Publications by authors named "Kaylee Rowland"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Heritability of perching behavior and its genetic relationship with incidence of floor eggs in Rhode Island Red chickens.

Genet Sel Evol 2021 Apr 21;53(1):38. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, 806 Stange Road, 239E Kildee Hall, Ames, IA, 50010, USA.

Background: As cage-free production systems become increasingly popular, behavioral traits such as nesting behavior and temperament have become more important. The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for frequency of perching and proportion of floor eggs and their genetic correlation in two Rhode Island Red lines.

Results: The percent of hens observed perching tended to increase and the proportion of eggs laid on the floor tended to decrease as the test progressed. This suggests the ability of hens to learn to use nests and perches. Under the bivariate repeatability model, estimates of heritability in the two lines were 0.22 ± 0.04 and 0.07 ± 0.05 for the percent of hens perching, and 0.52 ± 0.05 and 0.45 ± 0.05 for the percent of floor eggs. Estimates of the genetic correlation between perching and floor eggs were - 0.26 ± 0.14 and - 0.19 ± 0.27 for the two lines, suggesting that, genetically, there was some tendency for hens that better use perches to also use nests; but the phenotypic correlation was close to zero. Random regression models indicated the presence of a genetic component for learning ability.

Conclusions: In conclusion, perching and tendency to lay floor eggs were shown to be a learned behavior, which stresses the importance of proper management and training of pullets and young hens. A significant genetic component was found, confirming the possibility to improve nesting behavior for cage-free systems through genetic selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12711-021-00630-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059289PMC
April 2021

Effects of acute and chronic heat stress on the performance, egg quality, body temperature, and blood gas parameters of laying hens.

Poult Sci 2019 Dec;98(12):6684-6692

Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg 24061.

The goal of this experiment was to measure the physiological response of individual laying hens exposed to heat stress (HS). Performance, egg quality, body temperature (BT), and blood chemistry of laying hens were individually recorded before and after various intervals of daily cyclic HS. In total, 407 18-week-old W-36 parent-line laying hens (Hy-Line International, Dallas Center, IA) were housed individually in battery cages. After an acclimation period, baseline data were collected from 22 to 24-wk before the hens were subjected to a daily cyclic HS consisting of 7 h at 35°C returning to 30°C for the remaining 17 h/D from 24 to 28-wk of age. Eggs were collected and individually weighed daily. Feed intake (FI), egg production (EP), egg weights, egg mass, BW, and feed efficiency (FE) (g egg/kg FI) were calculated over 2-wk time periods. Eggs were collected for quality assessment the day before HS began, the 2nd day of HS, and on a weekly basis throughout the 4-wk HS. Blood was collected and BT measured the day before heat HS was initiated, on the first day of HS, and again at 2 and 4-wk of HS. Blood PCO2 and iCa decreased, and blood pH increased within 4 to 6 h of HS (P ≤ 0.01). Shell weights decreased with acute HS, possibly due to the reduction in blood iCa (P ≤ 0.01). After 4-wk of HS the blood pH returned to pre-HS levels but iCa remained decreased (P ≤ 0.01). Shell weights remained low and Haugh units decreased after 2 and 4-wk of HS (P ≤ 0.01). Feed efficiency was increased and FI, EP, and BW decreased by 2-wk of HS and remained low through 4-wk (P ≤ 0.01). The cyclic HS had a significant effect on the performance, egg quality, and blood chemistry over the 4-wk HS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez541DOI Listing
December 2019

Genetic analysis of production, physiological, and egg quality traits in heat-challenged commercial white egg-laying hens using 600k SNP array data.

Genet Sel Evol 2019 Jun 25;51(1):31. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, USA.

Background: Heat stress negatively affects the welfare and production of chickens. High ambient temperature is considered one of the most ubiquitous abiotic environmental challenges to laying hens around the world. In this study, we recorded several production traits, feed intake, body weight, digestibility, and egg quality of 400 commercial white egg-laying hens before and during a 4-week heat treatment. For the phenotypes that had estimated heritabilities (using 600k SNP chip data) higher than 0, SNP associations were tested using the same 600k genotype data.

Results: Seventeen phenotypes had heritability estimates higher than 0, including measurements at various time points for feed intake, feed efficiency, body weight, albumen weight, egg quality expressed in Haugh units, egg mass, and also for change in egg mass from prior to heat exposure to various time points during the 4-week heat treatment. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for 10 of these 17 phenotypes. Some of the phenotypes shared QTL including Haugh units before heat exposure and after 4 weeks of heat treatment.

Conclusions: Estimated heritabilities differed from 0 for 17 traits, which indicates that they are under genetic control and that there is potential for improving these traits through selective breeding. The association of different QTL with the same phenotypes before heat exposure and during heat treatment indicates that genomic control of traits under heat stress is distinct from that under thermoneutral conditions. This study contributes to the knowledge on the genomic control of response to heat stress in laying hens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12711-019-0474-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6593552PMC
June 2019

Venous blood gas and chemistry components are moderately heritable in commercial white egg-laying hens under acute or chronic heat exposure.

Poult Sci 2019 Sep;98(9):3426-3430

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

Heat stress has a large negative impact on poultry around the world in both intensive and small-scale production systems. Better understanding of genetic factors contributing to response to high ambient temperatures would provide a basis to develop strategies for alleviating negative impacts of heat on poultry production. The objective of this work was to characterize the genetic control (heritability estimate and quantitative trait loci (QTL)) of blood chemistry components before and after exposure to acute and chronic high ambient temperature in a commercial egg laying line Hy-Line W-36 female parent line mature hens were exposed to 4 wk of daily cyclic heat exposure. Blood was collected pre-heat, on the first day of heat, and 2 and 4 wk post heat initiation and analyzed immediately using an i-STAT® hand-held blood analyzer. Thirteen blood components were quantified at the 4 time points: pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3, TCO2, sO2, iCa, Na, K, base excess, glucose, "hematocrit" (estimated from blood electrical conductivity, BEC), and "hemoglobin" (calculated from BEC). Heritabilities were estimated using genomic relationship information obtained from 600k SNP chip data. All 13 parameters exhibited a significant change after 5 h of heat exposure and most did not return to pre-heat levels throughout the duration of the study. Eight parameters (base excess, glucose, hemoglobin, HCO3, hematocrit, K, pCO2, TCO2) had heritability estimates differing from zero at one or more time points (0.21 to 0.45). The traits with significant heritability would be good candidates for use as biomarkers in a selection program if they are correlated with traits of economic importance that are more difficult to measure. QTL were identified for nine of the traits at one or more time point. These nine traits, however, did not have significant heritability estimates suggesting that while some QTL have been identified their effects are generally small.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698185PMC
September 2019

Association of Candidate Genes with Response to Heat and Newcastle Disease Virus.

Genes (Basel) 2018 Nov 19;9(11). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

Newcastle disease is considered the number one disease constraint to poultry production in low and middle-income countries, however poultry that is raised in resource-poor areas often experience multiple environmental challenges. Heat stress has a negative impact on production, and immune response to pathogens can be negatively modulated by heat stress. Candidate genes and regions chosen for this study were based on previously reported associations with response to immune stimulants, pathogens, or heat, including: , , , MHC-B (major histocompatibility complex, gene complex), , , , , , , , , , and . Chickens of a commercial egg-laying line were infected with a lentogenic strain of NDV (Newcastle disease virus); half the birds were maintained at thermoneutral temperature and the other half were exposed to high ambient temperature before the NDV challenge and throughout the remainder of the study. Phenotypic responses to heat, to NDV, or to heat + NDV were measured. Selected SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) within 14 target genes or regions were genotyped; and genotype effects on phenotypic responses to NDV or heat + NDV were tested in each individual treatment group and the combined groups. Seventeen significant haplotype effects, among seven genes and seven phenotypes, were detected for response to NDV or heat or NDV + heat. These findings identify specific genetic variants that are associated with response to heat and/or NDV which may be useful in the genetic improvement of chickens to perform favorably when faced with pathogens and heat stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes9110560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267452PMC
November 2018

Genetic Analysis of a Commercial Egg Laying Line Challenged With Newcastle Disease Virus.

Front Genet 2018 20;9:326. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.

In low income countries, chickens play a vital role in daily life. They provide a critical source of protein through egg production and meat. Newcastle disease, caused by avian paramyxovirus type 1, has been ranked as the most devastating disease for scavenging chickens in Africa and Asia. High mortality among flocks infected with velogenic strains leads to a devastating loss of dietary protein and buying power for rural households. Improving the genetic resistance of chickens to Newcastle Disease virus (NDV), in addition to vaccination, is a practical target for improvement of poultry production in low income countries. Because response to NDV has a component of genetic control, it can be influenced through selective breeding. Adding genomic information to a breeding program can increase the amount of genetic progress per generation. In this study, we challenged a commercial egg-laying line with a lentogenic strain of NDV, measured phenotypic responses, collected genotypes, and associated genotypes with phenotypes. Collected phenotypes included viral load at 2 and 6 days post-infection (dpi), antibody levels pre-challenge and 10 dpi, and growth rates pre- and post-challenge. Six suggestive QTL associated with response to NDV and/or growth were identified, including novel and known QTL confirming previously reported associations with related traits. Additionally, previous RNA-seq analysis provided support for several of the genes located in or near the identified QTL. Considering the trend of negative genetic correlation between antibody and Newcastle Disease tolerance (growth under disease) and estimates of moderate to high heritability, we provide evidence that these NDV response traits can be influenced through selective breeding. Producing chickens that perform favorably in challenging environments will ultimately increase the supply of quality protein for human consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110172PMC
August 2018

Genome resequencing and bioinformatic analysis of SNP containing candidate genes in the autoimmune vitiligo Smyth line chicken model.

BMC Genomics 2014 Aug 23;15:707. Epub 2014 Aug 23.

Department of Poultry Science, Center of Excellence for Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, POSC O-404, 1260 West Maple, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.

Background: The Smyth line (SL) chicken is the only animal model for autoimmune vitiligo that spontaneously displays all clinical and biological manifestations of the human disorder. To understand the genetic components underlying the susceptibility to develop SL vitiligo (SLV), whole genome resequencing analysis was performed in SLV chickens compared with non-vitiliginous parental Brown line (BL) chickens, which maintain a very low incidence rate of vitiligo.

Results: Illumina sequencing technology and reference based assembly on Red Jungle Fowl genome sequences were used. Results of genome resequencing of pooled DNA of each 10 BL and SL chickens reached 5.1x and 7.0x coverage, respectively. The total number of SNPs was 4.8 and 5.5 million in BL and SL genome, respectively. Through a series of filtering processes, a total of ~1 million unique SNPs were found in the SL alone. Eventually of the 156 reliable marker SNPs, which can induce non-synonymous-, frameshift-, nonsense-, and no-start mutations in amino acid sequences in proteins, 139 genes were chosen for further analysis. Of these, 14 randomly chosen SNPs were examined for SNP verification by PCR and Sanger sequencing to detect SNP positions in 20 BL and 70 SL chickens. The results of the analysis of the 14 SNPs clearly showed differential frequencies of nucleotide bases in the SNP positions between BL and SL chickens. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the 156 most reliable marker SNPs included genes involved in dermatological diseases/conditions such as ADAMTS13, ASPM, ATP6V0A2, BRCA2, COL12A1, GRM5, LRP2, OBSCN, PLAU, RNF168, STAB2, and XIRP1. Intermolecular gene network analysis revealed that candidate genes identified in SLV play a role in networks centered on protein kinases (MAPK, ERK1/2, PKC, PRKDC), phosphatase (PPP1CA), ubiquitinylation (UBC) and amyloid production (APP).

Conclusions: Various potential genetic markers showing amino acid changes and potential roles in vitiligo development were identified in the SLV chicken through genome resequencing. The genetic markers and bioinformatic interpretations of amino acid mutations found in SLV chickens may provide insight into the genetic component responsible for the onset and the progression of autoimmune vitiligo and serve as valuable markers to develop diagnostic tools to detect vitiligo susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4152579PMC
August 2014
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