts 2021 Oct 11:1-8. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Center for Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Chiba, Japan.

Introduction: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) significantly increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in pre-heparin serum (pre-heparin LPL levels). LPL is a regulator of serum triglyceride (TG) and HDL-C production; this may be the mechanism for HDL-C increase after LSG. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of increase in HDL-C levels by examining the relationship between changes in serum HDL-C levels and LPL after LSG.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 104 obese patients, who underwent LSG and were followed up for 12 months. We analyzed the relationship between changes in serum HDL-C levels and various clinical parameters after LSG.

Results: A significant decrease was observed in the patients' BMI and serum TG levels after LSG. Conversely, HDL-C levels and pre-heparin LPL levels were significantly increased after LSG. Simple linear regression showed that changes in HDL-C levels were significantly correlated with total weight loss percentage, change in TG levels, abdominal fat areas, and pre-heparin LPL levels. Additionally, the multiple regression model revealed that a decrease in TG levels and an increase in pre-heparin LPL levels were correlated with increased HDL-C levels after LSG.

Discussion/conclusion: These results show that a decrease in TG levels and an increase in LPL are mechanisms for increased HDL-C levels after LSG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000519410DOI Listing
October 2021

Impacts of cachexia progression in addition to serum IgG and blood lymphocytes on serum nivolumab in advanced cancer patients.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, 431-3192, Japan.

Purpose: Serum nivolumab concentrations exhibit a large variation in cancer patients. Cancer cachexia inducing systemic inflammation promotes the elimination of endogenous proteins, while its association with serum nivolumab remains unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of cachexia progression in addition to blood components on serum nivolumab in cancer patients.

Methods: Thirty-eight non-small-cell lung cancer or renal cell cancer patients receiving biweekly intravenous nivolumab were enrolled. Blood samples were collected just before dosing at the 7th administration of nivolumab or later. Serum nivolumab together with serum proteins, inflammatory markers, and peripheral blood leukocytes were determined. Cancer cachexia was classified using the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS). Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) were monitored during the study period.

Results: Cancer patients had a large variation in serum nivolumab concentrations (interquartile range, 12-21 µg/mL per mg/kg). The serum nivolumab concentration was positively correlated with serum albumin, while negatively associated with serum globulin and immunoglobulin G (IgG). A negative correlation was observed between serum nivolumab and blood lymphocytes. Regarding cachexia progression, the patients with GPS 2 had a higher serum interleukin-6 concentration and a lower serum nivolumab concentration than those with GPS 0 or 1. The GPS, serum IgG, and blood lymphocytes were identified as independent variables for serum nivolumab. The incidence of irAEs was not associated with the nivolumab dose or serum nivolumab.

Conclusion: Cachexia progression had a negative impact on serum nivolumab in cancer patients. The interindividual variation in serum nivolumab was characterized by cachexia progression in addition to blood components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-021-03199-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Identification and Characterization of Sulfur Heterocyclic Compounds That Contribute to the Acidic Odor of Aged Garlic Extract.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jan 15;69(3):1020-1026. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Laboratory of Aroma Chemistry, Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri City, Hokkaido 099-2493, Japan.

The aroma of aged garlic extract (AGE) has been recently characterized as a complexity of seasoning-like, metallic, fatty, and acidic notes; most of the important aroma compounds were identified in a previous study. Besides the 25 previously identified aromas of AGE, several of the odor compounds that contribute to the acidic notes were isolated and identified using various analytical techniques, including gas chromatography coupled with an olfactometry monitoring system (GC-O), accurate and high-performance preparative GC system, GC-MS analysis, and sensory evaluation. The identified aromas include: 2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dithiolane, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dithiane, and 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dithiane. Interestingly, AGE contains all stereoscopic isomers of each of these components. An aroma recombinant composed of the newly identified acidic odors with other key odorants showed good agreement with the aroma of AGE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06634DOI Listing
January 2021

Prognostic value of quantitative FDG-PET in the prediction of survival and local recurrence for patients with advanced oral cancer treated with superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy.

Oncol Lett 2020 Jun 27;19(6):3775-3780. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Aomori 036-8562, Japan.

The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) standardized uptake value (SUV) [pre-treatment SUV (pre-SUV) and post-treatment SUV (post-SUV)] and treatment results in patients with advanced oral cancer treated with superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy (SSIACRT). A total of 37 patients with advanced oral cancer were treated with SSIACRT. The treatment consisted of superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (docetaxel (DOC) 40 mg/mm and nedaplatin (CDGP) 80 mg/mm) and concurrent radiotherapy (60-70 Gy) for a period of seven weeks. Pre-SUV and post-SUV of the primary tumor were measured. Overall survival (OS) and local control (LC) rates were selected as endpoints to evaluate prognosis. The median follow-up was 40 months (range 6-112 months). The 5-year OS and LC rates were 64.5 and 85.5%, respectively, and SSIACRT achieved high LC rate even in advanced oral cancers. In the log-rank test, post-SUV was a significant prognostic factor for OS and LC rates. The results of the current study demonstrated that SSIACRT is a reliable treatment with respect to survival in advanced oral cancer and post-SUV was a significant prognostic factor for OS and LC rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202323PMC
June 2020

Volatile compounds of fresh and processed garlic.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Feb 27;19(2):1585-1593. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Laboratory of Aroma Chemistry, Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Abashiri, Hokkaido 099-2493, Japan.

Garlic is used as a spice in cooking due to its unique aroma. The unique aroma of garlic has attracted considerable attention from scientists. The cloves contain large amounts of sulfur-based substances, which as a consequence of their reactive properties, are converted easily to a variety of volatile compounds during processing. The volatile profiles of processed garlic are influenced by processing conditions, such as temperature, pH and solvent. Numerous studies on these changes in volatile compounds that occur during processing have been reported, with a number of types of sulfur-containing volatile compounds being identified in fresh and processed garlic. This review summarizes the volatile components of fresh and processed garlic, particularly those produced by heating and aging. The pungent odor of fresh garlic is contributed mainly to thiosulfinates and their degradation products. During the heating process of garlic, thiosulfinates are mainly decomposed, and nitrogen-containing volatile compounds, such as pyridines and pyrazines are generated. Aldehydes are dominant compounds in black garlic, while esters and phenols are key aroma compounds in aged garlic extract. The slight variations in chemical reactions during the aging process may lead to differences in the aroma of the two types of garlic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2019.8394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6966211PMC
February 2020

Characterization of key aroma compounds in aged garlic extract.

Food Chem 2020 May 24;312:126081. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Laboratory of Aroma Chemistry, Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka Abashiri, City Hokkaido 099-2493, Japan. Electronic address:

We analyzed the aroma of aged garlic extract (AGE) using a sensomics approach to elucidate the effect of the aging process on AGE aroma. Sensory analysis showed a high intensity of the "acid", "seasoning," and "metallic" odor in AGE. The aroma of AGE exhibited more complex notes compared to those of fresh garlic which were characterized as "pungent." Aroma components of AGE were evaluated using aroma extract dilution analysis. Thirty-nine odorants were detected as key odorants in AGE. Allyl methyl sulfide (sulfury), 2-methoxyphenol (smoky), 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (seasoning-like), eugenol (spicy) and ethyl butanoate (fruity), which were mostly absent in fresh garlic, contributed to the AGE aroma. These results suggest that chemical reactions that occur during the aging process of garlic are important for the development of the characteristic aroma of AGE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.126081DOI Listing
May 2020

Matrix effect-corrected liquid chromatography/tandem mass-spectrometric method for determining acylcarnitines in human urine.

Clin Chim Acta 2017 May 6;468:187-194. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574, Japan; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574, Japan. Electronic address:

Administration of pivalate-containing antibiotics decreases serum carnitine and increases urinary pivaloylcarnitine, resulting in hypocarnitinemia. Carnitine and acylcarnitines are important biomarkers in the diagnosis of carnitine deficiency, but the relationship between acylcarnitines and drug-induced hypocarnitinemia remains unclear. Quantification of acylcarnitines enables discovery of new biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of drug-induced hypocarnitinemia. Here we describe a liquid chromatography/tandem mass-spectrometric method for simultaneously quantifying carnitine, 15 acylcarnitines, and cefditoren (the pivoxilated product of an antibiotic prodrug) in human urine. The matrix effect is corrected in 87.8-103% using deuterium-labeled internal standards (H-carnitine, H-hexanoylcarnitine, and H-stearoylcarnitine). The surrogate matrix method had an error of <13% in comparison with a standard addition method. Dynamic ranges were 0.1-100μmol/l for acylcarnitines and 0.3-300μg/ml for cefditoren. Both accuracy and precision were <19.7% at the lower limit of quantification and <14.8% for other quality controls. In an example application of this method, urine samples from eight healthy volunteers (five adults and three children) were analyzed, and individual differences were clearly observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2017.03.001DOI Listing
May 2017

Bathtub vortex induced by instability.

Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 2014 Oct 17;90(4):041002. Epub 2014 Oct 17.

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan.

The driving mechanism and the swirl direction of the bathtub vortex are investigated by the linear stability analysis of the no-vortex flow as well as numerical simulations. We find that only systems having plane symmetries with respect to vertical planes deserve research for the swirl direction. The bathtub vortex appearing in a vessel with a rectangular cross section having a drain hole at the center of the bottom is proved to be induced by instability when the flow rate exceeds a threshold. The Coriolis force is capable of determining the swirl direction to be cyclonic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.90.041002DOI Listing
October 2014

Hepatic protection by glycyrrhizin and inhibition of iNOS expression in concanavalin A-induced liver injury in mice.

Inflamm Res 2009 Sep 31;58(9):593-9. Epub 2009 Mar 31.

Pharmacological Research Department, Minophagen Pharmaceutical Co., 2-2-3, Komatsubara, Zama, Kanagawa, 228-0002, Japan.

Objective And Design: In this study, the possible protective effect of glycyrrhizin (GL), an active compound derived from licorice root, was examined on T cell-mediated liver injury in mice.

Materials And Methods: Mice were subjected to liver injury by intravenous injection of concanavalin A (Con A). They had been treated with GL (i.p.) 30 min before the injection. Liver injury was estimated by measuring serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and by examining liver sections with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein in the liver was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting.

Results: Serum transaminases and hepatic iNOS levels increased with time after Con A treatment. Expression of iNOS mRNA in the liver was elevated for up to 8 h, and at 8 h, GL (ED(50): 10.5 mg/kg) suppressed the increases in AST and ALT in response to Con A. An increase in iNOS mRNA expression and protein was inhibited by treatment with GL. Furthermore, GL inhibited cell infiltration and the degeneration of hepatocytes in the liver of Con A-treated mice.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that the prevention by GL of Con A-induced hepatitis is due partly to the modulation of hepatic iNOS induction and of degeneration of hepatocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-009-0024-8DOI Listing
September 2009

The inhibition of apoptosis by glycyrrhizin in hepatic injury induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide / D-galactosamine in mice.

Arch Histol Cytol 2008 Nov;71(3):163-78

Department of Anatomy II, School of Dental Medicine, Tsurumi University, Yokohama, Japan.

The inhibition of apoptosis by glycyrrhizin (GL) in hepatic injury induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN) was examined in the present study. Morphological and biochemical analyses of LPS/D-GalN-induced mouse liver injury revealed that apoptosis occurred exclusively in injured hepatocytes of the centrilobular area. The degree of hepatic injury was associated with a substantial number of hepatocytes undergoing apoptosis. Transaminase levels were significantly increased at 6 to 8 h after the injection of LPS/D-GalN compared with controls. GL inhibited the elevation of serum transaminase levels when it was given to mice at 30 min before the administration of LPS/D-GalN. Morphological analyses using the TUNEL-method showed GL significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-labeled cells in acute hepatitis induced with LPS/D-GalN-treatment. Cells from the pericentral hepatic injury region were dissected out using a microdissection-method, and the DNA-ladder was clearly documented. Furthermore, results obtained through the TUNEL-method were confirmed with an oligonucleosome-bound DNA ELISA. From the current results, it seems reasonable to conclude that the protective role of GL in LPS/D-GalN-induced liver injury is performed through the inhibition of hepatic apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1679/aohc.71.163DOI Listing
November 2008

Thrombin-stimulated proliferation of cultured human synovial fibroblasts through proteolytic activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1.

J Pharmacol Sci 2008 Sep 11;108(1):104-11. Epub 2008 Sep 11.

Pharmacological Research Department, Research Laboratory, Minophagen Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 2-2-3 Komatsubara, Zama, Kanagawa, Japan.

We examined the mechanism of thrombin on proliferation of synovial fibroblasts obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Thrombin concentration-dependently induced proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. Proliferation in response to thrombin (10 U/ml) was completely blocked by hirudin. TP367 and TP508, peptides corresponding to 2 noncatalytic regions of thrombin, failed to induce cell proliferation. Thrombin did not induce the production of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in synovial fibroblasts. Expression of proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-3 mRNAs was observed in synovial fibroblasts. Thrombin and PAR-1 agonist peptide (AP), but not PAR-3 AP, induced intracellular calcium mobilization. PAR-1 AP induced cell proliferation whereas PAR-3 AP and PAR-4 AP had no effect on proliferation. Pertussis toxin (PTX), a Gialpha protein inhibitor; wortmannin, a PI (phosphatidylinositol) 3-kinase inhibitor; and PD98059, a specific MEK [mitogen-activated protein (MAK) kinase kinase] inhibitor, inhibited the thrombin-induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts was suppressed by U-73122, a PLC (phospholipase C) inhibitor; 2-APB, an antagonist of InsP3 (inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate) receptor; and GF-109203X, a PKC (protein kinase C) inhibitor. These results suggest that thrombin induces the proliferation of RA synovial fibroblasts through the activation of PAR-1, leading to the PTX-sensitive G proteins - PI3 kinase pathway and PTX-insensitive G proteins - PLC (InsP3 receptor) Ca(2+)-PKC branch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.08126fpDOI Listing
September 2008

Glycyrrhizin prevents of lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced liver injury through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in mice.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2008 Jan;60(1):91-7

Pharmacological Research Department, Minophagen Pharmaceutical Co., Kanagawa, Japan.

Glycyrrhizin, a biological active compound isolated from the liquorice root, has been used as a treatment for chronic hepatitis. We have examined the involvement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9 in the development of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury in mice. We also investigated the effect of glycyrrhizin on expression of MMP-9 in this model. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased after LPS/ GalN treatment. Expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein was markedly up-regulated in liver tissues 6-8 h after LPS/GalN treatment. Pretreatment with glycyrrhizin (50 mg kg(-1)) and the MMP inhibitor (5 mg kg(-1)) suppressed increases in serum levels of ALT and AST in mice treated with LPS/GalN. Furthermore, glycyrrhizin inhibited levels of both mRNA and protein for MMP-9. Immunohistochemical reaction for MMP-9 was observed in macrophages/monocytes infiltrated in the inflammatory area of liver injury. Glycyrrhizin reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and immunoreactive MMP- 9 in liver injury. The results indicated that MMP-9 played a role in the development of LPS/GalN- induced mouse liver injury, and suggested that an inhibition by glycyrrhizin of the acute liver injury may have been due to a down-regulation of MMP-9.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1211/jpp.60.1.0012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166488PMC
January 2008

Inhibitory effect of glycyrrhizin on lipopolysaccharide and d-galactosamine-induced mouse liver injury.

Eur J Pharmacol 2007 Dec 14;576(1-3):136-42. Epub 2007 Aug 14.

Pharmacological Research Department, Minophagen Pharmaceutical Co., 2-2-3, Komatsubara, Zama-shi, Kanagawa 228-0002, Japan.

The effects of glycyrrhizin isolated from licorice root were investigated on acute hepatitis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and d-galactosamine in mice. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was markedly increased 6 h to 8 h after administration of LPS/d-galactosamine. Levels in serum of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and IL-12 reached a maximum by 2 h, whereas levels of IL-18, as well as of ALT, were maximal at 8 h. Glycyrrhizin (ED(50): 14.3 mg/kg) inhibited the increase in ALT levels when it was given to mice at 30 min before administration of LPS/d-galactosamine. Inflammatory responses, including infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in the liver injury, were modulated by glycyrrhizin. Increases in ALT levels were reduced by an administration of glycyrrhizin at 10 min and 60 min but not 3 h, even after LPS/d-galactosamine treatment. However, glycyrrhizin had no effect on the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12, whereas it significantly inhibited IL-18 production. Exogenous IL-18 further increased the elevation in ALT levels in mice treated with LPS/d-galactosamine. Glycyrrhizin completely suppressed the effect of IL-18 of increasing ALT levels. IL-18 was detected by immunohistochemistry in inflammatory cells such neutrophils and macrophages in liver injury. Glycyrrhizin reduced the responsiveness of cells to IL-18 in the liver injury. These results suggest that glycyrrhizin inhibits the LPS/d-galactosamine-induced liver injury through preventing inflammatory responses and IL-18 production. Furthermore, it seems that glycyrrhizin prevents IL-18-mediated inflammation in liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.08.012DOI Listing
December 2007

Up-regulation of protease-activated receptor-2 by bFGF in cultured human synovial fibroblasts.

Life Sci 2006 Jul 9;79(9):898-904. Epub 2006 May 9.

Pharmacological Research Department, Minophagen Pharmaceutical Co.,2-2-3, Komatsubara, Zama-shi, Kanagawa-228-0002, Japan.

Protease-activated receptors (PARs) have been implicated in the development of acute and chronic inflammatory responses. We have examined the expression of mRNA for PARs and their regulation by growth factors and cytokines in synovial fibroblasts derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Messenger RNA for PAR-1, -2 and -3 was detected in these cells, but not that for PAR-4. Expression of mRNA for PAR-2 was up-regulated by bFGF in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas expression of mRNA for PAR-1 and PAR-3 was not affected. Levels of mRNA encoding PAR-1, PAR-2 and PAR-3 did not increase in response to IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. Expression of mRNA for PAR-2 was maximal 12 h after addition of bFGF, and maximal levels of immunoreactive PAR-2 were reached after 24 h. Furthermore, PAR-2 agonist peptide (SLIGKV-NH(2)), but not the inactive reverse peptide (VKGILS-NH(2)), induced transitory cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization in cells, and its response was increased by pretreatment with bFGF. An important role could be played by bFGF in the regulation of functional PAR-2 expression in cultured RA synovial fibroblasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2006.03.034DOI Listing
July 2006

Amino acid sequence of a basic aspartate-49-phospholipase A2 from Trimeresurus flavoviridis venom and phylogenetic analysis of Crotalinae venom phospholipases A2.

Toxicon 2005 Aug;46(2):185-95

Department of Applied Life Science, Faculty of Engineering, Sojo University, Kumamoto 860-0082, Japan.

Trimeresurus flavoviridis snakes inhabit the southwestern islands of Japan: Amami-Oshima, Tokunoshima and Okinawa. A phospholipase A2 (PLA2) of basic nature (pI 8.5) was isolated from the venom of Amami-Oshima T. flavoviridis. Its amino acid sequence determined by the ordinary procedures was completely in accord with that predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA previously cloned from Amami-Oshima T. flavoviridis venom gland, which was named PLA-B'. It consists of 122 amino acid residues and has aspartate at position 49. It induced edema in a mouse footpad assay and caused necrosis in mouse skeletal muscles. PLA-B' is similar in sequence to PLA-B (Tokunoshima) and PL-Y (Okinawa), both basic [Asp49]PLA2s, with a few amino acid substitutions, indicating occurrence of interisland mutation. Although PLA2s of Crotalinae subfamily were phylogenetically classified into four types, PLA2 (acidic or neutral [Asp49]PLA2) type, basic [Asp49]PLA2 type, neurotoxic [Asp49]PLA2 type and [Lys49]PLA2 type, it was ascertained that PLA2s of PLA2 type and [Lys49]PLA2 type are most essential as toxic components for Crotalinae snake venoms and that basic [Asp49]PLA2-type PLA2s are uniquely contained only in the venoms of T. flavoviridis species. Prediction of physiological activities of some PLA2s was made based on their location in the phylogenetic tree. Relationship of divergence of PLA2s via accelerated evolution followed by less rapid mutation and physiological activities was discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2005.04.004DOI Listing
August 2005
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