Publications by authors named "Katsuyuki Matsui"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genotype-phenotype analysis, and assessment of the importance of the zinc-binding site in PHEX in Japanese patients with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets using 3D structure modeling.

Bone 2021 Jul 30;153:116135. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan. Electronic address:

X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is an inheritable type of rickets caused by inactivating variants in the phosphate regulating endopeptidase homolog X-linked (PHEX) gene, which results in the overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). The mechanism by which PHEX impairment leads to FGF23 overproduction is unknown. Because little is known regarding the genotype-phenotype correlation in Japanese XLH, we summarized the available clinical and genetic data and analyzed the genotype-phenotype relationships using 3-dimensional (3D) structure modeling to clarify the XLH pathophysiology. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features and performed genetic analysis of 39 Japanese patients with XLH from 28 unrelated pedigrees carrying any known or novel PHEX variant. To predict changes in the 3D structure of mutant PHEX, we constructed a putative 3D model of each mutant and evaluated the effect of structural alteration by genotype-phenotype correlation analysis. Genetic analysis revealed 23 PHEX variants, including eight novel variants. They were associated with high i-FGF23 levels, hypophosphatemia, phosphaturia, high alkaline phosphatase levels, and short stature. No gene dosage effect or genotype-phenotype correlation was observed when truncating and non-truncating variants were compared. However, the conservation of the zinc-binding site and cavity in PHEX had an impact on the elevation of i-FGF23 levels. Via genotype-phenotype relationship analysis using 3D modeling, we showed that the zinc-binding site and cavity in PHEX can play a critical role in its function. These findings provide new genetic clues for investigating the function of PHEX and the pathogenesis of XLH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.116135DOI Listing
July 2021

Chemotherapy with gemcitabine for unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in a patient undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

Clin J Gastroenterol 2021 Oct 9;14(5):1511-1516. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Gastroenterology, Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital, Kawasaki, Japan.

A 56-year-old man with chronic renal failure due to diabetic nephropathy had received maintenance dialysis (every 4 h, three times/week). A hypoechoic tumor measuring 67 × 50 mm in the right lobe of the liver was discovered following routine abdominal ultrasonography. Dynamic computed tomography showed a low-density liver tumor, enlarged hilar lymph node, and a small nodule on the dorsal side of the lower lobe of the left lung. Histopathological examination of the liver tumor revealed intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. We developed a chemotherapy treatment plan with gemcitabine, which can be performed concurrently with hemodialysis. Gemcitabine (1000 mg/m, three times/cycle) was administered on Friday afternoon, and hemodialysis was performed on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. Anemia and hypotension occurred after gemcitabine administration. Therefore, the dose of darbepoetin alpha was increased, and packed red blood cells were transfused. The patient was treated with gemcitabine for approximately 5 and a half months until computed tomography findings showed progressive disease; the survival time after treatment start was 8 months. Chemotherapy using gemcitabine has not been established in dialysis patients and has little evidence. We report a case of unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma that developed during maintenance dialysis and was treated using gemcitabine chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12328-021-01478-4DOI Listing
October 2021

Ketogenic diet for refractory epilepsy with MEHMO syndrome: Caution for acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

Brain Dev 2021 Jun 11;43(6):724-728. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Shiga Medical Center for Children, Shiga, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: The MEHMO (mental retardation, epileptic seizures, hypogonadism and hypogenitalism, microcephaly, and obesity) syndrome, which is caused by a hemizygous variant in the EIF2S3 gene on chromosome Xp22, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Refractory epileptic seizures and glucose dysregulation are characteristic manifestations of the MEHMO syndrome, which can often diminish patients' quality of life.

Case: A 5-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of profound intellectual disability, micropenis, cryptorchidism, central hypothyroidism, and microcephaly. He had neonatal hypoglycemia at birth and later experienced refractory epileptic seizures and developed obesity and insulin-dependent diabetes. A diagnosis of MEHMO syndrome was established on the basis of the patient's clinical manifestations and de novo novel missense variant in the EIF2S3 gene (NM_001415.3:c.805 T > G) that was detected through whole-exome analysis. Although the patient's refractory seizures and diabetes had been well controlled with a combination of ketogenic diet (KD) therapy and insulin therapy, acute fatal necrotizing pancreatitis occurred at the age of 68 months. Moreover, despite intensive care, his condition rapidly deteriorated to multiple organ failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome, resulting in death.

Conclusion: The pathophysiology of glucose intolerance in MEHMO syndrome remains to be elucidated; however, recent studies have suggested that EIF2S3 gene variants could lead to glucose dysregulation and β-cell damage in the pancreas. We suspect that in the present case, KD therapy led to an abnormal load on the beta cells that were damaged owing to eIF2γ dysfunction. Therefore, the adverse effects of KD in patients with MEHMO syndrome should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2021.02.002DOI Listing
June 2021

Renoprotective effects of paramylon, a β-1,3-D-Glucan isolated from Euglena gracilis Z in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(8):e0237086. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Internal Medicine IV, Teikyo University School of Medicine, University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Kawasaki, Japan.

Paramylon is a novel β-glucan that is stored by Euglena gracilis Z, which is a unicellular photosynthesizing green alga with characteristics of both animals and plants. Recent studies have indicated that paramylon functions as an immunomodulator or a dietary fiber. Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem, and there is no effective preventive treatment for CKD progression. However, paramylon may suppress the progression of CKD via the elimination of uremic toxins or modulation of gut microbiota, leading to the alleviation of inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of paramylon in CKD rat model. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats with a 5/6 nephrectomy were given either a normal diet or a diet containing 5% paramylon for 8 weeks. Proteinuria was measured intermittently. Serum and kidney tissues were harvested after sacrifice. We performed a renal molecular and histopathological investigation, serum metabolome analysis, and gut microbiome analysis. The results showed that paramylon attenuated renal function, glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial injury, and podocyte injury in the CKD rat model. Renal fibrosis, tubulointerstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression levels tended to be suppressed with paramylon treatment. Further, paramylon inhibited the accumulation of uremic toxins, including tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-related metabolites and modulated a part of CKD-related gut microbiota in the CKD rat model. In conclusion, we suggest that paramylon mainly inhibited the absorption of non-microbiota-derived uremic solutes, leading to protect renal injury via anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. Paramylon may be a novel compound that can act against CKD progression.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237086PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413521PMC
October 2020

TAFRO syndrome as a cause of glomerular microangiopathy: a case report and literature review.

BMC Nephrol 2019 10 17;20(1):375. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Department of Internal Medicine IV, Teikyo University School of medicine, University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Kawasaki, Japan.

Background: TAFRO syndrome is a systemic inflammatory disorder that manifests as thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), fever (F), reticulin fibrosis (R), and organomegaly (O). Renal dysfunction is frequently complicated with TAFRO syndrome, however, it is challenging to perform kidney biopsy in patients with TAFRO syndrome in the presence of thrombocytopenia. Renal histology in TAFRO syndrome mainly shows membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)-like lesions or thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA)-like glomerulopathy. We review our case and previous reports of TAFRO syndrome with kidney biopsy findings and discuss the renal pathophysiology of TAFRO syndrome.

Case Presentation: We describe a previously healthy 48- year-old woman with TAFRO syndrome. Kidney biopsy performed before the treatment showed diffuse global endocapillary proliferative changes with endothelial cell swelling, double contours of partial capillary walls, and mesangiolysis, consistent with TMA-like glomerulopathy. Glucocorticoid therapy including steroid pulse was ineffective and she developed anasarca, renal dysfunction and oliguria. Hemodialysis was required. However, the anti-Interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody (tocilizumab) therapy was very effective. An increase in urinary volume was achieved about 2 weeks after the tocilizumab therapy and hemodialysis was discontinued. To investigate the renal pathophysiology of TAFRO syndrome, we performed immunohistological staining of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, CD34, and D2-40, in our case and a normal control kidney. Glomerular VEGF-A was especially positive in podocytes both, in the control and in the case, with no significant difference and there was a significant increase of VEGF-A staining area in the cortical peritubular capillaries in the case. Both glomerular and renal cortical CD34 expression were significantly decreased in our case. D2-40 expression in cortex was not significantly different.

Conclusions: We reviewed our case and other 10 previous reports about renal biopsy findings in TAFRO syndrome and found that glomerular microangiopathy was a common finding. IL-6-VEGF-axis-induced glomerular microangiopathy may play a crucial role in developing acute kidney injury in TAFRO syndrome and the anti-IL-6 receptor antibody therapy may be useful for TAFRO syndrome refractory to glucocorticoids. About the pathophysiology of VEGF in TAFRO syndrome, VEGF balance in the glomerulus and perhaps in the peritubular capillary system as well may be critical. Further investigation is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-019-1574-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6798393PMC
October 2019

Pregnancy outcome of Japanese patients with glucokinase-maturity-onset diabetes of the young.

J Diabetes Investig 2019 Nov 23;10(6):1586-1589. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Children's Medical Center, Osaka, Japan.

Aims/introduction: Glucokinase-maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY; also known as MODY2) is a benign hyperglycemic condition, which generally does not require medical interventions. The only known exception is increased birthweight and related perinatal complications in unaffected offspring of affected women. As previous data were obtained mostly from white Europeans, the present study analyzed the pregnancy outcomes of Japanese women with GCK-MODY to better formulate the management plan for this population.

Materials And Methods: The study participants were 34 GCK-MODY families whose members were diagnosed at Osaka City General Hospital during 2010-2017. A total of 53 pregnancies (40 from 23 affected women, 13 from 11 unaffected women) were retrospectively analyzed by chart review.

Results: Birthweights of unaffected offspring born to affected women were significantly greater as compared with those of affected offspring (P = 0.003). The risk of >4,000 g birthweight (16%), however, was lower as compared with that previously reported for white Europeans, and none of the offspring had complications related to large birthweight. Insulin treatment of the affected women resulted in a significant reduction in the birthweights of unaffected offspring. Perinatal complications including small-for-gestational age birthweight were found only in affected offspring born to insulin-treated women.

Conclusions: In Japanese GCK-MODY families, unaffected offspring born to affected women were heavier than affected offspring. However, insulin treatment of affected women might not be advisable because of the lower risk of macrosomic birth injury, and an increased risk of perinatal complications in affected offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825925PMC
November 2019

Nephrin-Binding Ephrin-B1 at the Slit Diaphragm Controls Podocyte Function through the JNK Pathway.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 05 30;29(5):1462-1474. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Cell Biology, Kidney Research Center, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan;

B-type ephrins are membrane-bound proteins that maintain tissue function in several organs. We previously reported that ephrin-B1 is localized at the slit diaphragm of glomerular podocytes. However, the function of ephrin-B1 at this location is unclear. We analyzed the phenotype of podocyte-specific ephrin-B1 knockout mice and assessed the molecular association of ephrin-B1 and nephrin, a key molecule of the slit diaphragm, in HEK293 cells and rats with anti-nephrin antibody-induced nephropathy. Compared with controls, ephrin-B1 conditional knockout mice displayed altered podocyte morphology, disarrangement of the slit diaphragm molecules, and proteinuria. Ephrin-B1 expressed in HEK293 cells immunoprecipitated with nephrin, which required the basal regions of the extracellular domains of both proteins. Treatment of cells with an anti-nephrin antibody promoted the phosphorylation of nephrin and ephrin-B1. However, phosphorylation of ephrin-B1 did not occur in cells expressing a mutant nephrin lacking the ephrin-B1 binding site or in cells treated with an Src kinase inhibitor. The phosphorylation of ephrin-B1 enhanced the phosphorylation of nephrin and promoted the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which was required for ephrin-B1-promoted cell motility in wound-healing assays. Notably, phosphorylated JNK was detected in the glomeruli of control mice but not ephrin-B1 conditional knockout mice. In rats, the phosphorylation of ephrin-B1, JNK, and nephrin occurred in the early phase (24 hours) of anti-nephrin antibody-induced nephropathy. Through interactions with nephrin, ephrin-B1 maintains the structure and barrier function of the slit diaphragm. Moreover, phosphorylation of ephrin-B1 and, consequently, JNK are involved in the development of podocyte injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2017090993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5967778PMC
May 2018

Hemoglobin Kansas as a Rare Cause of Cyanosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Intern Med 2017 15;56(2):207-209. Epub 2017 Jan 15.

Department of Internal Medicine IV, Teikyo University School of Medicine, University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Japan.

Hemoglobin (Hb) Kansas is an inherited Hb variant with a low oxygen affinity that is associated with low oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry (SpO). It leads to asymptomatic cyanosis. Patients with Hb Kansas do not require any specific treatment and the prognosis is good. In patients with unexplained cyanosis, we should thus consider Hb variants, including Hb Kansas and avoid unnecessary investigations and managements. We herein report the case of 65-year-old woman with Hb Kansas and review five other cases (three lineages) that have been reported in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.56.7349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5337469PMC
March 2017

Natural course of congenital hypothyroidism by dual oxidase 2 mutations from the neonatal period through puberty.

Eur J Endocrinol 2016 Apr 7;174(4):453-63. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Department of PediatricsShiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa, Seta, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, JapanDepartment of PediatricsNiigata University, Niigata, JapanDepartment of Molecular EndocrinologyNational Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: We previously reported that biallelic mutations in dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) cause transient hypothyroidism. Since then, many cases with DUOX2 mutations have been reported. However, the clinical features and prognosis of individuals with DUOX2 defects have not been clarified.

Objective: We investigated the prognosis of patients with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) due to DUOX2 mutations.

Patients: Twenty-five patients were identified by a neonatal screening program and included seven familial cases. Their serum TSH values ranged from 18.9 to 734.6  mU/l. Twenty-two of the patients had low serum free thyroxine (fT4) levels (0.17-1.1  ng/dl). Twenty-four of the patients were treated with L-thyroxine.

Methods: We analyzed the DUOX2, thyroid peroxidase, Na(+)/I(-) symporter, and dual oxidase maturation factor 2 genes of these 25 patients by PCR-amplified direct sequencing. An additional 11 genes were analyzed in 11 of the 25 patients using next-generation sequencing.

Results: All patients had biallelic DUOX2 mutations, and seven novel alleles were detected. Fourteen of the patients were able to discontinue replacement therapy, and seven were receiving reduced L-thyroxine doses. Normalization of thyroglobulin lagged several years behind the completion of treatment. Two patients showed permanent hypothyroidism. Except for one case of a learning disability, growth and psychomotor development were normal.

Conclusion: The prognosis of Japanese patients with DUOX2 defects was usually transient CH. Delayed improvement of thyroglobulin indicates that these patients have subclinical hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism did not recur in patients during the study period (up to 18 years old).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-15-0959DOI Listing
April 2016

Genotype of UGT1A1 and phenotype correlation between Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II and Gilbert syndrome.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Feb;31(2):403-8

Department of Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan.

Background And Aims: Hereditary unconjugated hyperbilirubinemias, Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I, Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II (CN-2), and Gilbert syndrome (GS) all result from mutations of the bilirubin uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase gene (UGT1A1). Often, to distinguish between CN-2 and GS is difficult because the borderline of the two syndromes is unclear. We analyzed the genotypes and phenotypes of 163 Japanese patients with CN-2 or GS.

Methods: Japanese patients (99 males and 64 females) with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia were analyzed. Their serum bilirubin concentrations varied from 1.2 to 22.2 mg/dL (20 to 379 μM). Genetic analysis of UGT1A1 was performed by PCR-amplified direct sequencing. Association between serum bilirubin concentrations and genotypes group (typical CN-2, intermediate group, and typical GS) was studied.

Results: Most patients had biallelic mutations of UGT1A1. Moreover, many of them (78.5%) had multiple mutations. The mutation in typical CN-2 was a homozygous double missense mutation of p.[G71R:Y486D]. In typical GS group, four prevalent genotypes were detected: homozygous UGT1A1*28, UGT1A1*6/UGT1A1*28, and homozygous UGT1A1*6, and UGT1A1*27/UGT1A1*28. In the intermediate group, three genotypes, p.[G71R:Y486D]/UGT1A1*7, p.[G71R:Y486D]/UGT1A1*6, and homozygous UGT1A1*7, were detected. Serum bilirubin concentrations of typical CN-2, intermediate group, and typical GS are respectively 12.9 ± 5.1, 5.2 ± 2.2, and 2.8 ± 1.1 mg/dL. Serum bilirubin concentration among the three groups is statistically different (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: The serum bilirubin concentration varied continuously from GS to CN-2 depending on genotypes. Because of the combination of the mutations and polymorphisms, many patients showed intermediate serum bilirubin concentration between two syndromes. Clinically, it is difficult to distinguish clearly between the two syndromes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.13071DOI Listing
February 2016

A novel large deletion (exons 12, 13) and a missense mutation (p.G46R) in the PAH in a Japanese patient with phenylketonuria.

World J Pediatr 2015 May 30;11(2):181-4. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa, Seta, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2192, Japan,

Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by a defect in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). More than 500 mutations have been reported for the gene encoding PAH. However, approximately 1%-5% of these include large deletions and large duplications that cannot be detected by conventional methods.

Methods: In this report we tried to fully characterize a PAH-deficient patient. The patient was a 2-year-old Japanese boy who was diagnosed with classical PKU at the time of neonatal screening, which was confirmed by the tetrahydrobiopterin-loading test. PCR-related direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used to analyze of the PAH of the patient.

Results: Using PCR-related direct sequencing method, we could detect only a heterozygous novel missense mutation: p.136G>C (p.G46R). A second mutation was detected by MLPA. The patient was heterozygous for a novel large deletion of exons 12 and 13: c.1200-?_1359+?del (EX12_13del). For genetic counseling, an accurate genetic diagnosis is often necessary.

Conclusions: Through a combination of MLPA and conventional methods, the success rate of PAH mutation identification can be close to 100%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12519-015-0020-8DOI Listing
May 2015

Alteration in the podoplanin-ezrin-cytoskeleton linkage is an important initiation event of the podocyte injury in puromycin aminonucleoside nephropathy, a mimic of minimal change nephrotic syndrome.

Cell Tissue Res 2015 Oct 29;362(1):201-13. Epub 2015 Apr 29.

Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Nephrology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori, Niigata, 951-8510, Japan.

Podoplanin was identified as a protein associated with the transformation of arborized foot processes of glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) to flat feet. However, the function of podoplanin in the podocyte is not yet fully clarified. In this study, we analyzed the molecular nature of podoplanin, and its expression in rat nephrotic models and patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). We demonstrated here that podoplanin has two forms: one contains abundant sialic acid and the other a lesser amount of sialic acid. Podoplanin bound ezrin to interact with the cytoskeleton. The silencing of podoplanin in cultured podocytes caused a change in the cell shape and the distribution of ezrin and actin. The expression of podoplanin was clearly reduced before the onset of proteinuria in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephropathy, a mimic of MCNS, and the decrease in the expression of podoplanin became more evident at the proteinuric stage. Podoplanin was detected in normal urine samples, and the amount of urinary podoplanin markedly increased on day 1 of PAN nephropathy. Urinary ezrin was also detected. The amount of the phosphorylated ezrin was reduced, while the amount of the podoplanin-interacting ezrin increased. The podoplanin expression was reduced in a patient with active-phase MCNS. It is conceivable that the alteration of the podoplanin-ezrin-cytoskeleton linkage is an important event of the podocyte injury in MCNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-015-2178-8DOI Listing
October 2015

Increased expression of GAP43 in interneurons in a rat model of experimental polymicrogyria.

J Child Neurol 2015 May 23;30(6):716-28. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tsukinowa, Otsu, Japan.

To investigate seizure susceptibility in polymicrogyria, the seizure threshold and growth-associated protein GAP43 expression were analyzed in a rat experimental model of polymicrogyria induced by intracerebral injection of ibotenate. A total of 72 neonates from 9 pregnant rats were used. Intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazole injection did not induce any seizure activity in the control rats, although it elicited seizures of variable severity in the polymicrogyria rats. Fluoro-Jade B-positive degenerating interneurons were found in the polymicrogyria brains; however, no such neurons were detected in the control brains. In the polymicrogyria rats, the GAP43 expression was significantly and widely distributed in the brain, and the percentage of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the GAP43-positive cells was significantly higher than that observed in the nonphosphorylated neurofilament-positive pyramidal cells. We conclude that the relatively selective vulnerability of inhibitory interneurons constitutes the basis for the decreased seizure threshold observed in this model of polymicrogyria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073814541476DOI Listing
May 2015

Bilirubin uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase variation is a genetic basis of breast milk jaundice.

J Pediatr 2014 Jul 17;165(1):36-41.e1. Epub 2014 Mar 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa, Seta, Otsu, Shiga, Japan.

Objective: To evaluate the role of bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase family 1, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1) gene variations on prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia associated with breast milk feeding (breast milk jaundice [BMJ]).

Study Design: UGT1A1 gene allelic variation was analyzed in 170 Japanese infants with BMJ with polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing, and their genotypes compared with serum bilirubin concentrations. In 62 of 170 infants, serum bilirubin concentration was followed after 4 months of life. Genotypes were examined in 55 infants without BMJ.

Results: Of 170 infants with BMJ, 88 (51.8%) were homozygous UGT1A1*6. Serum bilirubin concentrations (21.8 ± 3.65 mg/dL) were significantly greater than in infants with other genotypes (P < .0001). The Gilbert UGT1A1*28 allele was not detected in infants with BMJ, except in an infant who was compound heterozygous with UGT1A1*6. At 4 months of age, serum bilirubin concentration improved to >1 mg/dL, except in 2 infants who were homozygous UGT1A1*7. Homozygous UGT1A1*6 was not detected in the control group.

Conclusion: One-half of the infants with BMJ were homozygous UGT1A1*6 and exhibited a serum bilirubin concentration significantly greater than other genotypes. This finding indicates that UGT1A1*6 is a major cause of BMJ in infants in East Asia. Previous finding have demonstrated that 5β-pregnane-3α,20β-diol present in breast milk inhibits p.G71R-UGT1A1 bilirubin glucuronidation activity. Thus, prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may develop in infants with UGT1A1*6 who are fed breast milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.01.060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4123958PMC
July 2014

Transforming growth factor-β induces vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression leading to lymphangiogenesis in rat unilateral ureteral obstruction.

Kidney Int 2012 May 18;81(9):865-79. Epub 2012 Jan 18.

Department of Nephrology and Renal Replacement Therapy, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Inflammation is recognized as an important contributor to lymphangiogenesis; however, in tubulointerstitial lesions in human chronic kidney diseases, this process is better correlated with the presence of myofibroblasts rather than macrophages. As little is known about the interaction between lymphangiogenesis and renal fibrosis, we utilized the rat unilateral ureteral obstruction model to analyze inflammation, fibrosis, lymphangiogenesis, and growth factor expression. Additionally, we determined the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), an inducer of lymphangiogenesis, and the profibrotic factor, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). The expression of both TGF-β1 and VEGF-C was detected in tubular epithelial and mononuclear cells, and gradually increased, peaking 14 days after ureteral obstruction. The kinetics and localization of VEGF-C were similar to those of TGF-β1, and the expression of these growth factors and lymphangiogenesis were linked with the progression of fibrosis. VEGF-C expression was upregulated by TGF-β1 in cultured proximal tubular epithelial cells, collecting duct cells, and macrophages. Both in vitro and in vivo, the induction of VEGF-C along with the overall appearance of lymphatics in vivo was specifically suppressed by the TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor LY364947. Thus, TGF-β1 induces VEGF-C expression, which leads to lymphangiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2011.464DOI Listing
May 2012

Inhibitory effect of 5β-pregnane-3α,20β-diol on transcriptional activity and enzyme activity of human bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase.

Pediatr Res 2011 Nov;70(5):453-7

Department of Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga 520-2192, Japan.

Prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in infants associated with breast milk feeding is a common pediatric problem known as breast milk jaundice (BMJ). A polymorphic mutation (G71R) of bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1) is a known cause of BMJ on the infantile side, but the responsible components of breast milk are not currently known. We analyzed the inhibitory effect of 5β-pregnane-3α,20β-diol (pregnanediol) on transcriptional activity and enzyme activity of UGT1A1. To this end, we constructed two types of expression vectors. One type comprised vectors including the upstream enhancer-promoter sequence of UGT1A1 for WT and variant type (-3279T>G with A(TA)7TAA), used in studying transcriptional regulation. The other type comprised vectors including cDNA of UGT1A1 for WT and the G71R variant, used in studying enzyme activity. In an in vitro expression study, pregnanediol did not affect the transcriptional activity of UGT1A1 enhancer-promoter complex of WT and variant type, even with coexistence of transcriptional factors such as constitutive androstane receptor or pregnane X receptor. In contrast, in the presence of 100 μM pregnanediol, bilirubin glucuronidation of G71R-UGT1A1 was reduced to 51% of WT. We suggest that pregnanediol is a cause of breast milk jaundice in carriers of G71R.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1203/PDR.0b013e31822f242eDOI Listing
November 2011

Combined effect of regulatory polymorphisms on transcription of UGT1A1 as a cause of Gilbert syndrome.

BMC Gastroenterol 2010 Jun 8;10:57. Epub 2010 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa, Seta, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan.

Background: Gilbert syndrome is caused by defects in bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1). The most common variation believed to be involved is A(TA)7TAA. Although several polymorphisms have been found to link with A(TA)7TAA, the combined effect of regulatory polymorphisms in the development of Gilbert syndrome remains unclear.

Methods: In an analysis of 15 patients and 60 normal subjects, we detected 14 polymorphisms and nine haplotypes in the regulatory region. We classified the 4-kbp regulatory region of the patients into: the TATA box including A(TA)7TAA; a phenobarbital responsive enhancer module including c.-3275T>G; and a region including other ten linked polymorphisms. The effect on transcription of these polymorphisms was studied.

Results: All haplotypes with A(TA)7TAA had c.-3275T>G and additional polymorphisms. In an in-vitro expression study of the 4-kbp regulatory region, A(TA)7TAA alone did not significantly reduce transcription. In contrast, c.-3275T>G reduced transcription to 69% of that of wild type, and the linked polymorphisms reduced transcription to 88% of wild type. Transcription of the typical regulatory region of the patients was 56% of wild type. Co-expression of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) increased the transcription of wild type by a factor of 4.3. Each polymorphism by itself did not reduce transcription to the level of the patients, however, even in the presence of CAR.

Conclusions: These results imply that co-operation of A(TA)7TAA, c.-3275T>G and the linked polymorphisms is necessary in causing Gilbert syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-10-57DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2894006PMC
June 2010

Transient congenital hypothyroidism caused by biallelic mutations of the dual oxidase 2 gene in Japanese patients detected by a neonatal screening program.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008 Nov 2;93(11):4261-7. Epub 2008 Sep 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa, Seta, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan.

Context: Mutations in dual oxidase (DUOX2) have been proposed as a cause of congenital hypothyroidism. Previous reports suggest that biallelic mutations of DUOX2 cause permanent congenital hypothyroidism and that monoallelic mutations cause transient congenital hypothyroidism.

Objective: To clarify the inheritance of hypothyroidism, we looked at the DUOX2 gene in patients with transient congenital hypothyroidism.

Design: DUOX2, thyroid peroxidase, Na+/I- symporter and dual oxidase maturation factor 2 genes were analyzed in eight patients with transient congenital hypothyroidism, using the PCR-amplified direct sequencing method.

Patients: The eight patients were found by a neonatal screening program. Six of these patients belonged to two independent families; the other two were unrelated. Their serum TSH values varied from 24.8-233.0 mU/liter. Six of the eight patients had a low serum freeT4 level (0.19-0.84 ng/dl). Seven of the eight patients were treated with thyroid hormone replacement therapy, which ceased to be necessary by 9 yr of age.

Results: Eight novel mutations were detected in the DUOX2 gene. Four patients in one family were compound heterozygous for p.L479SfsX2 and p.K628RfsX10. Two patients in a second family were compound heterozygous for p.K530X and p.[E876K;L1067S]. The two remaining unrelated patients were also compound heterozygous, for p.H678R/p.L1067S and p.A649E/p.R885Q, respectively.

Conclusion: All eight patients had biallelic mutations in the DUOX2 gene. We find that loss of DUOX2 activity results in transient congenital hypothyroidism and that transient congenital hypothyroidism caused by DUOX2 mutations is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2008-0856DOI Listing
November 2008

Lymphatic microvessels in the rat remnant kidney model of renal fibrosis: aminopeptidase p and podoplanin are discriminatory markers for endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2003 Aug;14(8):1981-9

Institute of Clinical Pathology, University of Vienna, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT. Rat remnant kidney is an established model of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and progression to end-stage renal failure. The morphologic lesions comprise nephron loss and regeneratory tubular hypertrophy, interstitial infiltration, predominately by macrophages, and progressive fibrosis. A critical role in this complex pathology was assigned to tubulointerstitial blood microvessels that regulate the supply of oxygen and nutrients of tubuli. Whereas some investigations reported a rarefaction of the vascular network in association with the degenerative cortical changes, others observed an increase in vascularization. Here these discrepant findings are addressed by reinvestigation of the vascularization of rat remnant kidneys by the use of two novel endothelial lineage specific, discriminatory markers, i.e., the membrane mucoprotein podoplanin with specificity for lymphatic endothelia, and the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane enzyme aminopeptidase P that is recognized by a monoclonal antibody designated JG12 and that is specifically expressed by endothelial cells of blood vessels only. The results obtained confirm a regional rarefaction of aminopeptidase P-positive blood microvessels; they also establish major changes in the renal lymphatic vasculature. Massive proliferation of lymphatic vessels was observed in fibrotic tubulointerstitial regions, whereas in kidneys of sham-operated rats, only a few lymphatic vessels were found adjoined with arteries. The lymphatic vessels frequently contained mononuclear cells that were also encountered in the interstitial spaces and expressed relative large amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor-C mRNA by in situ hybridization. Collectively, these results indicate that a large proportion of the microvessels encountered in the cortex of remnant kidneys are of lymphatic origin and cannot be discriminated by common endothelial markers, such as CD34, that are expressed by both lymphatic and blood endothelia cells. As lymphatic endothelial cells secrete chemokines that attract dendritic cells, it is possible that the increase in lymphatic vascularization could enhance the immunologic surveillance of remnant kidneys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.asn.0000076078.50889.43DOI Listing
August 2003

[A case of fulminant acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis showing mesangiolysis and crescent formation preceded by erysipelas].

Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi 2002 Oct;44(7):558-63

Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

A 66-year-old man with erysipelas was admitted with complaints of oliguria and massive proteinuria/hematuria. He was diagnosed as having acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis(APSGN) due to erysipelas infected by group A streptococcus pyogenes. On admission, his white cell count increased to 31,000, and CRP was 27.3 mg/dl. Serum urea nitrogen and creatinine were increased to 90.1 mg/dl and 4.5 mg/dl, respectively. He had diabetes mellitus(HbA1c 7.9%) and liver dysfunction(total bilirubin 3.5 mg/dl, AST 76 IU, ALT 41 IU) caused by alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Hypocomplementemia was found in addition to ASO 216 U/ml and ASK 10,240 x. After antibiotics treatment was initiated, inflammation of the erysipelas began to improve. Disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, probably due to sepsis, occurred on the 5th hospital day. He died of gastrointestinal bleeding on the 18th hospital day. Renal autopsy revealed 37% formation of fibrocellular crescents, and marked mesangiolysis was noted by light microscopy. Granular deposition of C3 and IgG was seen along the capillary walls on immunofluorescence study. Intramembranous deposits were scattered on electron microscopy. This case illustrates a fulminant type of APSGN, which was in part attributed to the presence of diabetes and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Histological findings of crescent formation and marked mesangiolysis may account for the fulminant clinical course.
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October 2002

Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition impairs glomerular capillary healing in experimental glomerulonephritis.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2002 May;13(5):1261-1270

*Division of Nephrology and Immunology, University of Aachen, Aachen, Germany, and Department of Pathology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have anti-inflammatory activity and reduce proteinuria in experimental membranous glomerulonephritis. Antiangiogenic properties of COX-2 inhibitors were recently reported. Whether these properties are relevant to the glomerular healing process in inflammatory glomerular diseases was investigated. For evaluation of the effects of selective COX-2 inhibitors on the glomerular healing process in a rat model of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (induced by anti-Thy 1.1 antibody), a selective COX-2 inhibitor (rofecoxib or celecoxib) or vehicle was administered daily from day 1 after disease induction until euthanasia on day 6. Additional nephritic rats were treated with rofecoxib or vehicle from day 1 to day 10 and were monitored until day 28. Selective COX-2 inhibition led to significant increases in mesangiolysis (up to +71%) on days 2 and 6 and in albuminuria (up to 3.1-fold) on day 6. This augmentation of glomerular capillary damage was associated with rarefaction of glomerular endothelial cells, whereas the proliferation and activation of mesangial cells were not affected. No significant effects on the glomerular influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils or the infiltration and proliferation of monocytes/macrophages at day 2 were noted. These effects were independent of systemic hemodynamic features, because rofecoxib did not affect systolic BP on day 2 or 5. Nephritic rats treated with rofecoxib for 10 d demonstrated persistent glomerular injury at day 28, as indicated by increased albuminuria (10-fold) and mesangial type IV collagen deposition (+24%). In normal rats, 5-d administration of rofecoxib failed to induce albuminuria or morphologic renal damage. In conclusion, selective COX-2 inhibitors impair glomerular capillary repair after mesangiolysis in rats with anti-Thy 1.1 glomerulonephritis. These data suggest that selective COX-2 inhibitors should be used with caution among patients with inflammatory endocapillary glomerular disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.V1351261DOI Listing
May 2002

Membranous glomerulonephritis associated with renal cell carcinoma: failure to detect a nephritogenic tumor antigen.

Nephron 2002 Feb;90(2):219-21

First Department of Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan.

A 57-year-old man with renal cell carcinoma associated with membranous glomerulonephropathy (MGN) developed a transient amelioration of the nephrotic syndrome after excision of the tumor. We tried to identify a nephritogenic tumor antigen using the immunoblotting technique in this patient with MGN, since previous studies examined the interaction between tumor antigens and IgG eluted from the kidney tissue using immunofluorescence or immunodiffusion techniques, and no studies have identified the specific tumor antigen with the immunoblotting method. In the present study, no significant immunoreactivity was noted between the IgG eluted from renal cortical tissues of the patient and renal cell carcinoma proteins. Further studies are necessary to establish the pathogenic mechanism of MGN associated with malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000049047DOI Listing
February 2002
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