Publications by authors named "Kazuaki Takashima"

17 Publications

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[Toxicology in small animal clinical medicine].

Chudoku Kenkyu 2014 Dec;27(4):299-306

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December 2014

Predicting metastatic potential of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in dog by ultrasonography.

J Vet Med Sci 2012 Nov 8;74(11):1477-82. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Hokkaido, Japan.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), a mesenchymal neoplasm affecting the gastrointestinal tract, shows a variety of clinical behaviors from inactive benign to aggressive malignant in dogs. In this study, the feasibility of using clinically significant ultrasonographic features to predict the metastatic potential of canine GIST was investigated through comparison with actual metastatic incidence and findings of malignancy obtained by postoperative pathological examination. Ultrasonographic features, including large tumor size, irregular margin and heterogeneous internal echogenicity with large hypoechoic areas, related closely with the presence of metastasis as well as a high-risk ranking by the human classification system according to pathological findings. Based on these ultrasonographic features, the potential of metastasis in canine GIST could be preoperatively predicted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.11-0553DOI Listing
November 2012

Efficacy and safety of firocoxib for the treatment of pain associated with soft tissue surgery in dogs under field conditions in Japan.

J Vet Med Sci 2012 Oct 31;74(10):1283-9. Epub 2012 May 31.

Merial Japan, Tokyo Opera City Tower, 3-20-2 Nishi Shinjuku, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan.

Use of firocoxib in dogs for postoperative pain control has not been published in any of the journals in Japan. A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of firocoxib in dogs in controlling pain associated with soft tissue surgery in Japan. The study followed a negative control, double-blind, multicenter clinical efficacy study using a randomized block design. A total of 131 client-owned dogs presented to the clinical practices for soft tissue surgery were enrolled. Sixty-nine dogs were allocated to the firocoxib-treated group and received 5 mg/kg of firocoxib orally on Day 0 before the surgery and once daily through Day 2, while 62 dogs were allocated to the non-treated group handled in a similar manner only without the firocoxib administration. Pain assessment took place on Day 0 before the surgery through Day 2. The primary efficacy variable was a success/failure variable based on whether the dog needed rescue medication (based on pain assessment after the surgery or Investigator's judgment) and a significant difference between firocoxib-treated group (16.4%) and non-treated group (50.0%) (P=0.0031) was observed. There was no adverse event during the study that was considered to be related to the administration of firocoxib. This study indicated the clinical efficacy and safety profile of firocoxib administered to control pain associated with soft tissue surgery under field condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.11-0306DOI Listing
October 2012

Epidemiological and morphological studies of double-chambered right ventricle in dogs.

J Vet Med Sci 2011 Oct 7;73(10):1287-93. Epub 2011 Jun 7.

Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan.

The double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is a rare congenital cardiac disease in dogs, and its detailed epidemiological and morphological features are not clearly understood. By investigating the profile, clinical signs, and characteristics of examination findings of eleven dogs with DCRV by means of a retrospective study, we attempted to clarify the epidemiology and morphology of the condition. The study group consisted of nine males and two females. Breeds included Pug (n=3), Miniature Dachshund (n=1), French Bull-dog (n=1), Shiba (n=1), and Retrievers (n=5). The attachment site of the anomalous muscular bundle was continuous with the cardiac apex in nine dogs, and it was attached to the right ventricle free wall in the other two dogs. In dogs with DCRV, at least one of the following conditions was present concurrently: congenital or acquired tricuspid valve regurgitation (TR), ventricular septal defect, and atrial septal defect. Also, the pressure difference between the two chambers increased over time, and progressive right-sided heart failure was observed. In summary, DCRV occurs in small breeds of dog as well as in large breeds of dog and it may be more prevalent in males. The existence of two types of DCRV in dogs was established. Dog with DCRVs will have a high incidence of concurrent cardiac abnormalities. Concurrent TR may be either congenital or acquired. DCRV is a congenital disorder, but the clinical condition progresses as the dog develops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.10-0485DOI Listing
October 2011

Lifelong persistent EBV infection of rabbits with EBER1-positive lymphocyte infiltration and mild sublethal hemophagocytosis.

Virus Res 2010 Oct 5;153(1):172-8. Epub 2010 Aug 5.

Division of Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.

Most humans become lifelong carriers of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by adulthood. Primary EBV infection in adolescents causes in one to two-third of cases infectious mononucleosis. EBV infection is associated with various diseases, neoplasms and hematological disorders. Recently we reported that EBV can infect rabbits frequently by intravenous, intranasal or/and peroral inoculation, which caused primary EBV infection in rabbits with heterogeneous host reactions. Here we presented follow up data that of six primary EBV-infected rabbits out of seven inoculated intravenously with EBV, two out of six EBV-infected rabbits showed lifetime EBV infection. (1) EBV-DNA were detected in blood through life. (2) High antibody titers against EA-D were maintained over 1000 days. (3) A focal mass lesion was transiently observed by ultrasonography in the spleen of one rabbit. (4) Two lifelong EBV-detected rabbits died on day 1522 or 1400, and autopsy revealed proliferation of lymphocytes expressing EBER1 or LMP1 accompanied with mild hemophagocytosis in the spleen or lymph nodes. We hypothesized some EBV-infected rabbits could not eliminate EBV for life and showed somewhat similar features to persistent EBV infection, mild CAEBV and/or mild sublethal hemophagocytosis. These lifelong EBV-infected rabbits might be a new useful animal model for studying lifelong persistent EBV infection, taking place in almost all adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2010.07.026DOI Listing
October 2010

Epstein-Barr virus can infect rabbits by the intranasal or peroral route: an animal model for natural primary EBV infection in humans.

J Med Virol 2010 May;82(6):977-86

Division of Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is spread universally in humans, and it causes infectious mononucleosis and sometimes induces serious EBV-associated disease. The detailed mechanism of primary infection in humans has remained unclear, because it is difficult to examine the dynamics of EBV in vivo. In this study, a natural EBV-infection rabbit model by intranasal or peroral inoculation is described. Ten male rabbits were examined for EBV-DNA or mRNA expression and anti-EBV antibodies in blood. Four of 10 rabbits showed the evidence of EBV infection; detection of EBV-DNA or EBV-related genes mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, increased EBV antibodies in the plasma, and the presence of lymphocytes expressing EBER1 and EBV-related gene proteins in the lymphoid tissues of a rabbit. Three of four infected rabbits were detected transiently EBV-DNA and/or mRNA of EBV-related genes such as EBNA1, EBNA2, BZLF1, and EA in blood, while in one of four, EBV-DNA and/or mRNA were detected for more than 200 days after viral inoculation. The level of EA-IgG increased and its level was maintained in all infected rabbits, whereas those of VCA-IgM and VCA-IgG increased transiently, and EBNA-IgG was not elevated. Pathological examination of a rabbit infected transiently revealed some scattered lymphocytes expressing EBER1, LMP1, and EBNA2 in the spleen and lymph nodes. EA expression was also observed in the spleen. These findings suggest that EBV can infect the rabbit by the intranasal or peroral route, and that this rabbit model is useful for examining the pathophysiology of natural primary EBV infection in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.21597DOI Listing
May 2010

Purulent pericarditis in a dog administered immune-suppressing drugs.

J Vet Med Sci 2009 May;71(5):669-72

Animal Clinical Research Foundation, Tottori, Japan.

A 5-year-old castrated mongrel dog was brought to our hospital with anorexia and vomiting. Laboratory testing revealed immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), and so treatment was initiated with multiple immune-suppressing drugs, achieving partial remission from IMHA. However, cardiac tamponade due to purulent pericarditis was identified as a secondary disease. Culture of pericardial fluid yielded numerous Candida albicans and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter sp. Pericardiocentesis was performed, and the condition of the dog improved. However, the dog died the next day.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.71.669DOI Listing
May 2009

Hydrodynamic characteristics of porcine aortic valves cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and polyepoxy compounds.

ASAIO J 2009 Jan-Feb;55(1):13-8

Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Surgery, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, Japan.

Porcine aortic valve (AoF) tissues cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and epoxy compounds were reported to have high anticalcification properties, but their hydrodynamic characteristics have not been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hydrodynamic differences between porcine AoFs, cross-linked with concomitant use of an epoxy compound and glutaraldehyde, at different fixation periods. The valves were mounted on a pulsatile flow circulation mimicking a left heart. The left atrial and left ventricular pressures and mitral and aortic flows were measured at every 0.002 seconds, and the hydrodynamic factor of the valves mounted on the mitral position was estimated. Effective orifice area and the regurgitation volume, which are used as indicators of valve efficiency, failed to detect significant differences due to glutaraldehyde fixation time. In addition, the pressure gradient across the bioprosthetic valve and the variation of mitral flow also had no significant differences. The flow circuit model of the present study was mimicking of a left heart. The evaluation of the mitral valvular function with different glutaraldehyde fixation times was accomplished by relating the pressure with the flow, and by estimating the time lag between valve motion and transvalvular flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0b013e31818f2880DOI Listing
March 2009

Long-term clinical evaluation of mitral valve replacement with porcine bioprosthetic valves in dogs.

J Vet Med Sci 2008 Mar;70(3):279-83

Animal Clinical Research Foundation, Kurayoshi, Tottori, Japan.

This study evaluated the long-term clinical performance of newly developed porcine bioprosthetic valves cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and polyepoxy compound for mitral valve replacement (MVR) in dogs. Five beagle dogs underwent MVR using the porcine bioprosthetic valves during cardiopulmonary bypass. Antithrombotic drugs were administered only for one month after MVR. Six months after MVR, transvalvular regurgitation was not observed in all dogs, paravalvular leakage was seen only in one dog. Twelve months after MVR, mild transvalvular regurgitations were observed in two dogs. Although diastolic atrioventricular pressure gradient was increased gradually, no significant differences were observed. Pressure half-time and valve area were within normal ranges as the bioprosthetic value. There was no clinical symptom of the thrombosis and the thrombogenesis was not observed in the porcine bioprosthetic valve and the annulus in all dogs for twelve months after MVR. The clinical findings suggest that antithrombogenicity of the valves were maintained, though the duability might not be enough in the long-term period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.70.279DOI Listing
March 2008

A new animal model for primary and persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection: human EBV-infected rabbit characteristics determined using sequential imaging and pathological analysis.

J Med Virol 2008 Mar;80(3):455-66

Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Tottori, Japan.

Most adults have persistent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infection. Adolescents and young adults with primary EBV-infection frequently develop infectious mononucleosis. Latent EBV-infection is associated with various diseases, neoplasms, and hematological disorders. In vivo animal models of human EBV infection, such as non-human primates, have had limited success. A new rabbit model for primary human EBV-infection is described in this study. Seven male rabbits inoculated intravenously with EBV were sequentially imaged by ultrasonography and computed tomography, and examined for anti-EBV-VCA titer and EBV-DNA levels in blood. Six rabbits demonstrated transient splenomegaly, increased anti-EBV-VCA titers and/or EBV-DNA in blood. Transient infiltration of some EBER1-positive lymphocytes was observed in biopsied liver tissues. After splenomegaly, two rabbits tested continuously negative, two alternatively positive and negative, and one consistently positive EBV detection in blood for 470 days. One tested negative for both EBV DNA and splenomegaly. On the 14th day, mild to moderate numbers of EBER1-positive lymphocytes expressing LMP1, EBNA2, or ZEBRA infiltrated mainly in enlarged white pulps of two splenectomized materials. These cells included both B and T cells. EBV clonality analysis revealed an oligoclonal pattern. These indicate that EBV-inoculated rabbits exhibiting heterogenous host reactions are a good model for primary and persistent human EBV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.21102DOI Listing
March 2008

Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of coil occlusion for patent ductus arteriosus in dogs.

J Vet Med Sci 2007 Aug;69(8):857-9

Veterinary Surgery, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan.

We performed a retrospective study of 56 dogs with Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) to evaluate the indications for and efficacy of transarterial PDA coil embolization. Transarterial PDA coil embolization was conducted in 37 cases (66.1%) and surgical ligation was conducted in 16 cases (28.6%). Three cases (5.4%) were diagnosed as pulmonary hypertension and were excluded from surgical intervention. Although coil dislodgement was observed in the pulmonary artery in one case, no death occurred during coil embolization or surgical ligation. Echocardiography showed that fractional shortening decreased from 35.4 +/- 6.8% to 30.2 +/- 5.9% (P<0.05) after transarterial PDA coil embolization. Although slight residual shunts were observed in 18 cases, transarterial PDA coil embolization was effective treatment of PDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.69.857DOI Listing
August 2007

Short-term performance of mitral valve replacement with porcine bioprosthetic valves in dogs.

J Vet Med Sci 2007 Aug;69(8):793-8

Animal Clinical Research Foundation, 214-10 Yatsuya, Kurayoshi, Tottori 682-0025, Japan.

Porcine bioprosthetic valves cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and polyepoxy compound were newly developed for mitral valve replacement (MVR) in dogs. Five beagle dogs were performed a left thoracotomy and underwent MVR using the porcine bioprosthetic valves during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A vein catheter inserted into right atrium and a vent catheter inserted into the right ventricle to drain. The hemodynamic conditions of CPB were excellent during surgery. The left atrial pressure was measured before and after MVR; there was no significant difference and it was normal. Thrombosis and the prosthetic valve regurgitation were not observed one week after MVR. Pressure half time (PHT) prolonged significantly (P<0.05) from 31.40 +/- 4.0 msec presurgery to 99.20 +/- 19.4 msec at seven days after MVR, although it indicated the normal range as the bioprosthetic valve. The symptom of the prosthetic valve failure was not observed. This study indicated that the MVR using porcine bioprosthetic valves under CPB might have been effective in dogs as a short-term evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.69.793DOI Listing
August 2007

Comparison of right atrium incision and right ventricular outflow incision for surgical repair of membranous ventricular septal defect using cardiopulmonary bypass in dogs.

Vet Surg 2006 Jun;35(4):382-7

Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: To compare right atrium incision (RAI) and right ventricular outflow incisions (RVI) for surgical repair of membranous ventricular septal defect (VSD) facilitated by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Animals: Dogs (n=10) with VSD.

Methods: Medical records of dogs that had VSD repair were reviewed. Membranous VSD without any malformation and abnormality was confirmed on several clinical examinations and by angiocardiography. RAI (5 dogs) and RVI (5 dogs) was used for VSD access and repair facilitated by CPB. Procedure comparison was by surgical duration, postoperative recovery period, and occurrence of postoperative arrhythmia.

Results: Duration of surgery was similar for RAI and RVI; however, postoperative recovery time was significantly reduced with RAI. Significant moderate operative damage occurred with right atrium incision.

Conclusions: Right atrium incision was more effective than RVI for repair of membranous VSD using CPB.

Clinical Relevance: RAI should be considered in preference to RVI for repair of membranous VSD using CPB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.2006.00161.xDOI Listing
June 2006

An experimental study of apico-aortic valved conduit (AAVC) for surgical treatment of aortic stenosis in dogs.

J Vet Med Sci 2005 Apr;67(4):357-62

Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan.

A new valved conduit was developed using a canine aortic valve. The bioprosthetic valve was fixed with glutaraldehyde and epoxy compound (Denacol-EX313/810). A vascular graft composed of ultra-fine polyester fiber (10 mm in diameter, 200 mm in length) was used. Four dogs underwent apico-aortic valved conduit (AAVC) implantation and aortic banding (bypass group, BG), while another 4 dogs underwent aortic banding without AAVC implantation (control group, CG). Cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were performed for assessment of hemodynamics 2 weeks and 6 months after surgery. Left ventricular systolic pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and the left ventricular-aortic pressure gradient differed significantly (P<0.01) between the BG and CG dogs. Left ventricular angiocardiography showed patency of the valved conduit in all the BG dogs. Echocardiography was performed before and 2, 4 and 6 months after surgery, and showed that while pressure overload caused concentric myocardial hypertrophy in the CG dogs, the left ventricle dilated eccentrically in the BG dogs. Furthermore, relief of left ventricular pressure overload by AAVC was maintained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.67.357DOI Listing
April 2005

Effect of sustained release isosorbide dinitrate (EV151) in dogs with experimentally-induced mitral insufficiency.

J Vet Med Sci 2003 May;65(5):615-8

Animal Clinical Research Foundation, Kurayoshi-shi, Tottori, Japan.

To investigate the hemodynamic effects on seven anesthetized dogs with experimentally-induced mitral insufficiency, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) in sustained release form (EV151) was administered at different dosages (0, 2, 8 and 16 mg/kg). The drug administration resulted in altered pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (preload), and cardiac output and total systemic resistance (afterload). Arterial pressure increased in the control group and in animals receiving 2 mg/kg, but decreased in animals 1-2 hr after receiving 8 and 16 mg/kg dosages. Cardiac output increased in animals receiving 2, 8 and 16 mg/kg dosages, with concomitant decreases in total systemic resistance. ISDN caused mild vasodilation at 2 mg/kg and severe vasodilation at 8 and 16 mg/kg. Future experiments on non-anesthetized dogs may be of benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.65.615DOI Listing
May 2003

A long term comparison between Denacol EX-313-treated bovine jugular vein graft and ultrafine polyester fiber graft for reconstruction of tight ventricular outflow tract in dogs.

J Vet Med Sci 2003 Mar;65(3):363-8

Animal Clinical Research Foundation, Tottori, Japan.

A Denacol EX-313 (Denacol)-treated bovine venous graft and an ultrafine polyester fiber (UFPF) graft were transplanted as patch graft into the right ventricular outflow tract under extracorporeal circulation in six dogs each experimentally. Hemodynamics in right heart and histological findings around the graft were compared between both groups over a period of one year after grafting. Pressure measurements and angiocardiography were performed through a cardiac catheter. Right ventricular pressure, pulmonary artery pessure, and right ventricle to pulmonary artery gradient were within normal limits in both groups at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 months or more after grafting. No difference were seen between the values for the Denacol and the UFPF group. Histologically, the medial surface at the site of grafting was covered with vascular endothelial cells at one month after grafting in both groups. The density of the vascular endothelial cells increased with time after grafting, showing no clear difference between the two groups. Subendothelial layers comprised of collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and inflammatory cells decreased with time in both groups, but there was less cell infiltration in the Denacol group than in the UFPF group at all time points after grafting. In addition, the central cut thickness value of the graft tended to be thinner in the Denacol group than in the UFPF group at all observation time points after grafting. In the Denacol group, very slight metaplasia of cartilage was noted in a portion of the graft margin at six months or more after grafting, but no other abnormalities were observed. These results suggest that the Denacol-treated bovine venous graft has better grafting characteristics than the UFPF graft with easier intra-operative handlings and less tissue reactions after grafting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.65.363DOI Listing
March 2003

Comparison of extracapillary and endocapillary blood flow oxygenators for open heart surgery in dogs: efficiency of gas exchange and platelet conservation.

J Vet Med Sci 2003 Mar;65(3):357-61

Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

The goal of the current study was to compare the efficiency of gas exchange and platelet conservation of a new extracapillary blood flow oxygenator versus an endocapillary blood flow oxygenator during open heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation in dogs. Dilation and remodeling of the right ventricular outflow tract of dogs was performed using a patch graft technique to simulate pulmonary stenosis. Sequential pre- and post-operative blood analysis revealed that gas exchange efficiency and platelet conservation was significantly greater with the extracapillary blood flow oxygenator than with the endocapillary blood flow oxygenator. However, the priming volume of the extracapillary blood flow oxygenator was significantly greater, leading to hemodilution. We conclude that while the extracapillary blood flow oxygenator provided benefits in terms of gas exchange and platelet conservation, development of a smaller extracapillary blood flow type oxygenator to reduce hemodilution effects would be beneficial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.65.357DOI Listing
March 2003
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