Publications by authors named "Kayla Bjorlie"

5 Publications

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Food insecurity associated with elevated eating disorder symptoms, impairment, and eating disorder diagnoses in an American University student sample before and during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 07 22;54(7):1213-1223. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Objective: This study tested the association between food insecurity and eating disorder (ED) pathology, including probable ED diagnosis, among two cohorts of university students before and during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Method: Students (n = 579) from a large Midwestern American university completed self-report questionnaires assessing frequency of ED behaviors, ED-related impairment, and individual food insecurity as measured by the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale 5, Clinical Impairment Assessment, and Radimer/Cornell, respectively. Chi-square tests and MANOVA with post-hoc corrections were conducted to compare demographic characteristics, ED pathology, and probable ED diagnosis prevalence between students with and without individual food insecurity.

Results: Partially supporting hypotheses, MANOVA indicated significantly greater frequency of objective binge eating, compensatory fasting, and ED-related impairment for students with food insecurity compared with individuals without food insecurity. Chi-squared tests showed higher prevalence of ED diagnoses among individuals with food insecurity compared with those without food security (47.6 vs. 31.1%, respectively, p < .01, NNT = 6.06), specifically bulimia nervosa and other specified feeding and eating disorder. There were no differences in food insecurity before or during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Discussion: Consistent with prior literature, food insecurity was associated with elevated ED psychopathology in this sample. Findings emphasize the importance of proper ED screening for college students vulnerable to food insecurity and EDs.
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July 2021

Impulsivity as a risk factor for weight gain and body roundness change among college freshmen.

Eat Behav 2020 12 23;39:101435. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Psychology, The University of Kansas, Fraser Hall, Room 426, 1415 Jayhawk Blvd., Lawrence, KS 66045-7556, United States of America; Cofrin Logan Center for Addiction Research and Treatment, University of Kansas, Dole Human Development Center, Suite 3061, 1000 Sunnyside Ave, Lawrence, KS 66045, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: The college setting is considered an obesogenic environment due to high availability of palatable foods. However, only a minority of freshmen gain weight. Individual-level risk factors, such as impulsivity, may hold utility in predicting weight and adiposity changes. Individuals with an impulsive decision-making style may favor immediately rewarding foods at the expense of long-term health. Individuals who seek rewarding foods during strong emotions may also be at risk. The study tested decisional (delay-discounting; DD) and emotion-driven impulsivity (urgency) as risk factors for 1) weight and 2) body roundness change during freshman year.

Methods: Freshmen (N = 103) completed questionnaires assessing DD, positive urgency (PU), and negative urgency (NU). Weight and body roundness index (BRI) were collected at the beginning and end of the academic year. Four repeated measures regression models examined impulsivity factors predicting change in 1) weight and 2) BRI. Models included baseline weight and height or BRI, respectively. Covariates included average daily caloric intake, energy expenditure from walking, and sex.

Results: In models examining weight, neither DD nor NU were significantly associated with weight at follow-up (b = 0.008, p = .977; b = 0.280, p = .075) when holding covariates constant. In contrast, PU was significantly associated with weight at follow-up (b = 0.303, p = .033). In models examining BRI, DD (b = -0.039, p = .511) and PU (b = 0.049, p = .072) were not associated with BRI at follow-up. In contrast, NU was significantly associated with BRI at follow-up (b = 0.068, p = .017).

Conclusions: Emotion-driven impulsivity may be a risk factor for weight gain or change in body roundness during freshman year.
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December 2020

Comparing integrative cognitive-affective therapy and guided self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy to treat binge-eating disorder using standard and naturalistic momentary outcome measures: A randomized controlled trial.

Int J Eat Disord 2020 09 25;53(9):1418-1427. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Sanford Research, Fargo, North Dakota, USA.

Objective: Innovative treatments and outcome measures are needed for binge-eating disorder (BED). This randomized controlled trial compared Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy (ICAT-BED), an individual psychotherapy targeting momentary behavioral and emotional precipitants of binge eating, with an established cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh) treatment using standard and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) outcome measures.

Method: A total of 112 participants were randomized to 17 weeks of treatment (21 sessions for ICAT-BED and 10 sessions for CBTgsh). Binge-eating frequency was assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) as well as EMA using cell phone-based real-time, naturalistic assessment at end of treatment (EOT) and 6-month follow-up. Hypothesized maintenance mechanisms were assessed using self-report questionnaires.

Results: Binge-eating frequency as measured by the EDE and real-time assessment showed significant reductions at EOT and follow-up, with no significant differences between treatments. Hypothesized maintenance mechanisms, including emotion regulation, cognitive self-discrepancy, self-directed style, as well as measures of associated eating disorder psychopathology, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, and negative affect, showed similar improvement at EOT and follow-up with no differences between treatments. Abstinence rates at EOT (ICAT-BED: 57.1%; CBTgsh: 42.9%) and 6-month follow-up (ICAT-BED: 46.4%; CBTgsh: 42.9%) were not significantly different. Treatment retention was significantly higher for ICAT-BED (87.5%) than CBTgsh (71.4%).

Discussion: These findings suggest that ICAT-BED and CBTgsh were associated with similar improvements in binge eating, psychopathology, and putative maintenance mechanisms as measured by traditional self-report and momentary, naturalistic assessments and that these changes were generally sustained at 6-month follow-up.
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September 2020

A systematic review of reinforcement-based interventions for substance use: Efficacy, mechanisms of action, and moderators of treatment effects.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2019 09 29;104:83-96. Epub 2019 Jun 29.

Cofrin Logan Center for Addiction Research and Treatment, University of Kansas, United States of America; Department of Psychology, University of Kansas, United States of America.

Background: Brief reinforcement-based psychosocial interventions such as behavioral activation (BA) and behavioral economics (BE) address imbalances in the reinforcement system that are strongly implicated in substance use. The present study reviewed a growing body of intervention studies that tested the efficacy of BA or BE in addressing substance use outcomes. The study also reviewed a smaller body of evidence exploring mechanisms of action and moderators of treatment efficacy for substance use outcomes.

Method: A comprehensive literature search of four databases was conducted to identify studies that tested either BA or BE interventions targeting outcomes and/or mechanisms of action specific to substance use. The search yielded 12 studies that met these criteria. Ten studies reported main outcomes of BA/BE interventions targeting substance use outcomes (N = 7 BA; N = 3 BE). Two additional studies addressed mechanisms of change by conducting secondary analyses of data from one of the other ten studies. Eight of the twelve studies tested mechanisms of change and/or moderators related to substance use.

Results: Among all ten outcome studies, 100% provided evidence suggesting efficacy of BA/BE in targeting substance use and/or use-related problems. In 90% (9/10) of studies, the BA/BE intervention condition evidenced significantly higher abstinence rates compared to controls and/or significant decreases in substance use from baseline. Most studies that assessed substance use-related problems (83%; 5/6) reported significant decreases in use-related problems. The majority of studies (80%; 8/10) reported medium to large effect sizes. The pattern of findings was similar for BA and BE interventions. Eight studies assessed change in mechanism of action and 38% (3/8) identified mechanisms of action, however, only two conducted a formal test of whether this variable mediated the relationship between condition and outcome. Two studies tested and identified significant moderators of treatment efficacy.

Conclusions: Preliminary evidence supports the efficacy of reinforcement-based interventions in targeting substance use outcomes. The mechanisms driving BA/BE efficacy and factors that may moderate treatment effects are not sufficiently clear from the studies available and require further examination, although existing data does suggest promise and provides clues for next steps.
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September 2019

Self-discrepancy theory as a transdiagnostic framework: A meta-analysis of self-discrepancy and psychopathology.

Psychol Bull 2019 04 14;145(4):372-389. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Sanford Center for Biobehavioral Research.

Self-discrepancy theory (SDT) is a model of the relations between the self and affect which has been applied to the study of different types of psychopathology including depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. Although the theory itself is compatible with a transdiagnostic perspective on psychopathology, to date no systematic review of the literature has examined that possibility. We conducted a meta-analysis that synthesized the literature on self-discrepancy and psychopathology across a heterogeneous range of 70 studies. Results showed a small-to-medium association between self-discrepancy and psychopathology that was highly robust and similar in magnitude across domains. Furthermore, self-discrepancy was related to higher levels of a range of negative emotions and lower levels of a range of positive emotions. Meta-regression models showed that the effects were greater for actual:ideal discrepancy compared with actual:ought discrepancy for both depression and anxiety, which was contrary to the tenets of SDT which suggests specific associations between actual:ideal discrepancy and depression and actual:ought discrepancy and anxiety. Measurement type (i.e., idiographic vs. nomothetic) was a significant predictor of the effects for depression and anxiety, such that nomothetic measures evidenced greater associations compared with idiographic measures. Our findings could suggest that self-discrepancy represents a contributory factor related to a number of psychiatric disorders. However, the tenet of SDT suggesting unique associations between actual:ideal and actual:ought discrepancy and anxiety and depression respectively was not supported. Implications are discussed for future research on self-discrepancy and psychopathology including the study of mechanistic frameworks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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April 2019