Publications by authors named "Kay Hwang"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Maternal and Fetal Vascular Lesions of Malperfusion in the Placentas Associated with Fetal and Neonatal Death: Results of a Prospective Observational Study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Columbia University, New York NY USA.

Background: Fetal death, one of the major adverse pregnancy outcomes, is especially common in low and middle-income countries. Placental lesions may play an important role in the etiology of fetal and possibly neonatal death. Prior research relating placental lesions to fetal death causation was often hindered by the lack of agreement on a placental classification scheme. The Amsterdam Consensus statement, published in 2016, focused attention on malperfusions in the maternal and fetal placental circulations.

Objectives: Our purpose was to investigate the relationships of placental maternal vascular (MVM) and fetal vascular malperfusion (FVM) to fetal and neonatal death with a focus on the most important maternal clinical conditions in the pathway to fetal and neonatal death; maternal hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and decreased fetal growth.

Study Design: This was a prospective, observational cohort study conducted at two Asian sites. Data collected included clinical history, gross and histologic evaluation of the placenta, and a number of other investigations to determine cause of death. The placenta was evaluated at both sites using the Amsterdam Consensus framework. We estimated the risk of placental MVM and FVM among fetal and neonatal deaths.

Results: Between July 2018 and January 2020 in India and Pakistan, 814 women with a fetal death, 618 with a preterm live birth and subsequent neonatal death, and 201 term live births, all with a placenta available for study, provided consent. The prevalence of MVM was higher in placentas of fetal deaths (58.4%) and preterm neonatal deaths (31.1%) compared to the term live births (15.4%). Adjusting for site, MVM had a RR of 3.88 (95% CI 2.70-5.59) among fetal deaths vs. term live births and a RR of 2.07 (95% CI 1.41-3.02) for preterm neonatal deaths vs. term live births. Infarcts and distal villous hypoplasia were the most common histological components of MVM. FVM was found less frequently in the placentas of fetal deaths (19.0%) than was MVM (58.4%). However, there were higher frequencies of FVM in fetal death placentas (19.0%) than in placentas from neonatal deaths (8.3%) or in the term live birth placentas (5.0%). Adjusting for site, FVM had a RR of 4.09 (95% CI 2.15-7.75) among fetal deaths vs. term live births and RR 1.77 (95% CI 0.90-3.49) for preterm neonatal deaths vs. term live births. There was a higher incidence of MVM in cases of maternal hypertension (71.4%), SGA (69.9%) and antepartum hemorrhage (59.1%) compared to the incidence of MVM in fetal deaths with none of these conditions (43.3%). There were no significant differences in the occurrence of FVM among the four clinical categories.

Conclusion(s): Histological examination of the placenta, especially for malperfusion disorders, is crucial in elucidating pathways to fetal death and likely for neonatal death in preterm infants. Possibly more important is the potential to focus on placental MVM and FVM during pregnancy as a means to identify fetuses at risk and to reduce the risk of fetal death by early delivery. It is our additional hope that the increased risk of fetal and neonatal death in these pregnancies can be reduced by development of an intervention to reduce the likelihood of developing MVM and/or FVM in the first place.
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June 2021

Association of parity with birthweight and neonatal death in five sites: The Global Network's Maternal Newborn Health Registry study.

Reprod Health 2020 Dec 17;17(Suppl 3):182. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO, USA.

Background: Nulliparity has been associated with lower birth weight (BW) and other adverse pregnancy outcomes, with most of the data coming from high-income countries. In this study, we examined birth weight for gestational age z-scores and neonatal (28-day) mortality in a large prospective cohort of women dated by first trimester ultrasound from multiple sites in low and middle-income countries.

Methods: Pregnant women were recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy and followed through 6 weeks postpartum from Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR) sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guatemala, Belagavi and Nagpur, India, and Pakistan from 2017 and 2018. Data related to the pregnancy and its outcomes were collected prospectively. First trimester ultrasound was used for determination of gestational age; (BW) was obtained in grams within 48 h of delivery and later transformed to weight for age z-scores (WAZ) adjusted for gestational age using the INTERGROWTH-21st standards.

Results: 15,121 women were eligible and included. Infants of nulliparous women had lower mean BWs (males: 2676 gr, females: 2587 gr, total: 2634 gr) and gestational age adjusted weight for age z-scores (males: - 0.73, females: - 0.77, total: - 0.75,) than women with one or more previous pregnancies. The largest differences were between zero and one previous pregnancies among female infants. The associations of parity with BW and z-scores remained even after adjustment for maternal age, maternal height, maternal education, antenatal care visits, hypertensive disorders, and socioeconomic status. Nulliparous women also had a significantly higher < 28-day neonatal mortality rate (27.7 per 1,000 live births) than parous women (17.2 and 20.7 for parity of 1-3 and ≥ 4 respectively). Risk of preterm birth was higher among women with ≥ 4 previous pregnancies (15.5%) compared to 11.3% for the nulliparous group and 11.8% for women with one to three previous pregnancies (p = 0.0072).

Conclusions: In this large sample from diverse settings, nulliparity was independently associated with both lower BW and WAZ scores as well as higher neonatal mortality compared to multiparity.
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December 2020

Prehospital Fluid Administration in Trauma Patients: A Survey of State Protocols.

Prehosp Emerg Care 2017 Sep-Oct;21(5):605-609. Epub 2017 May 8.

Objective: The optimal resuscitation approach during the initial treatment of hypotensive trauma patients remains unknown, but some clinical trials have observed a survival benefit from restricting fluid administration prior to definitive hemorrhage control. We sought to characterize emergency medical services (EMS) protocols for the administration of intravenous fluids in this setting.

Methods: Publicly accessible statewide EMS protocols for the treatment of hypotensive trauma patients were included and characterized by: 1) goal of fluid administration, 2) dosing strategy, 3) maximum dose, 4) type of fluid, and 5) specific protocols for head trauma, if present.

Results: Of the 27 states with a publicly available, statewide protocol, 21 have a numeric systolic blood pressure (SBP) target for resuscitation. Of these, 16 describe a goal of maintaining SBP ≥90 mmHg with or without additional goals, three specify a goal that is less than 90 mmHg, and two specify a goal ≥100 mHg. Dosing strategies also vary and include both standard bolus strategies (200 mL, 250 mL, 500 mL, and 1 L with repeat) as well as weight-based strategies (20 mL/kg). Nine states specify a maximum dose of 2 L without medical control. Fifteen protocols recommend the use of normal saline, 1 recommends the use of lactated Ringer's, and 11 recommend the use of either normal saline or lactated Ringer's. Nine states have distinct protocols for patients with head trauma, all of which indicate maintaining a higher SBP than for trauma patients without head trauma.

Conclusion: State EMS protocols for fluid administration for hypotensive trauma patients vary in regard to SBP goal, fluid dose, and fluid type. Clinical trials to determine the optimal use of intravenous fluids for hypotensive trauma patients are needed to define the optimal approach.
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July 2018

Risk Factors for Malnutrition among Older Adults in the Emergency Department: A Multicenter Study.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2017 Aug 21;65(8):1741-1747. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Background: Among older adults, malnutrition is common, often missed by healthcare providers, and influences recovery from illness or injury.

Objective: To identify modifiable risk factors associated with malnutrition in older patients.

Design: Prospective cross-sectional multicenter study.

Setting: 3 EDs in the South, Northeast, and Midwest.

Participants: Non-critically ill, English-speaking adults aged ≥65 years.

Measurements: Random time block sampling was used to enroll patients. The ED interview assessed malnutrition using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form. Food insecurity and poor oral health were assessed using validated measures. Other risk factors examined included depressive symptoms, limited mobility, lack of transportation, loneliness, and medication side effects, qualified by whether the patient reported the risk factor affected their diet. The population attributable risk proportion (PARP) for malnutrition was estimated for each risk factor.

Results: In our sample (n = 252), the prevalence of malnutrition was 12%. Patient characteristics associated with malnutrition included not having a college degree, being admitted to the hospital, and residence in an assisted living facility. Of the risk factors examined, the PARPs for malnutrition were highest for poor oral health (54%; 95% CI 16%, 78%), food insecurity (14%; 95% CI 3%, 31%), and lack of transportation affecting diet (12%; 95% CI 3%, 28%).

Conclusion: Results of this observational study identify multiple modifiable factors associated with the problem of malnutrition in older adults.
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August 2017