Publications by authors named "Kazuhiko S K Uchida"

8 Publications

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Kinetochore stretching-mediated rapid silencing of the spindle-assembly checkpoint required for failsafe chromosome segregation.

Curr Biol 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Division of Experimental Pathology, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

The spindle-assembly checkpoint facilitates mitotic fidelity by delaying anaphase onset in response to microtubule vacancy at kinetochores. Following microtubule attachment, kinetochores receive microtubule-derived force, which causes kinetochores to undergo repetitive cycles of deformation; this phenomenon is referred to as kinetochore stretching. The nature of the forces and the relevance relating this deformation are not well understood. Here, we show that kinetochore stretching occurs within a framework of single end-on attached kinetochores, irrespective of microtubule poleward pulling force. An experimental method to conditionally interfere with the stretching allowed us to determine that kinetochore stretching comprises an essential process of checkpoint silencing by promoting PP1 phosphatase recruitment after the establishment of end-on attachments and removal of the majority of checkpoint-activating kinase Mps1 from kinetochores. Remarkably, we found that a lower frequency of kinetochore stretching largely correlates with a prolonged metaphase in cancer cell lines with chromosomal instability. Perturbation of kinetochore stretching and checkpoint silencing in chromosomally stable cells produced anaphase bridges, which can be alleviated by reducing chromosome-loaded cohesin. These observations indicate that kinetochore stretching-mediated checkpoint silencing provides an unanticipated etiology underlying chromosomal instability and underscores the importance of a rapid metaphase-to-anaphase transition in sustaining mitotic fidelity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.01.062DOI Listing
February 2021

Prolonged mitosis causes separase deregulation and chromosome nondisjunction.

Cell Rep 2021 Jan;34(3):108652

Division of Experimental Pathology, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research (JFCR), Ariake 3-8-31 Koto-ku, 135-8550 Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

During mitotic chromosome segregation, the protease separase severs cohesin between sister chromatids. A probe for separase activity has shown that separase undergoes abrupt activation shortly before anaphase onset, after being suppressed throughout metaphase; however, the relevance of this control remains unclear. Here, we report that separase activates precociously, with respect to anaphase onset, during prolonged metaphase in multiple types of cancer cell lines. The artificial extension of metaphase in chromosomally stable diploid cells leads to precocious activation and, subsequently, to chromosomal bridges in anaphase, which seems to be attributable to incomplete cohesin removal. Conversely, shortening back of a prolonged metaphase restores the activation of separase and ameliorates anaphase bridge formation. These observations suggest that retarded metaphase progression affects the separase activation profile and its enzymatic proficiency. Our findings provide an unanticipated etiology for chromosomal instability in cancers and underscore the relevance of swift mitotic transitions for fail-safe chromosome segregation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108652DOI Listing
January 2021

Cdk1-mediated DIAPH1 phosphorylation maintains metaphase cortical tension and inactivates the spindle assembly checkpoint at anaphase.

Nat Commun 2019 02 28;10(1):981. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601, Japan.

Animal cells undergo rapid rounding during mitosis, ensuring proper chromosome segregation, during which an outward rounding force abruptly increases upon prometaphase entry and is maintained at a constant level during metaphase. Initial cortical tension is generated by the actomyosin system to which both myosin motors and actin network architecture contribute. However, how cortical tension is maintained and its physiological significance remain unknown. We demonstrate here that Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of DIAPH1 stably maintains cortical tension after rounding and inactivates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Cdk1 phosphorylates DIAPH1, preventing profilin1 binding to maintain cortical tension. Mutation of DIAPH1 phosphorylation sites promotes cortical F-actin accumulation, increases cortical tension, and delays anaphase onset due to SAC activation. Measurement of the intra-kinetochore length suggests that Cdk1-mediated cortex relaxation is indispensable for kinetochore stretching. We thus uncovered a previously unknown mechanism by which Cdk1 coordinates cortical tension maintenance and SAC inactivation at anaphase onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08957-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395754PMC
February 2019

HP1-Assisted Aurora B Kinase Activity Prevents Chromosome Segregation Errors.

Dev Cell 2016 Mar;36(5):487-97

Division of Experimental Pathology, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research (JFCR), Tokyo 135-8550, Japan. Electronic address:

Incorrect attachment of kinetochore microtubules is the leading cause of chromosome missegregation in cancers. The highly conserved chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), containing mitotic kinase Aurora B as a catalytic subunit, ensures faithful chromosome segregation through destabilizing incorrect microtubule attachments and promoting biorientation of chromosomes on the mitotic spindle. It is unknown whether CPC dysfunction affects chromosome segregation fidelity in cancers and, if so, how. Here, we show that heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is an essential CPC component required for full Aurora B activity. HP1 binding to the CPC becomes particularly important when Aurora B phosphorylates kinetochore targets to eliminate erroneous microtubule attachments. Remarkably, a reduced proportion of HP1 bound to CPC is widespread in cancers, which causes an impairment in Aurora B activity. These results indicate that HP1 is an essential modulator for CPC function and identify a molecular basis for chromosome segregation errors in cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2016.02.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4949072PMC
March 2016

CAMP (C13orf8, ZNF828) is a novel regulator of kinetochore-microtubule attachment.

EMBO J 2011 Jan 9;30(1):130-44. Epub 2010 Nov 9.

Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan.

Proper attachment of microtubules to kinetochores is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Here, we report a novel protein involved in kinetochore-microtubule attachment, chromosome alignment-maintaining phosphoprotein (CAMP) (C13orf8, ZNF828). CAMP is a zinc-finger protein containing three characteristic repeat motifs termed the WK, SPE, and FPE motifs. CAMP localizes to chromosomes and the spindle including kinetochores, and undergoes CDK1-dependent phosphorylation at multiple sites during mitosis. CAMP-depleted cells showed severe chromosome misalignment, which was associated with the poor resistance of K-fibres to the tension exerted upon establishment of sister kinetochore bi-orientation. We found that the FPE region, which is responsible for spindle and kinetochore localization, is essential for proper chromosome alignment. The C-terminal region containing the zinc-finger domains negatively regulates chromosome alignment, and phosphorylation in the FPE region counteracts this regulation. Kinetochore localization of CENP-E and CENP-F was affected by CAMP depletion, and by expressing CAMP mutants that cannot functionally rescue CAMP depletion, placing CENP-E and CENP-F as downstream effectors of CAMP. These data suggest that CAMP is required for maintaining kinetochore-microtubule attachment during bi-orientation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emboj.2010.276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3020106PMC
January 2011

Kinetochore stretching inactivates the spindle assembly checkpoint.

J Cell Biol 2009 Feb 2;184(3):383-90. Epub 2009 Feb 2.

Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan.

The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors the attachment of microtubules to the kinetochore and inhibits anaphase when microtubule binding is incomplete. The SAC might also respond to tension; however, how cells can sense tension and whether its detection is important to satisfy the SAC remain controversial. We generated a HeLa cell line in which two components of the kinetochore, centromere protein A and Mis12, are labeled with green and red fluorophores, respectively. Live cell imaging of these cells reveals repetitive cycles of kinetochore extension and recoiling after biorientation. Under conditions in which kinetochore stretching is suppressed, cells fail to silence the SAC and enter anaphase after a delay, regardless of centromere stretching. Monitoring cyclin B levels as a readout for anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activity, we find that suppression of kinetochore stretching delays and decelerates cyclin B degradation. These observations suggest that the SAC monitors stretching of kinetochores rather than centromeres and that kinetochore stretching promotes silencing of the SAC signal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200811028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2646554PMC
February 2009

Dynamics of novel feet of Dictyostelium cells during migration.

J Cell Sci 2004 Mar;117(Pt 8):1443-55

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8512, Japan.

We observed the dynamics of actin foci in live Dictyostelium cells expressing GFP-actin. Actin foci were dynamic structures, but they were fixed on the substratum during cell migration. Interference reflection microscopy revealed that the ventral cell membrane was closer to the substratum at sites of actin foci. Furthermore, some actin foci were incorporated into the retraction fibers, ripped off from the cells and eventually shed on the substratum after the cells moved away. The velocity of the cells was inversely proportional to the number of actin foci. Measurement of traction force using a silicone substratum demonstrated that the traction force was transmitted to the substratum through actin foci. Taken together, several lines of evidence strongly suggest that actin foci function as the active 'feet' of Dictyostelium cells. We also found evidence suggesting that changing step is regulated in a coordinated manner during cell migration. Possible mechanisms by which these cells migrate across substrata are discussed in this context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.01015DOI Listing
March 2004

Myosin II contributes to the posterior contraction and the anterior extension during the retraction phase in migrating Dictyostelium cells.

J Cell Sci 2003 Jan;116(Pt 1):51-60

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8512, Japan.

Cells must exert force against the substrate to migrate. We examined the vectors (both the direction and the magnitude) of the traction force generated by Dictyostelium cells using an improved non-wrinkling silicone substrate. During migration, the cells showed two 'alternate' phases of locomotory behavior, an extension phase and a retraction phase. In accordance with these phases, two alternate patterns were identified in the traction force. During the extension phase, the cell exerted a 'pulling force' toward the cell body in the anterior and the posterior regions and a 'pushing force' in the side of the cell (pattern 1). During the retraction phase, the cell exerted a 'pushing force' in the anterior region, although the force disappeared in the side and the posterior regions of the cell (pattern 2). Myosin II heavy chain null cells showed a single pattern in their traction force comparable to 'pattern 1', although they still had the alternate biphasic locomotory behavior similar to the wild-type cells. Therefore, the generation of 'pushing force' in the anterior and the cancellation of the traction force in the side and the posterior during the retraction phase were deficient in myosin knock-out mutant cells, suggesting that these activities depend on myosin II via the posterior contraction. Considering all these results, we hypothesized that there is a highly coordinated, biphasic mechanism of cell migration in Dictyostelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.00195DOI Listing
January 2003