Publications by authors named "Kaylee Kim"

6 Publications

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Clinical and Laboratory Findings in Patients with Potential SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection, May-July 2020.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Health Systems Worker Safety Task Force, COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.

Background: We investigated patients with potential SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in the United States during May-July 2020.

Methods: We conducted case finding for patients with potential SARS-CoV-2 reinfection through the Emerging Infections Network. Cases reported were screened for laboratory and clinical findings of potential reinfection followed by requests for medical records and laboratory specimens. Available medical records were abstracted to characterize patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical course, and laboratory test results. Submitted specimens underwent further testing, including RT-PCR, viral culture, whole genome sequencing, subgenomic RNA PCR, and testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 total antibody.

Results: Among 73 potential reinfection patients with available records, 30 patients had recurrent COVID-19 symptoms explained by alternative diagnoses with concurrent SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR, 24 patients remained asymptomatic after recovery but had recurrent or persistent RT-PCR, and 19 patients had recurrent COVID-19 symptoms with concurrent SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR but no alternative diagnoses. These 19 patients had symptom recurrence a median of 57 days after initial symptom onset (interquartile range: 47 - 76). Six of these patients had paired specimens available for further testing, but none had laboratory findings confirming reinfections. Testing of an additional three patients with recurrent symptoms and alternative diagnoses also did not confirm reinfection.

Conclusions: We did not confirm SARS-CoV-2 reinfection within 90 days of the initial infection based on the clinical and laboratory characteristics of cases in this investigation. Our findings support current CDC guidance around quarantine and testing for patients who have recovered from COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7929000PMC
February 2021

Rapid Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Detention Facility, Louisiana, USA, May-June, 2020.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Feb 4;27(2):421-429. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

To assess transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a detention facility experiencing a coronavirus disease outbreak and evaluate testing strategies, we conducted a prospective cohort investigation in a facility in Louisiana, USA. We conducted SARS-CoV-2 testing for detained persons in 6 quarantined dormitories at various time points. Of 143 persons, 53 were positive at the initial test, and an additional 58 persons were positive at later time points (cumulative incidence 78%). In 1 dormitory, all 45 detained persons initially were negative; 18 days later, 40 (89%) were positive. Among persons who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 47% (52/111) were asymptomatic at the time of specimen collection; 14 had replication-competent virus isolated. Serial SARS-CoV-2 testing might help interrupt transmission through medical isolation and quarantine. Testing in correctional and detention facilities will be most effective when initiated early in an outbreak, inclusive of all exposed persons, and paired with infection prevention and control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2702.204158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853536PMC
February 2021

Identification of Presymptomatic and Asymptomatic Cases Using Cohort-Based Testing Approaches at a Large Correctional Facility-Chicago, Illinois, USA, May 2020.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 03;72(5):e128-e135

Cermak Health Services, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Correctional and detention facilities are at high risk of experiencing outbreaks. We aimed to evaluate cohort-based testing among detained persons exposed to laboratory-confirmed cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in order to identify presymptomatic and asymptomatic cases.

Methods: During 1-19 May 2020, 2 testing strategies were implemented in 12 tiers or housing units of the Cook County Jail, Chicago, Illinois. Detained persons were approached to participate in serial testing (n = 137) and offered tests at 3 time points over 14 days (day 1, days 3-5, and days 13-14). The second group was offered a single test and interview at the end of a 14-day quarantine period (day 14 group) (n = 87).

Results: 224 detained persons were approached for participation and, of these, 194 (87%) participated in ≥1 interview and 172 (77%) had ≥1 test. Of the 172 tested, 19 were positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the serial testing group, 17 (89%) new cases were detected, 16 (84%) on day 1, 1 (5%) on days 3-5, and none on days 13-14; in the day 14 group, 2 (11%) cases were identified. More than half (12/19; 63%) of the newly identified cases were presymptomatic or asymptomatic.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the utility of cohort-based testing promptly after initiating quarantine within a housing tier. Cohort-based testing efforts identified new SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic and presymptomatic infections that may have been missed by symptom screening alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799274PMC
March 2021

Serial Laboratory Testing for SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Incarcerated and Detained Persons in a Correctional and Detention Facility - Louisiana, April-May 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Jul 3;69(26):836-840. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by asymptomatic and presymptomatic persons poses important challenges to controlling spread of the disease, particularly in congregate settings such as correctional and detention facilities (1). On March 29, 2020, a staff member in a correctional and detention facility in Louisiana developed symptoms and later had a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2. During April 2-May 7, two additional cases were detected among staff members, and 36 cases were detected among incarcerated and detained persons at the facility; these persons were removed from dormitories and isolated, and the five dormitories that they had resided in before diagnosis were quarantined. On May 7, CDC and the Louisiana Department of Health initiated an investigation to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among incarcerated and detained persons residing in quarantined dormitories. Goals of this investigation included evaluating COVID-19 symptoms in this setting and assessing the effectiveness of serial testing to identify additional persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection as part of efforts to mitigate transmission. During May 7-21, testing of 98 incarcerated and detained persons residing in the five quarantined dormitories (A-E) identified an additional 71 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection; 32 (45%) were among persons who reported no symptoms at the time of testing, including three who were presymptomatic. Eighteen cases (25%) were identified in persons who had received negative test results during previous testing rounds. Serial testing of contacts from shared living quarters identified persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection who would not have been detected by symptom screening alone or by testing at a single time point. Prompt identification and isolation of infected persons is important to reduce further transmission in congregate settings such as correctional and detention facilities and the communities to which persons return when released.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6926e2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332096PMC
July 2020

Measuring Vallecular Volume on Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing: A Proof of Concept Study.

Dysphagia 2021 02 18;36(1):96-107. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Boston University Medical Center, FGH Building 820 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.

Currently, no method exists to measure the size of pharyngeal and laryngeal structures on endoscopy. Imaging for dysphagia diagnostic techniques, for the most part, still relies on qualitative assumptions and cursory visual examinations to induce patients' swallowing safety and function. In this proof of concept study, we measured vallecular cavity volume using simultaneous modified barium swallows (MBS) and flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Similar to the three-dimensional image compilation fields of facial reconstruction, medical imagery, and forensic science, this proposed methodology combines the two-dimensional images yielded in FEES and MBS videos to calculate estimates of the valleculae in a 3D perspective. A tracking tool was used to measure distances on MBS, while endoscopic specifications were used to find distances on FEES. This combination of ratio measurements allowed for measurement on both the MBS and FEES. In a sample of n = 37 dysphagia patients referred for MBS/FEES studies, the mean distance from the tip of endoscope to the closest point of epiglottis was 25.38 mm, the mean vallecular area outlined on MBS video was 84.72 mm, the mean epiglottal width was 18.16 mm, and the mean vallecular volume was 1.55 mL. Future application could include tracking growth of tumors, glottic opening, volume of residue and tracking of any other important outcome involving movement, size, and targets of interest with higher precision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00455-020-10106-1DOI Listing
February 2021

The pitch glide speech task lacks clinical utility to infer laryngeal lift during swallowing.

Int J Speech Lang Pathol 2020 10 30;22(5):511-516. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

To investigate the amount of laryngeal lift during the pitch glide speech task and during a bolus swallow. Modified Barium Swallows (MBS) videos captured speech tasks and bolus trials. Using SwallowTail®, laryngeal elevation was measured by the amount of laryngeal lift from rest to its maximum excursion during each subject's pitch glide and 5 mL thin liquid, 20 mL thin liquid, and 15 mL puree trials. Paired -tests, with Bonferroni correction, determined if there was a difference in laryngeal lift between the pitch glide and the bolus trials. Two methods were used to compare the methodology of measuring laryngeal lift. Each subject's pitch glide was compared to their swallows. Laryngeal lift during the bolus swallow was greater than the lift during the pitch glide by an average of 1.10 cm, 1.38 cm, and 1.34 cm for 5 mL thin liquid, 20 mL thin liquid, and 15 mL puree, respectively. There was a significant difference in laryngeal lift between the pitch glide task and the 20 mL thin liquid, 5 mL thin liquid, and 15 mL puree swallows. Measurement tracking the posterior cricoid detected greater differences than the previous methodology using the hyoid. In this group of dysphagic patients, the larynx lifted significantly less during a pitch glide than during bolus swallows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17549507.2019.1679258DOI Listing
October 2020
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