Publications by authors named "Kazimierz Pityński"

61 Publications

Low Expression of miR-375 and miR-190b Differentiates Grade 3 Patients with Endometrial Cancer.

Biomolecules 2021 02 13;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Center for Medical Genomics OMICRON, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-034 Krakow, Poland.

Endometrial cancer (EC) is treated according to the stage and prognostic risk factors. Most EC patients are in the early stages and they are treated surgically. However some of them, including those with high grade (grade 3) are in the intermediate and high intermediate prognostic risk groups and may require adjuvant therapy. The goal of the study was to find differences between grades based on an miRNA gene expression profile. Tumor samples from 24 patients with grade 1 ( = 10), 2 ( = 7), and 3 ( = 7) EC were subjected to miRNA profiling using next generation sequencing. The results obtained were validated using the miRNA profile of 407 EC tumors from the external Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. We obtained sets of differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs with the largest amount between G2 to G1 (50 transcripts) and G3 to G1 (40 transcripts) patients. Validation of our results with external data (TCGA) gave us a reasonable gene overlap of which we selected two miRNAs (miR-375 and miR190b) that distinguish the high grade best from the low grade EC. Unsupervised clustering showed a high degree of heterogeneity within grade 2 samples. MiR-375 as well as 190b might be useful to create grading verification test for high grade EC. One of the possible mechanisms that is responsible for the high grade is modulation by virus of host morphology or physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11020274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918779PMC
February 2021

Early fetal cardiac scan as an element of the sonographic first-trimester screening.

Folia Med Cracov 2020 11;60(3):17-26

Chair of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Early fetal cardiac scan (EFCS) is becoming an increasingly common element of the first trimester ultrasound screening carried out at 11-14 gestational weeks. It offers the first possibility to detect congenital heart defects (CHD) or, in ambiguous cases, to identify those pregnancies where a more detailed cardiac scan would be required later in pregnancy. The size of the fetal heart at the end of the first trimester and the associated relatively low image resolution make it impossible to capture all cardiac data to inform the ultimate picture. However, even at this stage, cues of anatomical and functional abnormalities can be picked up, which suggest not only a CHD, but also a likelihood of cardiovascular symptoms typical of genetic disorders. EFCS should focus on cardiac position, atrioventricular (AV) connections, AV valve function, initial assessment of ventriculo-arterial (VA) connections and the presence of red flag signs in the three vessel and trachea view (3VTV). Proper use of color Doppler mapping makes it possible to overcome the low resolution of B-mode to a certain extent. Here we present our long-term experience in EFCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24425/fmc.2020.135792DOI Listing
November 2020

COLPOSCOPY 2020 - COLPOSCOPY PROTOCOLS: A Summary of the Clinical Experts Consensus Guidelines of the Polish Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathophysiology and the Polish Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians.

Ginekol Pol 2020;91(6):362371

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland.

The Polish Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathophysiology and the Polish Society of Gynecologists and Obstetricians provide comprehensive guidelines for colposcopy practice in secondary cervical cancer prevention in Poland. This part of the guidelines, developed by the clinical experts of the Working Group No. 1 (WG1), concerns the colposcopy protocols with the main aim of algorithmizing the procedure, together with all procedure-related processes. The detailed analysis of strong scientific evidence and an extensive literature review of current international colposcopic recommendations were carried out, with also a broad investigation of recently ongoing dynamic changes in national health systems. The attention to colposcopic limitations also occurring in Polish conditions was kept. The overriding goal was the recommended obligatory minimal colposcopy approach introduction. To enhance the standard of colposcopy, adjustment of a precolposcopic assessment, a performance technique, types of used biopsies, as well as the procedure documentation was made. Elements of the risk-based stratification for the increased risk of developing cervical cancer was also included if it was applicable for that part of the guidelines. Comprehensive colposcopy guidelines are a step towards the ongoing era of a precision medicine in cervical cancer prevention in Poland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.2020.0075DOI Listing
January 2020

Metastatic and non-metastatic sentinel inguinofemoral lymph nodes in vulvar cancer show an increased lymphangiogenesis.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2020 Mar 26;27(1):123-128. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Introduction And Objective: Lymph node involvement is a strong predictor of disease recurrence and patient survival in vulvar cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) screening, the incidence of skip metastases, and lymph node lymphangiogenesis.

Material And Methods: Fifty-five patients participated in this prospective, single centre study. A double SLN screening method was employed using radiocolloid (technetium-99 sulfur colloid) and 1.0% Isosulfan Blue. Immunohistochemistry, using a mouse monoclonal antibody against D2-40, was used to evaluate lymphatic vessel density (LVD). All calculations were performed using STATISTICA software v. 10 (StatSoft, USA, 2011); p < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Using both methods of SLN detection, 100% accuracy was achieved, and skip metastases were diagnosed in only one woman (1.82%). Peri-tumour median LVD was significantly increased compared with matched intra-tumour samples (p < 0.001), while median LVD was significantly lower in negative, compared with positive SLN, regardless of whether matched non-SLN were negative (p < 0.001) or positive (p = 0.005). Metastatic SLN exhibited significantly higher median LVD compared with matched negative non-SLN (p = 0.015), while no significant difference in median LVD was detected between positive SLN and matched positive non-SLN. However, negative SLN had a significantly higher median LVD compared with matched negative non-SLN (p = 0.012).

Conclusions: SLN detection is a safe and feasible procedure in vulvar cancer. In patients without nodular involvement, SLN, compared with non-SLN, exhibited significantly higher median LVD, which may be an indication of its preparation to host metastases, and thus requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26444/aaem/105925DOI Listing
March 2020

Coexistence of tooth agenesis and ovarian cancer - a systematic literature review.

Ginekol Pol 2019 ;90(12):707-710

Department of Orthodontics, Dental Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Montelupich St. 4, 31-155 Kraków, Poland.

Objectives: Dental agenesis - a congenital lack of teeth - is one of the most frequently diagnosed developmental defects of dentition. Genetics is a crucial factor in the etiology of this disorder. Missing teeth can be caused by mutation in genes including MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, and EDARADD. As is also true for ovarian cancer, over 20% of cases are associated with hereditary factors. Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are said to be the most frequent of these. The aim of this study was to provide a systematic review of the literature on the coexistence of ovarian cancer and tooth agenesis.

Material And Methods: Publications were searched for in the online databases PubMed, SCOPUS, and Wiley Online Library. Current and archival issues of the Journal of Stomatology and Dental and Medical Problems were also searched. The key words used to find relevant publications were: ovarian cancer, hypodontia, and tooth agenesis, in various combinations.

Results: Three publications were qualified to this review. Two of these compared the incidence of hypodontia in women with ovarian cancer and in healthy women, and the other was aimed at locating the gene responsible for the coexistence of ovarian cancer and tooth agenesis. As shown by these studies, women with ovarian cancer are (depending on the study) 3.3 or 8.1 times more likely to have hypodontia than healthy women. However, no specific gene was found that might be responsible for the coexistence of ovarian cancer and tooth agenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.2019.0121DOI Listing
July 2020

[Vitamin D in normal and pathologically changed endometrium].

Wiad Lek 2019 ;72(3):452-456

Klinika Ginekologii i Onkologii Collegium Medium, Uniwersytet Jagieloński, Kraków, Polska.

More and more evidence from research confirms the significance of vitamin D (VD) in the development of endometrial pathologies. Apart from the well known role of VD in regulation of calcium levels, VD acts as modulator to many genes involved in cell growth, immunological functions and protein synthesis. The newest research shows that VD acts multidirectionally and its common deficiency has a causal link to the pathogenesis of many gynecological and cancerous conditions. It is postulated that VD affects the endometrium via various mechanisms. The discovery that most tissues have VD receptors was ground-breaking in understanding its role in various medical conditions, including the neoplasmal development mechanism, but the degree, to which the VD metabolism in the eutopic endometrium during pathological conditions is impaired, has not yet been explained.
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August 2019

Diagnostic and prognostic relevance of microparticles in peripheral and uterine blood of patients with endometrial cancer.

Ginekol Pol 2018 ;89(12):682-687

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, University Hospital, Cracow, Poland.

Objectives: Exosomes - microvesicles which are secreted by living cells - can be produced from different cell types and detected in various body fluids. They are the carriers of intercellular information which regulate tumor microenvironment and are considered to be involved in tumor progression and metastasis. Cancer cells can secrete more exosomes than healthy cells, and are expected to be potential tools for tumor diagnosis and treatment.

Material And Methods: In this report, we present the results of microparticle analysis in peripheral and uterine blood of patients with endometrial cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this study has been the first to report microvesicle status in peripheral and uterine blood samples. The aim of the study was to determine the amount of total (TF+), endothelial (CD144+) and monocytic (CD14+) microparticles. The counting of the selected microparticles in citrate plasma was performed using flow cytometry on the BD Canto II cytometer.

Results: We found that the total amount of microparticles in cancer patients was much higher than in healthy controls. Moreover, microparticle count in uterine blood was higher than in peripheral blood of patients with endometrial cancer. We also demonstrated that the amount of microparticles correlates with the histologic grade and clinical stage of the tumor.

Conclusions: The most interesting finding in this work was the high level of TF, CD144 and CD14 MPs in uterine blood samples. Thus we can consider the monocyte-macrophage-derived MPs as a candidate marker of endometrial cancer and maybe very critical part of the endometrial carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2018.0115DOI Listing
August 2019

Occult uterine leiomyosarcoma in women undergoing abdominal and minimally invasive surgeries for myomas.

Ginekol Pol 2018 ;89(10):546-552

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, 31 501 Krakow, Poland.

Objectives: To estimate (i) the incidence of occult uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) in patients operated on for presumedmyomas, and (ii) the proportion of occult LMS to preoperatively diagnosed LMS in a tertiary center.

Material And Methods: An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective cohort study was performed. The electronicdatabase of 30,476 patients was searched for women who had undergone surgery due to presumed myomas (N = 2675) as well as those with uterine LMS recognized via histology (N = 10) between January 2010 and December 2016.

Results: Six of the 2675 treated women had occult LMS (incidence 1:446; 0.002; CI 0.0-0.013), and one underwent power morcellation (incidence 1:951; 0.001; CI 0.0-0.006). Parallel searching revealed that 6 of the 10 cases (60%) with uterine LMS recognized via histology were diagnosed postoperatively, whereas 4 of the 10 (40%) were diagnosed preoperatively. The incidence of LMS morcellation during laparoscopy was 1:951 and, when all MIS cases were included, 1:1178. The patient who underwent LMS morcellation was operated in the general surgery ward 5 years after laparoscopy (omental recurrence).

Conclusions: These results are similar to the first and recent conservative FDA estimations, but two-times lower for procedures with laparoscopic morcellation and all MIS procedures than for abdominal. Because above half of LMS may be recognized after surgery, the risk of occult LMS and the delay of targeted surgical treatment should be included in all informed consent forms for conservative management of presumed myomas without histology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2018.0093DOI Listing
April 2019

Immunoexpression of DNA fragmentation factor 40, DNA fragmentation factor 45, and B-cell lymphoma 2 protein in normal human endometrium and uterine myometrium depends on menstrual cycle phase and menopausal status.

Arch Med Sci 2018 Oct 31;14(6):1254-1262. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Introduction: DNA fragmentation factors 40 and 45 (DFF40 and DFF45) are final executors of apoptosis, and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is a well-recognized apoptosis inhibitor. We aimed to evaluate DFF40, DFF45 and Bcl-2 immunoexpression in the normal human endometrium with respect to the glandular and stromal layer and in uterine myometrium.

Material And Methods: DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 expression was assessed via immunohistochemistry in the endometrium and myometrium collected postmenopausally and premenopausally during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle.

Results: Compared to the myometrium and stroma, endometrial glands showed the highest DFF40 and DFF45 expression in pre- and postmenopausal specimens. DFF45, but not DFF40, glandular expression dependent on menstrual cycle phase and DFF40 and DFF45 scoring was significantly lower in postmenopausal specimens. Significantly higher Bcl-2 expression was observed in proliferative glandular endometrium compared to secretory and postmenopausal specimens. No cycle- or menopause-dependent changes were reported for stromal or myometrial DFF40, DFF45 or Bcl-2 expression. DFF40, DFF45 and Bcl-2 expression was independent of age, age at menarche and menopause, BMI, menstrual cycle and menses lengths, parity and gravidity.

Conclusions: The study provides important evidence regarding menstrual cycle-dependent changes in the expression of DFF40, DFF45 and Bcl-2 in the normal human endometrium, especially in the glandular layer, and shows that their levels are stable in the normal uterine myometrium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2017.69383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6209718PMC
October 2018

Non-endometrioid and high-grade endometrioid endometrial cancers show DNA fragmentation factor 40 (DFF40) and B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL2) underexpression, which predicts disease-free and overall survival, but not DNA fragmentation factor 45 (DFF45) underexpression.

BMC Cancer 2018 04 13;18(1):418. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Department of Pathomorphology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Background: The expression of DNA fragmentation factor 45 (DFF45) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in glands of the normal human endometrium is related to phases of the menstrual cycle and decreases after menopause, whereas the expression of DNA fragmentation factor 40 (DFF40) is stable. Moreover, DF45, BCL2 and DFF40 underexpression has been reported in numerous malignancies, including uterine leiomyosarcomas. In this study, we aimed to investigate DFF45, BCL2 and DFF40 expression in endometrioid and non-endometrioid types of endometrial cancers (ECs). We also evaluated the correlations between DFF45, BCL2 and DFF40 expression levels and clinicopathological parameters and determined the value of these three proteins as prognostic markers of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).

Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate DFF45, BCL2 and DFF40 expression in 342 cases of ECs. Student's t-test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, and the chi-squared test were used for the statistical analyses as appropriate. The Cox-Mantel test, Cox's proportional hazard model, and relative risk analyses were used to evaluate associations between DFF40, DFF45, and BCL2 expression and clinicopathological characteristics.

Results: DFF40 and BCL2, but not DFF45, were significantly underexpressed in non-endometrioid and high-grade endometrioid ECs compared with low- and moderate-grade endometrioid ECs. Women with DFF40- and BCL2-negative tumors had higher risks of disease recurrence, lymph node involvement, lympho-vascular space infiltration, and deep myometrial invasion compared with women with DFF40- and BCL2-positive tumors. Additionally, women with DFF40- and BCL2-negative tumors had significantly lower OS and DFS than women with DFF40- and BCL2-positive tumors. A multivariable analysis of the model, including the clinicopathological characteristics and immunohistochemical results, showed that negative BCL2 expression, lymph node involvement, and high-stage and high-grade disease were independent predictors of OS, whereas negative BCL2 expression, lymph node involvement, and high-stage disease were independent predictors of DFS.

Conclusions: Compared with low- and moderate-grade endometrioid ECs, non-endometrioid and high-grade endometrioid ECs showed significant DFF40 and BCL2 underexpression. The absence of DFF40 and BCL2 expression negatively affects DFS and OS. Further prospective studies are warranted to assess the potential utility of DFF40 and BCL2 as targets in the diagnosis or treatment of ECs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4333-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5899339PMC
April 2018

DNA fragmentation factors 40 and 45 (DFF40/DFF45) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein are underexpressed in uterine leiomyosarcomas and may predict survival.

Onco Targets Ther 2017 14;10:4579-4589. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw.

Objectives: DNA fragmentation factors 40 and 45 (DFF40 and DFF45) are responsible for final DNA-laddering during apoptosis, whereas Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) is an apoptosis inhibitor. Our aim was to investigate the expression of DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 in uterine leiomyosarcomas (uLMS), leiomyomas (uLM), and the normal myometrium. Furthermore, the correlation between DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 expression and clinicopathological parameters in leiomyosarcomas was assessed. Their prognostic value in disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was also calculated.

Materials And Methods: This study included 53 cases of uLMS from patients matched for age and menopausal status with 53 cases of uLM and 53 controls of normal myometrium (uM). Case samples of uterine myometrium from leiomyosarcomas (uLMS-M) and leiomyomas (uLM-M) were also studied. Immunohistochemical scoring was undertaken for DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2.

Results: DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 were significantly underexpressed in uLMS compared with uLMS-M and uM. In uLMS samples, no correlation between the analyzed proteins was observed. Negative DFF40 and Bcl-2, but not DFF45, staining was a predictor of poorer DFS and OS in women with uLMS. uLM showed DFF40 and Bcl-2 overexpression compared with uM and uLM-M, with a significant positive correlation between DFF40 and DFF45. No differences in DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 expression were observed between the uLMS-M, uLM-M, and uM samples, with a significant positive correlation between DFF40 and DFF45 expression.

Conclusion: DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 are significantly underexpressed in uLMS, but only a lack of DFF40 and Bcl-2 negatively influences DFS and OS. Disruption of DFF40 and DFF45 expression was observed in uLMS, but not in uLM or control and case myometrium; this may play a role in tumor pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S142979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5609795PMC
September 2017

Endometrial Polyps and Benign Endometrial Hyperplasia Have Increased Prevalence of DNA Fragmentation Factors 40 and 45 (DFF40 and DFF45) Together With the Antiapoptotic B-Cell Lymphoma (Bcl-2) Protein Compared With Normal Human Endometria.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2018 Sep;37(5):431-440

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College (T.B., K.P.) Dietl Specialistic Hospital, Krakow (M.M.) Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw (J.C.K.), Poland.

DNA fragmentation factor 40 (DFF40) is a key executor of apoptosis. It localizes to the nucleus together with DNA fragmentation factor 45 (DFF45), which acts as a DFF40 inhibitor and chaperone. B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) protein is a proven antiapoptotic factor present in the cytoplasm. In this study, we aimed to investigate DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 immunoexpression in endometrial polyps (EPs) and benign endometrial hyperplasia (BEH) tissue compared with that in normal proliferative endometrium (NPE) and normal secretory endometrium (NSE) as well as normal post menopausal endometrium (NAE). This study used archived samples from 65 and 62 cases of EPs and BEH, respectively. The control group consisted of 52 NPE, 54 NSE, and 54 NAE specimens. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2. DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 were more highly expressed in the glandular layer of EPs and BEH compared with the stroma, and this was not influenced by menopausal status. Both glandular and stromal expression of DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 were significantly higher in EPs compared with NPE, NSE, and NAE. Glandular BEH tissue showed significantly higher DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 expression than in NPE, NSE, and NAE. No differences in the glandular expression of DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 were observed between EP and BEH tissues, while Bcl-2 stromal expression in BEH was significantly lower than in EPs. Glandular, menopause-independent DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 overexpression may play an important role in the pathogenesis of EPs and BEH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PGP.0000000000000442DOI Listing
September 2018

Laparoscopic Intervention in Acute Crohn's Disease Involving an Ovary.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2017 Sep - Oct;24(6):1040-1045. Epub 2017 May 27.

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland; Ludwin and Ludwin Gynecology, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that may involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract. Acute manifestations in female internal reproductive organs are rare and have been described in only a few cases. A 27-year-old nulligravida woman diagnosed with CD presented with pelvic pain, fever, and a palpable mass (confirmed by ultrasound) in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. She underwent diagnostic laparoscopy because of worsening symptoms suggestive of a tubo-ovarian abscess. The right adnexa were excised after adhesiolysis. Pathologic examination revealed an ovarian granuloma consistent with CD. This case shows that a laparoscopic approach is possible for active CD, with all the benefits of a minimally invasive approach. Although the involved ovary was removed, similar to previous reports using laparotomy, conservative therapy should be considered if preoperative diagnosis can be made. Improvements in preoperative diagnosis and development of management guidelines is critical for ovarian preservation and conservative treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2017.04.028DOI Listing
March 2018

Endometrial cancer and hyperplasia rate in women before menopause with abnormal uterine bleeding undergoing endometrial sampling.

Przegl Lek 2017;74(4):139-43.

Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the most common symptom of endometrial cancer (EC) and endometrial hyperplasia with (AH) or without (EH) atypia. Risk of malignancy and hyperplasia is significantly lower in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Only 10% of EC occurs before menopause. Obesity and age are well-recognized risk factors of endometrial cancer. Endometrial sampling is recommended in women at high risk of endometrial malignancy. The primary objective was to determine the incidence of EC, AH and EH in premenopausal women undergoing dilation and curettage (D&C) because of AUB. Additional objective of the study was to estimate the risk of EC and AH in overweight and obese women with two types of AUB: heavy menstrual bleeding (AUB-HMB) and intermenstrual bleeding (AUB-IMB), according to PALM-COEIN classification.

Material And Methods: Retrospective study in the population of women undergoing D&C in tertiary hospital because of AUB between Jan-2016 and Dec-2016. The incidence of EC, AH, EH was established. The influence of the variables: age, BMI, AUBHMB/ AUB-IMB on the occurrence of abnormal histology (EC, AH, EH) was evaluated. Finally, the model built by using backward stepwise regression and mechanism of v-fold cross-validation, showed no statistically significant relationship.

Results: EC was detected in 2/213 cases (0.9%; 95% CI 0.0003 to 0.036), AH in 3/213 cases (1.4%), giving a total of 5/213 (2.3%) women with AH or EC. EH was detected in 16/213 (7.5%) women. High BMI raises the chance of AH diagnosis: OR 1.16 (95% CI 1.05- 1.28). The presence of HMB compared to IMB reduces the chance of EH: OR 0.24 (95% CI 0.07-0.9). IMB increases the chance for the diagnosis of EH 4.11 times compared to HMB (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.1-14.9; p = 0.016).

Conclusions: EC in premenopausal women with AUB undergoing D&C is rare. There is a need to search for more effective methods of selection of patients than commonly used. Age and BMI do not seem to be factors that should be used to select patients.
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June 2018

Ultrasound evaluation of inferior facial angle (IFA) in a population of normal fetuses at 11-13 weeks (+6 days) gestation.

Przegl Lek 2017;74(1):8-12

Retrognathia is a common feature of many fetal anomalies that may be diagnosed during ultrasound examination. The most common method used for the diagnosis of this condition is the inferior facial angle (IFA). The existing reference ranges for IFA have been established for the fetuses at 18- 28 weeks gestation and may be not applicable in the first trimester. The aim of the study was to document changes of IFA from 11+0 to 13+6 weeks gestation, to verify the reproducibility of IFA calculations obtained by the same examiner and to investigate the possible association between IFA values at the first and second trimester scans.

Material And Methods: A prospective study was performed in 512 singleton pregnancies during the first trimester ultrasound exam. IFA was calculated by measuring the angle made by the cross-section of a line orthogonal to the forehead at the level of nasofrontal suture and the line from the tip of the mentum to the anterior border of the more protrusive lip. In 100 cases, stored images were used to calculate IFA twice by the same examiner. In a second trimester scan, IFA was measured again in 215 fetuses.

Results: The median IFA value at the time of the first trimester (IFA-1) was 880 (IQR: 8.0) and decreased with crown-rump length (CRL) and biparietal diameter (BPD). A moderate negative correlation was shown between IFA-1 and CRL (r= 0.3; p<0.001) as well as between IFA-1 and BPD-1 (r= 0.176; p=0.010). An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81 – 0.91) confirmed strong intraobserver agreement between two IFA measurements. In 215 fetuses that underwent a second trimester screening, the median IFA-2 was significantly lower compared to IFA-1(215) (750; IQR: 10.0 vs.870; IQR: 8.0; p<0.001), and there was no correlation between IFA1215 and IFA-2 (r= -0.024; p=0.731).

Conclusions: In the first trimester, IFA decreases with CRL and BPD. When performed by the same operator, measurement of IFA is reproducible. There is no correlation between the IFA values in the first and second trimesters.
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June 2018

Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980-2013): an analysis of population-based data in relation to socioeconomic changes.

Onco Targets Ther 2016 7;9:5521-30. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Objectives: This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC), corpus uteri cancer (CUC), and ovarian cancer (OC) in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes.

Materials And Methods: Incidence and mortality data (1980-2013) were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960-2013) were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC).

Results: A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980-1990 2.14, AAPC1990-1996 4.71, AAPC1996-2013 2.21), with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980-1994 0.52, AAPC1994-2013 -0.66). During the period 1980-2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980-1994 3.7, AAPC1994-2013 1.93) was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980-2006 -1.12, AAPC2006-2013 3.74). After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980-1994 2.98, AAPC1994-2013 -0.49), as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980-1994 0.52, AAPC1994-2013 -0.66).

Conclusion: After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in mortality rate was observed for BC and OC predominantly at the end of the study period, while for CUC, after a long decreasing mortality trend, a significant increase was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S112187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5021054PMC
September 2016

Age at natural menopause in women on long-term methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

Menopause 2016 10;23(10):1130-8

1Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland2Center of Rheumatology, Immunology and Rehabilitation, Dietl Specialistic Hospital, Krakow, Poland3Department of Public Health, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland4Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the natural menopause ages of healthy women with those of women with methotrexate (MTX)-treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to specifically assess the effect of disease onset and activity and the use of MTX on the age of the last menstruation.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of medical records to identify the ages at which menopause occurred in women with premenopausal RA treated with MTX and in women with postmenopausal onset, irrespective of therapy. Natural menopause ages were also compared between participants with and without RA.

Results: Women with premenopausal onset of RA underwent menopause at a significantly younger age than did healthy women (P < 0.001) or those with postmenopausal disease onset (P = 0.001). Menopause also occurred at younger ages in participants with postmenopausal disease onset than in healthy controls (P = 0.012). The study suggested that menopause age was positively correlated with the age at which RA was diagnosed (R = 0.51; P < 0.001) in women with premenopausal RA onset, but was independent of the participant's age at menarche, number of pregnancies, or MTX therapy. Participants with RA onset at ≤ 35 years of age had a ninefold higher risk of premature menopause (P = 0.008).

Conclusions: The age at which menopause occurs in a patient with RA depends on the patient's age at the time of disease onset and its duration, but is not influenced by MTX treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000000674DOI Listing
October 2016

The dynamics of autonomic nervous system activity and hemodynamic changes in pregnant women.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2016 ;37(1):70-7

Objective: The purpose of this research was to assess the dynamics of autonomic nervous system(ANS) and hemodynamic activity changes during uncomplicated pregnancy.

Methods: We enrolled 36 pregnant women (mean age 29 ± 4.8 years) and a control group of 10 non-pregnant women (mean age 25.9 ± 0.88 years). The examination was performed in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester. Continuous registration of BP, ECG, and cardioimpedance was performed with Task Force Monitor 3040i. ANS activity was measured using the following parameters: HRV, BPV, BRS at rest, and in response to autonomic tests.

Results: Compared to the 1st trimester, an increase in HR (73 vs. 92 bpm; p < 0.001) and mean BP (80 vs. 85 mmHg, p < 0.01) was observed in the 3rd trimester. In the 1st trimester, the BRS of pregnant women was insignificantly higher than in the controls (24.8 vs. 22.3 ms/mmHg); subsequently, it decreased significantly, to 13.4 ms/mmHg in the 3rd trimester (p = 0.0004). An increase in nLF (39.57 ± 13.75 vs. 58.73 ± 15.55; p = 0.001) and LF/HF ratio (1.03 ± 0.76 vs. 1.85 ± 0.8; p < 0.00002) was revealed in HRV analysis conducted in the 3rd trimester, as compared to the 1st tri- mester, along with a decrease in nHF (60.43 ± 13.71 vs. 41.26 ± 15.55; p < 0.001). An increase in LF/HF-sBPV (1.05 ± 0.48 vs. 1.58 ± 0.44; p = 0.01) was recorded in BPV analysis at rest in the 3rd trimester as compared to the respective 1st trimester value.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that pregnancy is associated with dynamic changes in autonomic balance, namely doubled dominance of the sympathetic component. Hypervolemia seems the major factor responsible for autonomic and hemodynamic changes observed during pregnancy, as it causes an increase in BP and simultaneous decrease in BRS.
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July 2016

[Carbon monoxide poisoning in pregnant woman].

Przegl Lek 2015 ;72(9):482-4

Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most frequent types of poisoning caused by gases. Exposure of a pregnant woman to carbon monoxide is connected with transmission of this gas to her fetus what may cause oxygen deficiency, and further, the damage to its organs. The article describes a case of carbon monoxide poisoning of a 28-weeks pregnant woman who was treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Therapy was successful and the woman gave birth to a healthy, full term infant. In case of poisoning to a pregnant woman the above seems to be the most advantageous solution.
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April 2016

The influence of medical education level on the Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students' knowledge concerning oral hormonal contraceptive pills.

Folia Med Cracov 2016;56(4):31-41

Chair of Gynecology and Obstetrics Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 23, Kraków, Poland.

In December 2014 the authors carried out a research among Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students in a form of a questionnaire which consisted of two parts: personal information and multiple choice test concerning student's knowledge on OCPs. It showed that the level of medical education, defined as the year of study, increases student's knowledge about oral hormonal contraceptive pills. New program of study introduced from academic year 2012/2013 gives students wider knowledge on OCPs at earlier stage of education. Factors as female sex, usage of OCPs by student or his partner, positive attitude towards recommending OCPs to future patients show positive correlation with student's knowledge.
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August 2017

Significance of adding progesterone to the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm for early stage ovarian cancer detection in patients with a pelvic mass: A single-center case-control study.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2015 Dec;54(6):766-72

Department of Gynecological Oncology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical significance of the combination of cancer antigen-125 (CA-125), human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), and progesterone for the identification of ovarian masses in patients with suspected early stage ovarian cancer (OC).

Materials And Methods: This was a case-control, single-center study of 225 women with a pelvic mass of suspected ovarian origin, including 75 patients with Stage I/II OC and 150 controls. Diagnostic procedures included pelvic and rectal examinations, transvaginal ultrasound, evaluation of CA-125 and HE4 levels alone and in the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA), and a new algorithm combining ROMA and progesterone.

Results: Median CA-125 and HE4 levels were significantly higher in patients with OC compared with women with benign ovarian tumors, irrespective of menopausal status. The highest median progesterone levels occurred in premenopausal women with benign ovarian tumors, compared with premenopausal women with OC with or without benign ovarian disease. The combination of ROMA and progesterone was significantly more accurate at detecting OC compared with ROMA or CA-125 or HE4 alone, but only in premenopausal patients.

Conclusion: Different algorithms should be used for diagnosing OC, and the addition of progesterone might improve the performance of ROMA for the diagnosis of pelvic masses in premenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2015.10.006DOI Listing
December 2015

[Cesarean scar pregnancy].

Ginekol Pol 2015 Oct;86(10):791-8

Pregnancy in the uterine scare after previous caesarean section is the rarest type of ectopic pregnancy Due to the possibility of life-threatening complications, cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) needs rapid and proper diagnosis and management. Hereby we present 3 cases of women with CSP, diagnosed and treated at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Jagiellonian University Medical College, in Krakow, in 2013, as well as literature review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17772/gp/59563DOI Listing
October 2015

Age-related trends in anti-Mullerian hormone serum level in women with unilateral and bilateral ovarian endometriomas prior to surgery.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2015 Nov 24;13:128. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Background: Endometriosis is a well-known cause of infertility, and the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is an accepted biomarker of ovarian reserve and response to artificial reproductive technology procedures. The present study was a prospective analysis of age-dependent AMH serum concentration in women with bilateral and unilateral ovarian endometriomas before therapy onset compared with healthy controls.

Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included 384 women aged 18-48 years. AMH serum concentration was assessed between days 3 and 6 of the menstrual cycle in 78 patients with bilateral and 157 patients with unilateral ovarian endometriomas and compared with 149 healthy controls. Ovarian endometriosis was confirmed histopathologically, and data were presented as medians with interquartile range (IQR).

Results: Stage III endometriosis was diagnosed in 53.2 %, stage IV in 18.3 %, stage V in 23.4 % and stage VI in 5.4 % of the patients. Patients with bilateral ovarian endometriomas showed the lowest median AMH levels compared with patients suffering from unilateral ovarian endometriosis (0.55; IQR: 0.59 vs. 2.00; IQR: 2.80; p < 0.001) and the control group (0.55; IQR: 0.59 vs. 2.84; IQR: 3.2; p < 0.001). Median AMH concentration values were not significantly different between patients with unilateral ovarian endometriosis and the healthy controls (2.00; IQR: 2.80 vs. 2.84; IQR: 3.2; p = 0.182). A strongly negative correlation between AMH levels and age was confirmed in healthy individuals (R = -0.834; p < 0.001) and women with unilateral ovarian endometriomas (R = -0.774; p < 0.001). Patients with bilateral ovarian endometriosis showed a significantly negative but only moderate correlation between AMH levels and age (R = -0.633; p < 0.001), which was significantly lower than in the healthy controls (R = -0.633 vs. R = -0.834; p = 0.006) but not in the patients with unilateral ovarian endometriosis (R = -0.663 vs. R-0.774; p = 0.093). Based on a multivariate regression analysis, only bilateral localization of ovarian endometrial cysts (p = 0.003) and patient age (p < 0.001), but not left/right localization of unilateral cyst or cyst volume, were negatively associated with AMH serum concentration.

Conclusion: According to our data, unilateral ovarian endometriosis had a moderately negative and nonsignificant effect on AMH-based ovarian reserve evaluated prior to surgery, irrespective of age. In contrast, the ovarian reserve was significantly reduced in women with bilateral ovarian endometriomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-015-0125-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4657379PMC
November 2015

SOX-2, but not Oct4, is highly expressed in early-stage endometrial adenocarcinoma and is related to tumour grading.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015 1;8(7):8189-98. Epub 2015 Jul 1.

Department of Pathomorphology, Jagiellonian University Krakow, Poland.

Background: Expression of SOX-2 and Oct4 as markers for the identification of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been revealed in several malignancies. In this study, the co-expression of SOX-2 and Oct4 and their correlation with clinicopathological features of endometrial adenocarcinomas (EACs) was investigated.

Methods: SOX-2 and Oct4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 27 (39.13%) stage IA and in 42 (60.87%) stage IB International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) EACs and related to the clinicopathological features of patients.

Results: The expression of SOX-2 was confirmed in 62/69 tumour specimens compared to Oct4 expression in 46/69 specimens (P = 0.015) and no difference in median staining intensity between SOX-2 and Oct-4 was observed. The highest median SOX-2 expression was found in high-grade (G3) EAC samples compared to moderate-grade (G2) EAC specimens (P = 0.020) and low-grade (G1) specimens (P = 0.008), while no differences in median Oct4 expression in EAC samples according to grading were present. In G3 specimens, significantly higher median SOX-2 expression was noted compared to Oct4 (P = 0.002). SOX-2 and Oct4 co-expression was observed only in G1 EAC (R: 0.51; P = 0.031). Age of EAC diagnosis was positively correlated with SOX-2 expression (b = 0.193; R(2) = 10.83%; P = 0.003) but not to age of menarche, menopause, parity or body mass index.

Conclusions: There is no need to use SOX-2 expression as a poor outcome predictor in stage I EAC, and SOX-2 expression should be analysed in more advanced stages.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4555715PMC
June 2016

[The 1691 G > A (factor V Leiden) and 1328 T > C V coagulation factor polymorphisms and recurrent miscarriages].

Ginekol Pol 2015 Jan;86(1):46-52

Objectives: Inherited thrombophilia might lead to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of V coagulation factor polymorphisms related with inherited thrombophilia among women in Malopolska region.Material and methods: Group of 136 women, who experienced at least 2 unexplained, idiopathic pregnancy loss. 106 healthy women having at least one uncomplicated pregnancy and delivered healthy children constituted a control group. Each patient were examined for factor V Leiden (FVL) and mutation 1328 T>C of factor V gene with use of real –time PCR and Taq-Man probes.Results: Among patients with RPL inhabiting region of Malopolska compared to control group occurred higher prevalence of FVL and mutation 1328 T>C. There is coincidence of polymorphism 1328 T>C of factor V gene and FVL in group of early and late RPL.Conclusions: TC genotype of 1328 T>C mutation carriers reveal tendency toward RPL below 7 weeks of pregnancy.Based on results of these findings inherited thrombophilia evaluation in patients after two or more RPL should be recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17772/gp/1898DOI Listing
January 2015

[The early abdominal pregnancy--case report].

Przegl Lek 2014 ;71(6):359-60

The abdominal ectopic pregnancies are 1-1.4% of all ectopic pregnancies. In this article we presents the case of 27-year-old patient in early abdominal pregnancy, situated in parietal peritoneum. This case justifies the need to take into account possibility of abdominal pregnancy in case of suspicion of ectopic pregnancy.
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November 2014

[The assessment of the dependence between antigen CA 125 and nicotinism in patients with benign ovarian tumors including endometrial cysts].

Przegl Lek 2014 ;71(6):319-22

Unlabelled: Cancer antigen CA-125 is a marker that is primarily used to differentiate benign from malignant tumors as well as to monitor response to ovarian cancer treatment. Taken as a separate marker, it displays low sensitivity and specificity in ovarian cancer diagnosis; however, in combination with other markers it may be successfully applied especially in postmenopausal women. Elevated CA-125 levels in blood serum indicate cancerous as well as non-cancerous diseases. Research aiming to determine environmental factors that may have influence on antigen CA-125 level, and thus on the assessment of this marker's application in gynecological and oncological diseases continues.

Objectives: the aim of the present research is an attempt to estimate the influence of nicotinism on antigen CA-125 in blood serum in patients with diagnosed benign ovarian tumors including endometrial cysts.

Material And Methods: 174 women aged 16-85 years with diagnosed benign ovarian tumor were qualified for the study. In all patients level of antigen CA-125 in blood serum was assessed preoperatively and nicotinism history was taken. Also transvaginal ultrasound was performed to obtain preliminary diagnosis. Smoking and non-smoking patients were classified into two groups, namely of those with histopathologically confirmed cysts of endometrial type and those with non-endometrial benign ovarian tumors.

Results: statistical analysis did not prove any dependence between the CS-125 antigen level and nicotinism in any of these groups. Also additional analysis with division into premenopausal and postmenopausal patients did not determine any statistically significant dependence.

Conclusion: Nicotinism does not significantly influence the CA-125 antigen level in patients with benign However, the connection between the addiction severity and its influence on antigen CA-125 in blood serum cannot be excluded. ovarian tumors or endometrial cysts.
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November 2014

Treatment efficacy for pain complaints in women with endometriosis of the lesser pelvis after laparoscopic electroablation vs. CO2 laser ablation.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 23;30(1):147-52. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

Departament of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 23 Kopernika str, 31-501, Krakow, Poland.

Endometriosis is a chronic disease affecting mainly women of the reproductive age. Its most common manifestations include impaired fecundity, pelvic pain, and dyschezia. Laparoscopic removal of endometriotic foci remains to be the gold standard for the treatment of endometriosis. More effective techniques of endoscopic approach-among others, laser application-are continually being developed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic treatment with the use of CO2 laser ablation vs. electroablation with regard to pain complaints in the affected patients. The study included 48 women (aged 22-42) with varying degrees of endometriosis of the lesser pelvis. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was used to evaluate pain intensity before the surgery in all patients, followed by either laser ablation or electroablation of the endometriotic foci. The results of the laparoscopic treatment were monitored after 3 and 6 months postoperatively. p value of 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Patients from both groups reported less intensive pain before/during menstruation (dysmenorrhea) 6 months postoperatively, with more distinct tendency in the electroablation group (p = 0.004) as compared to the laser ablation group (p = 0.025). Despite the initial improvement reported at the 3-month checkup (p = 0.008), 6 months postoperatively, a statistically significant increase in pain intensity was noted in both groups (p = 0.016 and p = 0.032 for CO2 laser ablation and electroablation, respectively). Both surgical methods seem to be effective only in the treatment of endometriosis-related dysmenorrhea, whereas the intensity of other pain complaints (dyspareunia, dysuria, dyschezia, pelvic pain syndrome (PPS)) has remained on the same level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-014-1630-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4289154PMC
January 2015

Ovarian reserve assessment in women with different stages of pelvic endometriosis.

Ginekol Pol 2014 Jun;85(6):446-50

Introduction: Endometriosis is defined as the appearance of ectopic endometrial cells outside the uterine cavity. Ectopic cells demonstrate functional similarity to eutopic cells, but structural and molecular differences are significant and manifest themselves in gene expression of the metalloproteinase genes, integrin or the Bcl-2 gene. Pelvic pain remains to be the main symptom of the disease. Endometriosis may cause dysfunction of the reproductive system and lead to infertility. Pathogenesis of infertility in endometriosis is based on its influence on the hormonal, biochemical and immunological changes in the eutopic endometrium, as well as structural damages of the ovaries and the fallopian tubes.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the ovarian reserve in patients with endometriosis.

Material And Methods: A total of 39 patients (aged 22-34 years) with different stages of endometrial changes were recruited for the study. The number of antral follicles was rated by vaginal ultrasonography and the level of FSH was measured between days 1-3 of the menstrual cycle. The stage of the disease was established after laparoscopy with the rASRM scale.

Results: No statistically significant correlation between the number of follicles (AFC), the level of FSH and the stage of endometriosis was found.

Conclusions: Evaluation of the number of antral follicles and measurements of the FSH level do not allow to predict the ovarian reserve in women with endometriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17772/gp/1751DOI Listing
June 2014

Diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional sonohysterography compared with office hysteroscopy and its interrater/intrarater agreement in uterine cavity assessment after hysteroscopic metroplasty.

Fertil Steril 2014 May 26;101(5):1392-9. Epub 2014 Feb 26.

Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

Objective: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional sonohysterography (3D-SIS) and office hysteroscopy in uterine cavity assessment after hysteroscopic metroplasty (HM) and determine the interrater/intrarater agreement for 3D-SIS.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: University hospital, private hospital, and clinic.

Patient(s): One hundred forty-one women undergoing HM for septate uterus with a history of miscarriage and/or infertility.

Intervention(s): 3D-SIS and office hysteroscopy at 6-8 weeks after HM.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Shape of the uterine cavity, length of the fundal notch (≥1 or <1 cm), and the presence of intrauterine adhesions were assessed, and the interrater/intrarater agreement of 3D-SIS was evaluated in 30 randomly selected patients.

Result(s): Uterine abnormalities were detected with the use of hysteroscopy in 18 (12.8%) of 141 women. 3D-SIS was highly accurate (97.2%), sensitive (97%), and specific (100%), with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 85%. The diagnostic values of hysteroscopy and 3D-SIS were not significantly different (McNemar test). 3D-SIS showed substantial interrater/intrarater agreement regarding overall uterine cavity evaluation (κ = 0.79 and 0.78, respectively).

Conclusion(s): 3D-SIS demonstrated substantial interrater/intrarater agreement for the postoperative evaluation of the uterine cavity, being as diagnostically accurate as hysteroscopy. The use of second-look hysteroscopy may be limited to cases that require reoperation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.01.039DOI Listing
May 2014