Publications by authors named "Kazuhiro Iwama"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Novel ACOX1 mutations in two siblings with peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency.

Brain Dev 2021 Mar 21;43(3):475-481. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Tsukuba Hospital, Japan; Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Japan.

Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX1) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive single enzyme deficiency characterized by hypotonia, seizures, failure to thrive, developmental delay, and neurological regression starting from approximately 3 years of age. Here, we report two siblings with ACOX1 deficiency born to non-consanguineous Japanese parents. They showed mild global developmental delay from infancy and began to regress at 5 years 10 months and 5 years 6 months of age respectively. They gradually manifested with cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, pyramidal signs, and dysphasia. Brain MRI revealed T2 high-intensity areas in the cerebellar white matter, bilateral middle cerebellar peduncle, and transverse tracts of the pons, followed by progressive atrophy of these areas. Intriguingly, the ratios of C24:0, C25:0, and C26:0 to C22:0 in plasma, which usually increase in ACOX1 deficiency were within normal ranges in both patients. On the other hand, whole exome sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous variants in ACOX1: a frameshift variant (c.160delC:p.Leu54Serfs*18) and a missense variant (c.1259 T > C:p.Phe420Ser). The plasma concentration of individual very long chain fatty acids (C24:0, C25:0, and C26:0) was elevated, and we found that peroxisomes in fibroblasts of the patients were larger in size and fewer in number as previously reported in patients with ACOX1 deficiency. Furthermore, the C24:0 β-oxidation activity was dramatically reduced. Our findings suggest that the elevation of individual plasma very long chain fatty acids concentration, genetic analysis including whole exome analysis, and biochemical studies on the patient's fibroblasts should be considered for the correct diagnosis of ACOX1 deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2020.10.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Efficient detection of copy-number variations using exome data: Batch- and sex-based analyses.

Hum Mutat 2021 Jan 11;42(1):50-65. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Many algorithms to detect copy number variations (CNVs) using exome sequencing (ES) data have been reported and evaluated on their sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, and precision. However, operational optimization of such algorithms for a better performance has not been fully addressed. ES of 1199 samples including 763 patients with different disease profiles was performed. ES data were analyzed to detect CNVs by both the eXome Hidden Markov Model (XHMM) and modified Nord's method. To efficiently detect rare CNVs, we aimed to decrease sequencing biases by analyzing, at the same time, the data of all unrelated samples sequenced in the same flow cell as a batch, and to eliminate sex effects of X-linked CNVs by analyzing female and male sequences separately. We also applied several filtering steps for more efficient CNV selection. The average number of CNVs detected in one sample was <5. This optimization together with targeted CNV analysis by Nord's method identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs in 34 patients (4.5%, 34/763). In particular, among 142 patients with epilepsy, the current protocol detected clinically relevant CNVs in 19 (13.4%) patients, whereas the previous protocol identified them in only 14 (9.9%) patients. Thus, this batch-based XHMM analysis efficiently selected rare pathogenic CNVs in genetic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24129DOI Listing
January 2021

Novel EXOSC9 variants cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1D with spinal motor neuronopathy and cerebellar atrophy.

J Hum Genet 2021 Apr 10;66(4):401-407. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Human Genetics, Graduate school of medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) is currently classified into 13 subgroups and many gene variants associated with PCH have been identified by next generation sequencing. PCH type 1 is a rare heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. The clinical presentation includes early-onset severe developmental delay, progressive motor neuronopathy, and cerebellar and pontine atrophy. Recently two variants in the EXOSC9 gene (MIM: 606180), NM_001034194.1: c.41T>C (p.Leu14Pro) and c.481C>T (p.Arg161*) were identified in four unrelated patients with PCH type 1D (PCH1D) (MIM: 618065). EXOSC9 encodes a component of the exosome complex, which is essential for correct processing and degradation of RNA. We report here two PCH1D families with biallelic EXOSC9 variants: c.239T>G (p.Leu80Arg) and c.484dupA (p.Arg162Lysfs*3) in one family and c.151G>C (p.Gly51Arg) in the other family. Although the patients studied here showed similar clinical features as previously described for PCH1D, relatively greater intellectual development (although still highly restricted) and normal pontine structure were recognized. Our findings expand the clinical consequences of biallelic EXOSC9 variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-00853-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Nonsense variants of result in distinct congenital anomalies.

Hum Genome Var 2020 18;7:26. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Herein, we report two female cases with novel nonsense mutations of at Xq25, encoding stromal antigen 2, a component of the cohesion complex. Exome analysis identified c.3097 C>T, p.(Arg1033*) in Case 1 (a fetus with multiple congenital anomalies) and c.2229 G>A, p.(Trp743*) in Case 2 (a 7-year-old girl with white matter hypoplasia and cleft palate). X inactivation was highly skewed in both cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41439-020-00114-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7501222PMC
September 2020

Clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with Doose syndrome.

Epilepsia Open 2020 Sep 23;5(3):442-450. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Pediatrics Showa University School of Medicine Tokyo Japan.

Objective: To elucidate the genetic background and genotype-phenotype correlations for epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, also known as myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (MAE) or Doose syndrome.

Methods: We collected clinical information and blood samples from 29 patients with MAE. We performed whole-exome sequencing for all except one MAE case in whom custom capture sequencing identified a variant.

Results: We newly identified four variants: and missense variants and microdeletions at 2q24.2 involving and Xp22.31 involving . Febrile seizures preceded epileptic or afebrile seizures in four patients, of which two patients had gene variants. Myoclonic-atonic seizures occurred at onset in four patients, of which two had variants, and during the course of disease in three patients. Variants were more commonly identified in patients with a developmental delay or intellectual disability (DD/ID), but genetic status was not associated with the severity of DD/ID. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autistic spectrum disorder were less frequently observed in patients with variants than in those with unknown etiology.

Significance: MAE patients had genetic heterogeneity, and and emerged as possible candidate causative genes. Febrile seizures prior to epileptic seizures and myoclonic-atonic seizure at onset indicate a genetic predisposition to MAE. Comorbid conditions were not related to genetic predisposition to MAE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/epi4.12417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469791PMC
September 2020

ATP1A3 variants and slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia without paroxysmal or episodic symptoms in children.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 01 7;63(1):111-115. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

A heterogeneous spectrum of clinical manifestations caused by mutations in ATP1A3 have been previously described. Here we report two cases of infantile-onset cerebellar ataxia, due to two different ATP1A3 variants. Both patients showed slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia without paroxysmal or episodic symptoms. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed mild cerebellar cortical atrophy in both patients. Whole exome sequencing revealed a de novo heterozygous variant in ATP1A3 in both patients. One patient had the c.460A>G (p.Met154Val) variant, while the other carried the c.1050C>A (p.Asp350Lys) variant. This phenotype was characterized by a slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia since the infantile period, which has not been previously described in association with ATP1A3 variants or in ATP1A3-related clinical conditions. Our report contributes to extend the phenotypic spectrum of ATP1A3 mutations, showing paediatric slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia with mild cerebellar atrophy alone as an additional clinical presentation of ATP1A3-related neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754140PMC
January 2021

Retraction Note to: Nonsense variants in STAG2 result in distinct sex-dependent phenotypes.

J Hum Genet 2020 09;65(9):811

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-0782-2DOI Listing
September 2020

[A case of novel WDR45 mutation with beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) presenting asymmetrical extrapyramidal signs].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2020 May 18;60(5):317-320. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine.

Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) is categorized in Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. The clinical feature of BPAN is global developmental delay in early childhood, followed rapid progression of cognitive disfunction and parkinsonism in adulthood. This case was pointed out intellectual disability at the age of 9, followed left dominant progressive parkinsonism from the age of 31. Brain MRI showed the T-weighted signal hyperintensity of the substantia nigra with a central band of hypointensity and the T star weighted image hypointensity of substantia nigra and globus pallidus presenting dominant at right side. DAT SPECT also showed specific binding ratio decreased dominant in right side. She was diagnosed BPAN based on her genetic test revealing a novel mutation (c.411dupT) in WDR45. No studies reported detailed parkinsonism like laterality in BPAN. This case indicates the left dominant parkinsonism was caused by right dominant iron deposition to substantia nigra and globus pallidus in view of MRI findings and DAT SPECT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-001324DOI Listing
May 2020

Two males with sick sinus syndrome in a family with 0.6 kb deletions involving major domains in MECP2.

Eur J Med Genet 2020 Mar 16;63(3):103769. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Miyagi Children's Hospital, 4-3-17 Ochiai, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi, 989-3126, Japan; Department of Pediatrics, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) in males can lead to various phenotypes, ranging from neonatal encephalopathy to intellectual disability. In this study, using Nord's method of next-generation sequencing in three siblings, we identified a 0.6 kb deletion involving the transcriptional repression domain (TRD). Two males and one female had intellectual disability and apnea, but none met the criteria of Rett syndrome. Both males had sick sinus syndrome and severe tracheomalacia that resulted in early death. The mother, with skewed X-inactivation, had no symptoms. Therefore, this mutation is pathological for both males and females, resulting in sick sinus syndrome and severe tracheomalacia with strong reproducibility in males. Deletions involving major domains in MECP2 can result in a severe phenotype, and deletion of the TRD domain can cause severe autonomic nervous system dysregulation in males in these cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2019.103769DOI Listing
March 2020

Genetic abnormalities in a large cohort of Coffin-Siris syndrome patients.

J Hum Genet 2019 Dec 17;64(12):1173-1186. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Department of Human Genetics, Graduate school of medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.

Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS, MIM#135900) is a congenital disorder characterized by coarse facial features, intellectual disability, and hypoplasia of the fifth digit and nails. Pathogenic variants for CSS have been found in genes encoding proteins in the BAF (BRG1-associated factor) chromatin-remodeling complex. To date, more than 150 CSS patients with pathogenic variants in nine BAF-related genes have been reported. We previously reported 71 patients of whom 39 had pathogenic variants. Since then, we have recruited an additional 182 CSS-suspected patients. We performed comprehensive genetic analysis on these 182 patients and on the previously unresolved 32 patients, targeting pathogenic single nucleotide variants, short insertions/deletions and copy number variations (CNVs). We confirmed 78 pathogenic variations in 78 patients. Pathogenic variations in ARID1B, SMARCB1, SMARCA4, ARID1A, SOX11, SMARCE1, and PHF6 were identified in 48, 8, 7, 6, 4, 1, and 1 patients, respectively. In addition, we found three CNVs including SMARCA2. Of particular note, we found a partial deletion of SMARCB1 in one CSS patient and we thoroughly investigated the resulting abnormal transcripts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-019-0667-4DOI Listing
December 2019

Comprehensive analysis of coding variants highlights genetic complexity in developmental and epileptic encephalopathy.

Nat Commun 2019 06 7;10(1):2506. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

Although there are many known Mendelian genes linked to epileptic or developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (EE/DEE), its genetic architecture is not fully explained. Here, we address this incompleteness by analyzing exomes of 743 EE/DEE cases and 2366 controls. We observe that damaging ultra-rare variants (dURVs) unique to an individual are significantly overrepresented in EE/DEE, both in known EE/DEE genes and the other non-EE/DEE genes. Importantly, enrichment of dURVs in non-EE/DEE genes is significant, even in the subset of cases with diagnostic dURVs (P = 0.000215), suggesting oligogenic contribution of non-EE/DEE gene dURVs. Gene-based analysis identifies exome-wide significant (P = 2.04 × 10) enrichment of damaging de novo mutations in NF1, a gene primarily linked to neurofibromatosis, in infantile spasm. Together with accumulating evidence for roles of oligogenic or modifier variants in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, our results highlight genetic complexity in EE/DEE, and indicate that EE/DEE is not an aggregate of simple Mendelian disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10482-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6555845PMC
June 2019

Rapid progression of a walking disability in a 5-year-old boy with a CLN6 mutation.

Brain Dev 2019 Sep 24;41(8):726-730. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs; CLN) are mainly autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigments in neuronal and other cells. Symptoms include visual disabilities, motor decline, and epilepsy. Causative genes are CLN1, CLN2, CLN3, CLN5, CLN6, CLN7, CLN8, CLN10, CLN11, CLN12, CLN13, and CLN14. We present the fourth Japanese case with a CLN6 mutation.

Case Presentation: At 3 years of age, our patient became clumsy and fell down easily. He developed focal seizures with impaired consciousness and was started on carbamazepine. He showed ataxic walking and dysarthria with increased deep tendon reflexes. Interictal electroencephalogram revealed slow waves in the left temporal and occipital areas. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebellar atrophy and ventriculomegaly. In optical coherence tomography (OCT), the inner layer of the retina was thick and highly reflective. Exome sequencing revealed a known homozygous mutation, C.794_976del, p. (Ser265del) in CLN6.

Discussion: A total of 130 cases of NCL with CLN6 mutations have been reported globally, of which only four were from Japan including the current patient. The deletion of serine at position 265 has been reported in six cases. Ser265 is located in a region of short repeated sequences that is susceptible to mutation. Clinical trials of gene therapy using adeno-associated virus serotype 9 have started for NCL6, making early diagnosis crucial. OCT examination might be helpful in achieving a diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2019.04.009DOI Listing
September 2019

MYRF haploinsufficiency causes 46,XY and 46,XX disorders of sex development: bioinformatics consideration.

Hum Mol Genet 2019 07;28(14):2319-2329

Department of Human Genetics.

Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are defined as congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical. In many DSD cases, genetic causes remain to be elucidated. Here, we performed a case-control exome sequencing study comparing gene-based burdens of rare damaging variants between 26 DSD cases and 2625 controls. We found exome-wide significant enrichment of rare heterozygous truncating variants in the MYRF gene encoding myelin regulatory factor, a transcription factor essential for oligodendrocyte development. All three variants occurred de novo. We identified an additional 46,XY DSD case of a de novo damaging missense variant in an independent cohort. The clinical symptoms included hypoplasia of Müllerian derivatives and ovaries in 46,XX DSD patients, defective development of Sertoli and Leydig cells in 46,XY DSD patients and congenital diaphragmatic hernia in one 46,XY DSD patient. As all of these cells and tissues are or partly consist of coelomic epithelium (CE)-derived cells (CEDC) and CEDC developed from CE via proliferaiton and migration, MYRF might be related to these processes. Consistent with this hypothesis, single-cell RNA sequencing of foetal gonads revealed high expression of MYRF in CE and CEDC. Reanalysis of public chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data for rat Myrf showed that genes regulating proliferation and migration were enriched among putative target genes of Myrf. These results suggested that MYRF is a novel causative gene of 46,XY and 46,XX DSD and MYRF is a transcription factor regulating CD and/or CEDC proliferation and migration, which is essential for development of multiple organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz066DOI Listing
July 2019

Genetic landscape of Rett syndrome-like phenotypes revealed by whole exome sequencing.

J Med Genet 2019 06 6;56(6):396-407. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.

Background: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a characteristic neurological disease presenting with regressive loss of neurodevelopmental milestones. Typical RTT is generally caused by abnormality of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (). Our objective to investigate the genetic landscape of -negative typical/atypical RTT and RTT-like phenotypes using whole exome sequencing (WES).

Methods: We performed WES on 77 -negative patients either with typical RTT (n=11), atypical RTT (n=22) or RTT-like phenotypes (n=44) incompatible with the RTT criteria.

Results: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic single-nucleotide variants in 28 known genes were found in 39 of 77 (50.6%) patients. WES-based CNV analysis revealed pathogenic deletions involving six known genes (including ) in 8 of 77 (10.4%) patients. Overall, diagnostic yield was 47 of 77 (61.0 %). Furthermore, strong candidate variants were found in four novel genes: a de novo variant in each of ATPase H transporting V0 subunit A1 (), ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 () and microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase 3 (), as well as biallelic variants in nuclear receptor corepressor 2 ().

Conclusions: Our study provides a new landscape including additional genetic variants contributing to RTT-like phenotypes, highlighting the importance of comprehensive genetic analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105775DOI Listing
June 2019

Nonsense variants in STAG2 result in distinct sex-dependent phenotypes.

J Hum Genet 2019 May 14;64(5):487-492. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

We herein report two individuals with novel nonsense mutations in STAG2 on Xq25, encoding stromal antigen 2, a component of the cohesion complex. A male fetus (Case 1) clinically presented with holoprosencephaly, cleft palate and lip, blepharophimosis, nasal bone absence, and hypolastic left heart by ultrasonography at 15 gestational weeks. Another female patient (Case 2) showed a distinct phenotype with white matter hypoplasia, cleft palate, developmental delay (DD), and intellectual disability (ID) at 7 years. Whole-exome sequencing identified de novo nonsense mutations in STAG2: c.3097C>T, p.(Arg1033*) in Case 1 and c.2229G>A, p.(Trp743*) in Case 2. X-inactivation was highly skewed in Case 2. To date, only 10 STAG2 pathogenic variants (four nonsense, four missense, and two frameshift) have been reported in patients with multiple congenital anomalies, ID, and DD. Although Case 2 showed similar clinical features to the reported female patients with STAG2 abnormalities, Case 1 showed an extremely severe phenotype, which could be explained by the first detected truncating variant in males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-019-0571-yDOI Listing
May 2019

De novo truncating variants in PHF21A cause intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies.

Eur J Hum Genet 2019 03 28;27(3):378-383. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 236-0004, Japan.

Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS) is a contiguous gene syndrome caused by 11p11.2 deletions. PSS is clinically characterized by intellectual disability, craniofacial anomalies, enlarged parietal foramina, and multiple exostoses. PSS occasionally shows autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and overgrowth. Some of the clinical features are thought to be associated with haploinsufficiency of two genes in the 11p11.2 region; variants affecting the function of ALX4 cause enlarged parietal foramina and EXT2 lead to multiple exostoses. However, the remaining clinical features were still yet to be linked to specific genetic alterations. In this study, we identified de novo truncating variants in an 11p11.2 gene, PHF21A, in three cases with intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies. Among these three cases, autism spectrum disorder was recognized in one case, epilepsy in one case, and overgrowth in two cases. This study shows that PHF21A haploinsufficiency results in intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies and possibly contributes to susceptibility to autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and overgrowth, all of which are PSS features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-018-0289-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460561PMC
March 2019

RNA sequencing solved the most common but unrecognized NEB pathogenic variant in Japanese nemaline myopathy.

Genet Med 2019 07 23;21(7):1629-1638. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.

Purpose: The diagnostic rate for Mendelian diseases by exome sequencing (ES) is typically 20-40%. The low rate is partly because ES misses deep-intronic or synonymous variants leading to aberrant splicing. In this study, we aimed to apply RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to efficiently detect the aberrant splicings and their related variants.

Methods: Aberrant splicing in biopsied muscles from six nemaline myopathy (NM) cases unresolved by ES were analyzed with RNA-seq. Variants related to detected aberrant splicing events were analyzed with Sanger sequencing. Detected variants were screened in NM patients unresolved by ES.

Results: We identified a novel deep-intronic NEB pathogenic variant, c.1569+339A>G in one case, and another novel synonymous NEB pathogenic variant, c.24684G>C (p.Ser8228Ser) in three cases. The c.24684G>C variant was observed to be the most frequent among all NEB pathogenic variants in normal Japanese populations with a frequency of 1 in 178 (20 alleles in 3552 individuals), but was previously unrecognized. Expanded screening of the variant identified it in a further four previously unsolved nemaline myopathy cases.

Conclusion: These results indicated that RNA-seq may be able to solve a large proportion of previously undiagnosed muscle diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0360-6DOI Listing
July 2019

Expanding the phenotype of IBA57 mutations: related leukodystrophy can remain asymptomatic.

J Hum Genet 2018 Dec 27;63(12):1223-1229. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Biallelic mutations in IBA57 cause a mitochondrial disorder with a broad phenotypic spectrum that ranges from severe intellectual disability to adolescent-onset spastic paraplegia. Only 21 IBA57 mutations have been reported, therefore the phenotypic spectrum of IBA57-related mitochondrial disease has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing on a Sepharadi Jewish and Japanese family with leukodystrophy. We identified four novel biallelic variants in IBA57 in the two families: one frameshift insertion and three missense variants. The three missense variants were predicted to be disease-causing by multiple in silico tools. The 29-year-old Sepharadi Jewish male had infantile-onset optic atrophy with clinically asymptomatic leukodystrophy involving periventricular white matter. The 19-year-old younger brother, with the same compound heterozygous IBA57 variants, had a similar clinical course until 7 years of age. However, he then developed a rapidly progressive spastic paraparesis following a febrile illness. A 7-year-old Japanese girl had developmental regression, spastic quadriplegia, and abnormal periventricular white matter signal on brain magnetic resonance imaging performed at 8 months of age. She had febrile convulsions at the age of 18 months and later developed epilepsy. In summary, we have identified four novel IBA57 mutations in two unrelated families. Consequently, we describe a patient with infantile-onset optic atrophy and asymptomatic white matter involvement, thus broadening the phenotypic spectrum of biallelic IBA57 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-018-0516-xDOI Listing
December 2018

A novel SLC9A1 mutation causes cerebellar ataxia.

J Hum Genet 2018 Oct 17;63(10):1049-1054. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.

The mammalian Na/H exchanger isoform one (NHE1), encoded by Solute Carrier Family 9, member 1 (SLC9A1), consists of 12 membrane domains and a cytosolic C-terminal domain. NHE1 plays an important role in maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis by exchanging one intracellular proton for one extracellular sodium ion. Mice with a homozygous null mutation in Slc9a1 (Nhe1) exhibited ataxia, recurrent seizures, and selective neuronal cell death. In humans, three unrelated patients have been reported: a patient with a homozygous missense mutation in SLC9A1, c.913G>A (p.Gly305Arg), which caused Lichtenstein-Knorr syndrome characterized by cerebellar ataxia and sensorineural hearing loss, a patient with compound heterozygous mutations, c.1351A>C (p.Ile451Leu) and c.1585C>T (p.His529Tyr), which caused a neuromuscular disorder, and a patient with de novo mutation, c.796A>C (p.Asn266His) which associated multiple anomalies. In this study, using whole exome sequencing, we identified a novel homozygous SLC9A1 truncating mutation, c.862del (p.Ile288Serfs*9), in two affected siblings. The patients showed cerebellar ataxia but neither of them showed sensorineural hearing loss nor a neuromuscular phenotype. The main clinical feature was similar to Lichtenstein-Knorr syndrome but deafness may not be an essential phenotypic feature of SLC9A1 mutation. Our report expands the knowledge of clinical features of SLC9A1 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-018-0488-xDOI Listing
October 2018

Characteristics of PPT1 and TPP1 enzymes in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) 1 and 2 by dried blood spots (DBS) and leukocytes and their application to newborn screening.

Mol Genet Metab 2018 05 19;124(1):64-70. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Neurological Disorder, Kanagawa, Japan; Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

We first characterized PPT1 and TPP1 enzymes in dried blood spots (DBS), plasma/serum, and leukocytes/lymphocytes using neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) 1 and 2 patients and control subjects. PPT1 enzyme had only one acid form in control DBS, plasma/serum, and leukocytes/lymphocytes and showed deficient activities in these samples from NCL 1 patients. Conversely, TPP1 enzymes in control DBS and leukocytes/lymphocytes consisted of two forms, an acidic form and a neutral form, whereas serum TPP1 enzyme had only a neutral form. In control subjects, the optimal pH of PPT1 enzyme in DBS, plasma/serum, and leukocytes/lymphocytes was 4.5 to 5.0 in the acidic form, whereas TPP1 enzyme in control DBS and leukocytes/lymphocytes was pH 4.5 and 6.5, respectively. In NCL 1 and 2, both PPT1 and TPP1 enzyme activities in DBS, plasma, and leukocytes/lymphocytes were markedly reduced in acidic pH, whereas heterozygotes of NCL 1 and 2 in the acidic form showed intermediate activities between patients and control subjects. In neutral conditions, pH 6.0, the PPT1 enzyme activities in NCL 1 patients showed rather higher residual activities and intermediate activities in heterozygotes in NCL 1, which was probably caused by mutated proteins in three cases with NCL 1 patients. TPP1 enzyme activities at neutral pH 6.5 to 7.0 in DBS and leukocytes/lymphocytes showed higher enzyme activities in NCL 2 patients and heterozygotes. The reason for the increases of neutral TPP1 enzyme activities at pH 6.5 to 7.0 in NCL 2 DBS and leukocytes/lymphocytes, is obscure, but possibly caused by secondary activation of neutral TPP1 enzyme due to the absence of the acidic form. Interestingly, TPP1 activity in serum only consisted of a neutral form, no acidic form, and was not deficient in any NCL 2 patient. Therefore, we can diagnose NCL 1 patients by plasma/serum enzyme assay of PPT1, but not diagnose NCL 2 by serum TPP1 enzyme assay. A pilot study of newborn screening of NCL 1 and 2 has been established by more than 1000 newborn DBS assays. Using this assay system, we will be able to perform newborn screening of NCL 1 and 2 by DBS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.03.007DOI Listing
May 2018

A novel STXBP1 mutation causes typical Rett syndrome in a Japanese girl.

Brain Dev 2018 Jun 12;40(6):493-497. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Research Center for Children and Research Center for Rett syndrome, St. Mary's Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mostly caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2); however, mutations in various other genes may lead to RTT-like phenotypes. Here, we report the first case of a Japanese girl with RTT caused by a novel syntaxin-binding protein 1 (STXBP1) frameshift mutation (c.60delG, p.Lys21Argfs*16). She showed epilepsy at one year of age, regression of acquired psychomotor abilities thereafter, and exhibited stereotypic hand and limb movements at 3 years of age. Her epilepsy onset was earlier than is typical for RTT patients. However, she fully met the 2010 diagnostic criteria of typical RTT. STXBP1 mutations cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE), various intractable epilepsies, and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the case described here presented a unique clinical presentation of typical RTT without EIEE and a novel STXBP1 mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2018.02.002DOI Listing
June 2018

De novo HDAC8 mutation causes Rett-related disorder with distinctive facial features and multiple congenital anomalies.

Brain Dev 2018 May 5;40(5):406-409. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Research Center for Children, Research Center for Rett Syndrome, St. Mary's Hospital, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-8543, Japan. Electronic address:

We present a unique 11-year-old girl showing clinical features of Rett-related disorder with distinctive facial features and multiple congenital anomalies including ocular hypertelorism, arched eyebrows, a broad nose, dental anomalies, congenital heart disease, truncal obesity, and epilepsy. A novel de novo mutation in histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) (c.652G > T, p.Gly218Cys) was confirmed by whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing. X-chromosome inactivation analysis on DNA isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed a completely skewed pattern associated with an inactive maternal allele. Late clinical loss of acquired purposeful hand movements and psychomotor deterioration may be a feature of Rett-related disorder, while distinctive facial features and multiple congenital anomalies are reminiscent of Cornelia de Lange syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2017.12.013DOI Listing
May 2018

Novel recessive mutations in MSTO1 cause cerebellar atrophy with pigmentary retinopathy.

J Hum Genet 2018 Mar 16;63(3):263-270. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.

Misato 1, mitochondrial distribution and morphology regulator (encoded by the MSTO1 gene), is involved in mitochondrial distribution and morphology. Recently, MSTO1 mutations have been shown to cause clinical manifestations suggestive of mitochondrial dysfunction, such as muscle weakness, short stature, motor developmental delay, and cerebellar atrophy. Both autosomal dominant and recessive modes of inheritance have been suggested. We performed whole-exome sequencing in two unrelated patients showing cerebellar atrophy, intellectual disability, and pigmentary retinopathy. Three novel mutations were identified: c.836 G > A (p.Arg279His), c.1099-1 G > A (p.Val367Trpfs*2), and c.79 C > T (p.Gln27*). Both patients had compound heterozygous mutations with a combination of protein-truncation mutation and missense mutation, the latter shared by them both. This survey of two patients with recessive and novel MSTO1 mutations provides additional clinical and genetic information on the pathogenicity of MSTO1 in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-017-0405-8DOI Listing
March 2018

A novel mutation in SLC1A3 causes episodic ataxia.

J Hum Genet 2018 Feb 5;63(2):207-211. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

Episodic ataxias (EAs) are rare channelopathies characterized by recurrent ataxia and vertigo, having eight subtypes. Mutated genes were found in four of these eight subtypes (EA1, EA2, EA5, and EA6). To date, only four missense mutations in the Solute Carrier Family 1 Member 3 gene (SLC1A3) have been reported to cause EA6. SLC1A3 encodes excitatory amino-acid transporter 1, which is a trimeric transmembrane protein responsible for glutamate transport in the synaptic cleft. In this study, we found a novel missense mutation, c.383T>G (p.Met128Arg) in SLC1A3, in an EA patient by whole-exome sequencing. The modeled structural analysis suggested that p.Met128Arg may affect the hydrophobic transmembrane environment and protein function. Analysis of the pathogenicity of all mutations found in SLC1A3 to date using multiple prediction tools showed some advantage of using the Mendelian Clinically Applicable Pathogenicity (M-CAP) score. Various types of SLC1A3 variants, including nonsense mutations and indels, in the ExAC database suggest that the loss-of-function mechanism by SLC1A3 mutations is unlikely in EA6. The current mutation (p.Med128Arg) presumably has a gain-of-function effect as described in a previous report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-017-0365-zDOI Listing
February 2018

Identification of novel SNORD118 mutations in seven patients with leukoencephalopathy with brain calcifications and cysts.

Clin Genet 2017 Aug 30;92(2):180-187. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.

Background: Leukoencephalopathy with brain calcifications and cysts (LCC) is neuroradiologically characterized by leukoencephalopathy, intracranial calcification, and cysts. Coats plus syndrome is also characterized by the same neuroradiological findings together with defects in retinal vascular development. Indeed, LCC and Coats plus were originally considered to be the same clinical entity termed cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts, but evidence suggests that they are genetically distinct. Mutations in CTS telomere maintenance complex component 1 (CTC1) and small nucleolar RNA, C/D box 118 (SNORD118) genes have been found to cause Coats plus and LCC, respectively.

Materials And Methods: Eight unrelated families with LCC were recruited. These patients typically showed major neuroradiological findings of LCC with no signs of extra-neurological manifestations such as retinal abnormality, gastrointestinal bleeding, or hematological abnormalities. SNORD118 was examined by Sanger sequencing in these families.

Results: Seven out of eight probands carry compound heterozygous mutations, suggesting that SNORD118 mutations are the major cause of LCC. We identified a total of eight mutation, including four that were novel. Some of the variants identified in this study present heterozygously in public databases with an extremely rare frequency (<0.1%).

Conclusion: Biallelic SNORD118 mutations were exclusively found in most unrelated families with LCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.12991DOI Listing
August 2017

Milder progressive cerebellar atrophy caused by biallelic SEPSECS mutations.

J Hum Genet 2016 Jun 18;61(6):527-31. Epub 2016 Feb 18.

Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.

Cerebellar atrophy is recognized in various types of childhood neurological disorders with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Genetic analyses such as whole exome sequencing are useful for elucidating the genetic basis of these conditions. Pathological recessive mutations in Sep (O-phosphoserine) tRNA:Sec (selenocysteine) tRNA synthase (SEPSECS) have been reported in a total of 11 patients with pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2, progressive cerebellocerebral atrophy or progressive encephalopathy, yet detailed clinical features are limited to only four patients. We identified two new families with progressive cerebellar atrophy, and by whole exome sequencing detected biallelic SEPSECS mutations: c.356A>G (p.Asn119Ser) and c.77delG (p.Arg26Profs*42) in family 1, and c.356A>G (p.Asn119Ser) and c.467G>A (p.Arg156Gln) in family 2. Their development was slightly delayed regardless of normal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in infancy. The progression of clinical symptoms in these families is evidently slower than in previously reported cases, and the cerebellar atrophy milder by brain MRI, indicating that SEPSECS mutations are also involved in milder late-onset cerebellar atrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2016.9DOI Listing
June 2016