Publications by authors named "Kayhan T Nouri-Aria"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Repetitive nasal allergen challenge in allergic rhinitis: Priming and Th2-type inflammation but no evidence of remodelling.

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 02 30;51(2):329-338. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Medical Research Council and Asthma UK Centre for Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: Local tissue eosinophilia and Th2 cytokines are characteristic features of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Airway remodelling is a feature of asthma whereas evidence for remodelling in allergic rhinitis (AR) is conflicting.

Objective: By use of a novel human repetitive nasal allergen challenge (RAC) model, we evaluated the relationship between allergic inflammation and features of remodelling in AR.

Methods: Twelve patients with moderate-severe AR underwent 5 alternate day challenges with diluent which after 4 weeks were followed by 5 alternate day challenges with grass pollen extract. Nasal symptoms, Th1/Th2 cytokines in nasal secretion and serum were evaluated. Nasal biopsies were taken 24 hours after the 1st and 5th challenges with diluent and with allergen. Sixteen healthy controls underwent a single challenge with diluent and with allergen. Using immunohistochemistry, epithelial and submucosal inflammatory cells and remodelling markers were evaluated by computed image analysis.

Results: There was an increase in early and late-phase symptoms after every allergen challenge compared to diluent (both P < .05) with evidence of both clinical and immunological priming. Nasal tissue eosinophils and IL-5 in nasal secretion increased significantly after RAC compared to corresponding diluent challenges (P < .01, P = .01, respectively). There was a correlation between submucosal mast cells and the early-phase clinical response (r = 0.79, P = .007) and an association between epithelial eosinophils and IL-5 concentrations in nasal secretion (r = 0.69, P = .06) in allergic rhinitis. No differences were observed after RAC with regard to epithelial integrity, reticular basement membrane thickness, glandular area, expression of markers of activation of airway remodelling including α-SMA, HSP-47, extracellular matrix (MMP7, 9 and TIMP-1), angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis for AR compared with healthy controls.

Conclusion: Novel repetitive nasal allergen challenge in participants with severe persistent seasonal allergic rhinitis resulted in tissue eosinophilia and increases in IL-5 but no structural changes. Our data support no link between robust Th2-inflammation and development of airway remodelling in AR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cea.13775DOI Listing
February 2021

Peritoneal macrophages from patients with cirrhotic ascites show impaired phagocytosis and vigorous respiratory burst.

Results Immunol 2011 1;1(1):53-9. Epub 2011 Sep 1.

The Institute of Hepatology, The Foundation for Liver Research, 69-75 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK.

Cirrhotic patients (CPs) are susceptible to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Aim of this study was to examine if this susceptibility was related to peritoneal macrophages' (PMs) altered host defence. Absorbance of phagocytosed particles by PMs from CPs was lower than that of control (31.88% vs. 77.2%). Particle opsonisation increased the absorbance to 41% in CPs' PMs, and this value remains lower than the control; 77.2%. Respiratory burst (RB) was expressed as fluorescence index values, and these were higher in PMs from CPs than in controls (82 vs. 41, 73 vs. 26 and 71 vs. 26). IFN-γ made no further increase of RB values in PMs from CPs. CD14 expression was also higher in CPs' PMs. IFN-γ significantly downregulated CD14 expression in both CPs' PMs and control. Reduced phagocytosis by predominantly CD14-positive PMs from CPs could be related to intense RB. Findings suggest altered host defence that could contribute to susceptibility to SBP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rinim.2011.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3787812PMC
December 2013

Foxp3 expressing regulatory T-cells in allergic disease.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2009 ;665:180-94

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, England, UK.

Allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis and eczema are increasing in prevalence worldwide, in particular in industrialised countries affecting up to 20% of the population. Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) have been shown to be critical in T-cell homeostasis and in the maintenance of immune responses, such as prevention of autoimmunity and hampering allergic diseases. The so-called 'natural' CD4+CD25+ Tregs and/or IL-10-producing Tr1 cells have been shown to be responsible for the protection of immune tolerance and intact immune reactions following exposure to allergens such as aeroallergens or food allergens. In this regard, both cell-cell contact (through membrane bound TGF-beta or via suppressive molecules such as CLTA-4) and soluble cytokine-(TGF-beta and IL-10) dependent mechanisms have been shown to contribute to the ability of Tregs to operate effectively. The transcription factor Foxp3, a member of the forkhead-winged helix family, appears to be critical in the suppressive abilities of regulatory T-cells. Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ Tregs from healthy to diseased animals corroborated and provided further evidence of the vital role of these populations in the prevention or cure of certain autoimmune conditions. Clinical improvement seen after allergen immunotherapy for allergic diseases such as rhinitis and asthma has also been associated with the induction of IL-10 and TGF-beta producing Trl cells as well as Foxp3 expressing CD4+CD25+ T-cells, resulting in the suppression ofTh2 cytokine milieu. Activation and expansion ofantigen-specific CD4+CD25+ Tregs in vivo using adjuvants such as IL-10 or pharmacological agents such as low dose steroids or vitamin D3 could represent novel approaches to induce antigen-specific tolerance in immune-mediated conditions such as allergic asthma, autoimmune disease and the rejection of transplanted organs in man.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1599-3_14DOI Listing
May 2010

Regulatory T cells and allergic disease.

Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 2008 Dec;7(4):237-52

Department of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, National Heart & Lung Institute at Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London, UK.

Allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing in prevalence and affect about 15% of the population in countries such as the UK or USA. Regulatory T cells (T(Regs)) have been shown to be critical in the maintenance of immune responses and T cell homeostasis. For example, depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T(Regs) from mice resulted in the development of multiorgan autoimmune diseases. So-called 'natural' CD4(+)CD25(+) T(Regs) and/or IL-10-producing Tr-1 cells are capable of suppressing Th2 responses to allergens in health, whereas such inhibition is attenuated in allergic conditions. In this context, both cell-cell contact-dependent (either through membrane bound TGF-beta or via suppressive molecules such as CLTA-4) and soluble cytokine- (TGF-beta and IL-10) dependent mechanisms have been shown to contribute to the function of T(Regs). Moreover, adoptive transfer of CD4(+)CD25(+) T(Regs) from healthy to diseased animals resulted in the prevention or cure of certain autoimmune diseases, and was able to induce transplantation tolerance. Clinical improvement seen after allergen immunotherapy for allergic diseases such as rhinitis and asthma is associated with the induction of IL-10 & TGF-beta producing Tr-1 cells as well as Foxp3 expressing IL-10 T cells, with resulting suppression of the Th2 cytokine milieu. Activation and expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+)CD25(+) T(Regs) in vivo using adjuvants or pharmacological agents such as low dose steroids or vitamin D3 could represent novel approaches to induce antigen-specific tolerance in human diseases including allergic asthma, autoimmune disease and the rejection of transplanted organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/187152808786848405DOI Listing
December 2008

In situ Hybridization.

Methods Mol Med 2008 ;138:331-47

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, South Kensington, London, UK.

Hybridization is the formation of hybrid nucleic acid molecules with complementary nucleotide sequences in DNA:DNA, DNA:RNA, or RNA:RNA forms. In situ hybridization is a highly sensitive technique that allows detection and localization of specific DNA or RNA molecules in morphologically preserved isolated cells, histological tissue sections, or chromosome preparations. In situ hybridization has broad range of applications and has been used to (a) localize viral infection, (b) identify sites of gene expression, (c) analyze mRNA transcription and tissue distribution, and (d) map gene sequences in chromosomes. There are several advantages of the use of in situ hybridization including the fact that it can be applied to archival materials and frozen tissues and can be combined with immunohistochemistry to detect protein as well as mRNA of interest or phenotype of cells expressing the target genome, detecting more than one nucleic acid sequences using different labeling methods.The major steps involved in in situ hybridization are as follows: probe preparation and labeling, tissue fixation, permeabilization, hybridization, and signal detection and these are described in detail in this chapter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-366-0_27DOI Listing
August 2008

Grass pollen immunotherapy induces Foxp3-expressing CD4+ CD25+ cells in the nasal mucosa.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008 Jun 18;121(6):1467-72, 1472.e1. Epub 2008 Apr 18.

Department of Upper Respiratory Medicine, Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College and Royal Brompton Hospital London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in controlling allergic inflammation. The transcription factor Foxp3 regulates the development and function of natural and adaptive CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells.

Objectives: We sought to examine the effect of grass pollen injection immunotherapy on the numbers of Foxp3(+)CD4(+) and Foxp3(+)CD25(+) T cells in and out of season and their expression of IL-10 in the nasal mucosa of patients with hay fever.

Methods: Nasal biopsy specimens were obtained from untreated patients with hay fever, participants with grass pollen allergy who had received 2 years of immunotherapy, and healthy control subjects. Dual-immunofluorescence microscopy was used to enumerate and colocalize Foxp3 expression to CD4(+) and CD25(+) T cells in the nasal mucosa. Triple staining was performed to colocalize Foxp3(+) cells to CD3(+)CD25(+) and CD3(+) IL-10-expressing cells.

Results: At peak season, numbers of Foxp3(+)CD25(+) (P = .02) and Foxp3(+)CD4(+) (P = .03) cells were significantly increased in the nasal mucosa of immunotherapy-treated patients compared with numbers before treatment. Foxp3(+)CD25(+) (P = .03) and Foxp3(+)CD4(+) (P = .04) cells were also greater in immunotherapy-treated patients out of season compared with those in untreated patients with hay fever. Within the immunotherapy-treated group, 20% of CD3(+)CD25(+) cells expressed Foxp3, and 18% of Foxp3(+)CD3(+) cells were IL-10 positive.

Conclusion: The presence of local Foxp3(+)CD25(+)CD3(+) cells in the nasal mucosa, their increased numbers after immunotherapy, and their association with clinical efficacy and suppression of seasonal allergic inflammation support a putative role for Treg cells in the induction of allergen-specific tolerance in human subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2008.03.013DOI Listing
June 2008

Recent progress in allergen immunotherapy.

Iran J Immunol 2008 Mar;5(1):1-24

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, England.

The efficacy of allergen immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with or without seasonal bronchial asthma and anaphylaxis caused by the sting of the hymenoptera class of insects has been clearly demonstrated in numerous well-designed, placebo-controlled trials. Immunotherapy whether by subcutaneous injection of allergen extract or by oral/sublingual routes modifies peripheral and mucosal TH2 responses in favour of TH1 responses and augments IL-10 synthesis by TRegs both locally and by peripheral T cells. Recent researches into the cellular and molecular basis of allergic reactions have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms involved in allergic diseases. They have also helped the development of innovative approaches that are likely to further improve the control of allergic responses in the future. Novel approaches to immunotherapy that are currently being explored include the use of peptide-based allergen preparations, which do not bind IgE and therefore do not activate mast cells, but reduce both Th1 and Th2-cytokine synthesis, while increasing levels of IL-10. Alternative strategies include the use of adjuvants, such as nucleotide immunostimulatory sequences derived from bacteria CpG or monophosphoryl lipid A that potentiate Th1 responses. Blocking the effects of IgE using anti-IgE such as omalizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to IgE, has been shown to be a useful strategy in the treatment of allergic asthma and rhinitis. The combination of anti-IgE-monoclonal antibody omalizumab with allergen immunotherapy has proved beneficial for the treatment of allergic diseases, offering improved efficacy, limited adverse effects, and potential immune-modifying effects. This combination may also accelerate the rapidity by which immunotherapy induces TReg cells. If allergic diseases are due to a lack of allergen-specific TReg cells, then effective therapies should target the induction and the development of TReg cells producing cytokines such as IL-10.
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http://dx.doi.org/IJIv5i1A1DOI Listing
March 2008

Grass pollen immunotherapy induces an allergen-specific IgA2 antibody response associated with mucosal TGF-beta expression.

J Immunol 2007 Apr;178(7):4658-66

Upper Respiratory Medicine, Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Dovehouse Street, London, U.K.

Allergen immunotherapy (IT) has long-term efficacy in IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis and asthma. IT has been shown to modify lymphocyte responses to allergen, inducing IL-10 production and IgG Abs. In contrast, a putative role for IgA and local TGF-beta-producing cells remains to be determined. In 44 patients with seasonal rhinitis/asthma, serum IgA1, IgA2, and polymeric (J chain-containing) Abs to the major allergen Phl p 5 were determined by ELISA before and after a 2-year double-blind trial of grass pollen (Phleum pratense) injection IT. Nasal TGF-beta expression was assessed by in situ hybridization. Sera from five IT patients were fractionated for functional analysis of the effects of IgA and IgG Abs on IL-10 production by blood monocytes and allergen-IgE binding to B cells. Serum Phl p 5-specific IgA2 Abs increased after a 2-year treatment (approximately 8-fold increase, p = 0.002) in contrast to IgA1. Increases in polymeric Abs to Phl p 5 (approximately 2-fold increase, p = 0.02) and in nasal TGF-beta mRNA (p = 0.05) were also observed, and TGF-beta mRNA correlated with serum Phl p 5 IgA2 (r = 0.61, p = 0.009). Post-IT IgA fractions triggered IL-10 secretion by monocytes while not inhibiting allergen-IgE binding to B cells as observed with IgG fractions. This study shows for the first time that the IgA response to IT is selective for IgA2, correlates with increased local TGF-beta expression, and induces monocyte IL-10 expression, suggesting that IgA Abs could thereby contribute to the tolerance developed in IT-treated allergic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.178.7.4658DOI Listing
April 2007

Is occupational asthma to diisocyanates a non-IgE-mediated disease?

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006 Mar 27;117(3):663-9. Epub 2006 Jan 27.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK.

Background: Exposure to diisocyanates in the workplace is an important cause of occupational asthma. The majority of patients with diisocyanate-induced asthma have no detectable diisocyanate-specific IgE antibodies in serum. There has been much debate as to whether this is due to diisocyanate-induced asthma being mediated by non-IgE mechanisms or whether it is the result of using inappropriate conjugates.

Objective: We sought to determine whether RNA message for Cepsilon, IL-4, and other associated inflammatory markers could be detected locally within the bronchial mucosa after diisocyanate challenge.

Methods: Fiberoptic bronchoscopic bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained at 24 hours after both a control and an active challenge in 5 patients with positive and 7 patients with negative inhalation test responses to diisocyanates. Using both immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we determined mRNA for Cepsilon, IL-4, IL-5, and other associated inflammatory markers.

Results: There was a striking absence of Cepsilon and IL-4 mRNA-positive cells in bronchial biopsy specimens from patients challenged with diisocyanate (Cepsilon median of 0 and interquartile range of 0-1.85; IL-4 median of 0 and interquartile range of 0-0.85). In contrast, there were increased numbers of IL-5-, CD25-, and CD4-positive cells and a trend toward an increase in eosinophils after active challenge with diisocyanate.

Conclusion: We found a striking absence of both bronchial Cepsilon and IL-4 RNA message after inhalation challenge with diisocyanates, irrespective of whether the challenge test response was positive or negative. We propose that diisocyanate-induced asthma is a non-IgE-mediated disease, at least in patients in whom specific IgE antibodies to diisocyanates are undetectable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2005.09.053DOI Listing
March 2006

IL-9 and c-Kit+ mast cells in allergic rhinitis during seasonal allergen exposure: effect of immunotherapy.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005 Jul;116(1):73-9

Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College London at the National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom.

Background IL-9 is an important stimulus for tissue infiltration by mast cells, a feature requiring concomitant activation of c-Kit. Objectives We assessed IL-9 expression and c-Kit + mast cells in the nasal mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis during seasonal pollen exposure and observed the effects of allergen immunotherapy. Methods We studied 44 patients with seasonal rhinitis and asthma before and 2 years after a double-blind trial of grass pollen immunotherapy. Nasal mucosal IL-9 + cells and c-Kit + mast cells were assessed by means of immunochemistry. Cell types expressing IL-9 protein were determined by means of dual immunofluorescence. IL-9 mRNA-positive cells were assessed by means of in situ hybridization, and their phenotype was determined by using sequential immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Nasal mucosal c-Kit + mast cells were increased during the pollen season ( P = .0001). IL-9 mRNA-positive cells also tended to increase ( P = .1) and correlated with nasal EG2 + eosinophils ( r = 0.47, P = .05) and IL-5 mRNA-positive cells ( r = 0.54, P = .02). The cell sources of IL-9 included T cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and mast cells. When compared with placebo, successful pollen immunotherapy markedly inhibited seasonal increases in nasal mucosal c-Kit + mast cells ( P = .001) and the seasonal expression of IL-9 mRNA-positive cells ( P = .06). Immunotherapy also inhibited IL-9 protein expression from nonendothelial cell sources ( P = .0007). Conclusion IL-9 is upregulated in the nasal mucosa during the pollen season and correlates with tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Successful pollen immunotherapy is associated with inhibition of seasonal increases in both nasal c-Kit + mast cells and eosinophils. This effect might be explained, at least in part, by the reduced local expression of IL-9.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2005.03.011DOI Listing
July 2005

Grass pollen immunotherapy induces mucosal and peripheral IL-10 responses and blocking IgG activity.

J Immunol 2004 Mar;172(5):3252-9

Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom.

T regulatory cells and IL-10 have been implicated in the mechanism of immunotherapy in patients with systemic anaphylaxis following bee stings. We studied the role of IL-10 in the induction of clinical, cellular, and humoral tolerance during immunotherapy for local mucosal allergy in subjects with seasonal pollinosis. Local and systemic IL-10 responses and serum Ab concentrations were measured before/after a double-blind trial of grass pollen (Phleum pratense, Phl P) immunotherapy. We observed local increases in IL-10 mRNA-positive cells in the nasal mucosa after 2 years of immunotherapy, but only during the pollen season. IL-10 protein-positive cells were also increased and correlated with IL-10 mRNA(+) cells. These changes were not observed in placebo-treated subjects or in healthy controls. Fifteen and 35% of IL-10 mRNA signals were colocalized to CD3(+) T cells and CD68(+) macrophages, respectively, whereas only 1-2% of total CD3(+) cells and 4% of macrophages expressed IL-10. Following immunotherapy, peripheral T cells cultured in the presence of grass pollen extract also produced IL-10. Immunotherapy resulted in blunting of seasonal increases in serum allergen Phl p 5-specific IgE, 60- to 80-fold increases in Phl p 5-specific IgG, and 100-fold increases in Phl p 5-specific IgG4. Post-immunotherapy serum exhibited inhibitory activity, which coeluted with IgG4, and blocked IgE-facilitated binding of allergen-IgE complexes to B cells. Both the increases in IgG and the IgG "blocking" activity correlated with the patients' overall assessment of improvement. Thus, grass pollen immunotherapy may induce allergen-specific, IL-10-dependent "protective" IgG4 responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.172.5.3252DOI Listing
March 2004

CCR4 in human allergen-induced late responses in the skin and lung.

Eur J Immunol 2002 Jul;32(7):1933-8

Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, GB.

We studied the regulation of CCR4 expression in peripheral blood and in human models of cutaneous and pulmonary allergen challenge. CCR4 expression was detectable on freshly isolated CD4+ lymphocytes and in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines derived from blood of atopic donors. Numbers of CCR4+ cells were up-regulated in T cell lines expanded in the presence of IL-4. CCR4 mRNA was absent at baseline in normal subjects in lung and skin, but present at baseline in the lung of some atopics. Baseline expression of CCR4 mRNA and protein was higher in lung vs. skin, but allergen-induced increases in CCR4 mRNA+ cells were observed in both organs. CCR4 protein+ cells were present at higher levels after allergen challenge in atopics compared to normal subjects. CCR4 may be important in the recruitment of T lymphocytes at sites of allergic inflammation, in a non-organ-specific manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521-4141(200207)32:7<1933::AID-IMMU1933>3.0.CO;2-RDOI Listing
July 2002

Grass pollen immunotherapy for hayfever is associated with increases in local nasal but not peripheral Th1:Th2 cytokine ratios.

Immunology 2002 Jan;105(1):56-62

Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK.

Grass pollen immunotherapy is the only treatment for hayfever that is both effective and confers long-term benefit. Immunotherapy may act by altering the local nasal mucosal T helper type 2 (Th2) to type 1 (Th1) cytokine balance either by down-regulation and/or immune deviation of T-lymphocyte responses. There is controversy as to whether these changes are detectable in peripheral blood. We therefore examined both local nasal and peripheral T-cell responses to allergen exposure in the same subjects before and after immunotherapy. In a double-blind trial of grass pollen immunotherapy, nasal biopsies were obtained at baseline and during the peak pollen season following 2 years of immunotherapy. Placebo-treated patients showed a seasonal increase in CD3(+) T cells (P = 0.02) and in interleukin-5 (IL-5) mRNA(+) cells (P = 0.03) and no change in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma ) mRNA(+) cells (P = 0.2) in the nasal mucosa. In contrast, in the immunotherapy-treated group, there were no changes in the number of CD3(+) T cells (P = 0.3) and IL-5 mRNA+ cells (P = 0.2) but a significant increase in the number of IFN-gamma mRNA(+) cells (P = 0.03). Furthermore, clinical improvement in the immunotherapy-treated group was accompanied by a seasonal increase in the ratio of IFN-gamma to IL-5 mRNA(+) cells in the nasal mucosa (P = 0.03). In contrast, there were no significant changes in peripheral T-cell proliferative responses or cytokine production for IFN-gamma or IL-5 in response to grass pollen either within or between the two treatment groups. We conclude that successful grass pollen immunotherapy was associated with an increase in the ratio of IFN-gamma to IL-5 mRNA(+) cells in the nasal mucosa, whereas these changes were not reflected by alterations in peripheral blood T-cell proliferative responses or cytokine production before/after treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782637PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2567.2002.01338.xDOI Listing
January 2002
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