Publications by authors named "Kaylin Ratner"

8 Publications

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Derailment within the landscape of psychopathology.

Curr Opin Psychol 2021 Feb 6;41:21-27. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Human Development, Cornell University, USA.

When perceived changes in course occur, individuals can be left feeling disconnected from who they were in the past. This sensation of being 'off-course' in life is an individual difference we call 'derailment.' In this article, we review derailment's unique contribution to the psychological literature, the role of perceived self and identity change in mental health, and the nuanced association between derailment and depression. Although depression has been emphasized in research to date, we argue for derailment's role in other types of mental illness, motivating several exciting directions for future work. For the pervasiveness of identity in our everyday lives, the study of derailment confers opportunities for better understanding the experience of psychopathology and approaching its treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.01.009DOI Listing
February 2021

When the end feels near: sense of purpose predicts well-being as a function of future time perspective.

Aging Ment Health 2021 Mar 1:1-11. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Objectives: While sense of purpose is a robust predictor of well-being, little work has considered whether the associations vary based on future time perspective. Exploring this possibility is important given that the extent to which one may pursue their life aims could be dependent upon how much time they feel that they have remaining.

Methods: Using three samples (total  = 2333), the current study considered the association between sense of purpose and future time perspective. Moderation tests also examined whether the associations between sense of purpose and three well-being components (positive affect, negative affect, life satisfaction) differed as a function of future time perspective.

Results: Across all three studies, people with a broader time perspective reported a higher sense of purpose. Both constructs predicted greater well-being, even after accounting for chronological age. Future time perspective moderated the associations between sense of purpose and well-being, such that the negative association between sense of purpose and negative affect was stronger for those with a broader time perspective and the positive association between sense of purpose and life satisfaction was stronger for those with a limited time perspective.

Conclusion: The well-being benefits associated with sense of purpose in adulthood may depend on future time perspective. Findings are discussed in the context of how purpose can be harnessed to enhance well-being even when older adults feel that their time left is limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2021.1891203DOI Listing
March 2021

The unique predictive value of discrete depressive symptoms on derailment.

J Affect Disord 2020 06 1;270:65-68. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-4401, United States.

Background: Studies have consistently demonstrated a positive cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms and derailment, or the sense of being "off-course" in life. Still unknown is whether all symptoms of depression similarly relate to derailment. Given that depressive symptoms do not weigh equally in the prediction of other important outcomes, this study aimed to bridge the gap between these novel findings and emerging perspectives focused on the impact of individual depressive symptoms.

Methods: The study was preregistered prior to data collection. The analytic sample contained 1,457 adults (M = 37.46 years, 54.22% female) recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Participants self-reported on depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and perceived changes in identity and self-direction using the Derailment Scale.

Results: All symptoms of depression shared positive unadjusted associations with derailment. Feelings of failure, fatigue, and sleep problems shared positive unique associations with derailment, and represented the top three contributors to the explained variance in derailment.

Limitations: This study relied on self-report methods, making results vulnerable to bias (e.g., social desirability, errors in memory, interpretation).

Conclusions: As work understanding the association between depressive symptoms and derailment continues to unfold, this study has provided markers for researchers and clinicians by suggesting that those who feel like they have failed, are fatigued, or report sleep problems may be the most likely to feel off-course and disconnected from their past selves. This work helps establish the utility of considering identity within the context of mental health, and future directions stemming from these findings are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.03.097DOI Listing
June 2020

Positive affect and chronic pain: a preregistered systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pain 2020 06;161(6):1140-1149

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York City, NY, United States.

Chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) is a significant health burden among adults. Standard behavioral therapies typically focus on targeting negative affect (NA) and yield only modest treatment effects. The aims of this study were to systematically review and investigate the association between positive affect (PA) and pain severity among adults with CNCP. Databases that were searched included MEDLINE (PubMed), PsycINFO, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, OLASTER, Open Grey, and PsyArXiv (inception to July 23, 2019). We analyzed studies that: (1) used observational, experimental, or intervention study designs; (2) enrolled individuals with CNCP (pain ≥ 12 weeks); and (3) reported full quantitative results on outcomes. Two researchers independently screened articles, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. The main meta-analysis was followed by subgroup analyses. All analyses were performed using random-effects models. Formal tests for heterogeneity (Q-statistic; I) and publication bias (p-curve and p-uniform*) were performed. We meta-analyzed 29 studies with 3521 participants. Results demonstrated that PA inversely impacts pain severity in people with CNCP (r = -0.23). Subgroup analyses showed a significant effect for gender and marginally significant effects for age in studies that adjusted for NA. On average, effect sizes for observational studies were larger in studies with a higher proportion of female respondents and in studies that did not adjust for NA. Finally, larger effect sizes were found in intervention studies with older compared with younger samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230030PMC
June 2020

Trauma and identity: A reciprocal relationship?

J Adolesc 2020 02 6;79:275-278. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Cornell University, USA.

Trauma can alter the course of identity development and destabilize existing identity commitments. Trauma, whether past or current, can also impact the resources a person brings to identity work. However, identity can also be a lens through which trauma is perceived and interpreted, helping to determine whether a traumatic experience results in posttraumatic stress disorder or posttraumatic growth. Despite the apparent implications each construct has for the other, the scholarship at the intersection of trauma and identity remains sparse. This Special Issue explores how and when trauma and identity influence one another by considering their association across various adolescent populations, methodologies, traumatic event types, and facets of identity. In doing so, this Special Issue lays the groundwork necessary for exploring, proposing, and testing more complex and nuanced reciprocal relations models between identity and trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2020.01.018DOI Listing
February 2020

Derailment: Conceptualization, measurement, and adjustment correlates of perceived change in self and direction.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2020 Mar 6;118(3):584-601. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies.

Developmental perspectives on self and identity view a sense of personal sameness and continuity as critical for positive adjustment. Thus, the degree to which individuals perceive change over time in self and direction constitutes an important individual difference. Here, we offer an empirically sound instrument for assessing the extent to which people feel temporally discrepant and off course-a sense we term First, we develop and empirically validate a self-report measure that is sensitive to our conceptualization of derailment (Studies 1-3). Employing the new measure with adult samples, Study 3 demonstrates its predictive ability above and beyond other widely used measures of subjective change and identity distress. Study 4 shows the negative effects of derailment persist independent of whether individuals perceive changing for the better or worse, or actually experience status-changing life events. Study 5 demonstrates the prospective utility of this measure by predicting depressive symptoms 18 months later. Finally, levels of derailment are shown to be reduced by a daily writing experiment that emphasizes goal continuity (Study 6). The discussion situates derailment at the intersection of developmental, clinical, and social psychological literatures as a unique and measurable source of psychological vulnerability, and strategies for attenuating its potentially deleterious impact are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000209DOI Listing
March 2020

Perspectives of future health in self and others: The moderating role of culture.

J Health Psychol 2020 04 20;25(5):703-712. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Cornell University, USA.

People tend to perceive themselves more favourably than others, but the degree to which individuals exhibit this bias may be influenced by cultural upbringing. Korean ( = 271) and American ( = 503) participants were asked to evaluate current and future health expectations for themselves and others. Results showed that American participants rated their own future health more positively than others' future health, whereas Korean participants rated their own and others' future health similarly. Given its role in patient health behaviour, implications for creating context-sensitive interventions for future health expectations are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359105317730897DOI Listing
April 2020

The effects of exposure to objective coherence on perceived meaning in life: a preregistered direct replication of Heintzelman, Trent & King (2013).

R Soc Open Sci 2016 Nov 23;3(11):160431. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Department of Human Development , Cornell University , G06 Martha Van Rensselaer Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-4401 , USA.

Having a sense of meaning in life (MIL) has been acknowledged as a catalyst to psychological flourishing. As such, understanding ways to promote MIL represents a worthy goal for those interested in bolstering positive outcomes. This study sought to replicate the findings of Heintzelman, Trent & King (2013 , 991-998 (doi:10.1177/0956797612465878)), who found that MIL could be influenced by external stimulation. Their findings suggest that exposure to coherent stimuli produces significantly higher MIL scores than exposure to incoherent stimuli. Using materials and methodology provided by the corresponding author of the original paper, this study attempted to directly test this manipulation under conditions with increased statistical power. All tests, however, failed to replicate. Possible explanations for these discrepant findings are discussed, and potential future directions for this area of the literature are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5180121PMC
November 2016