Publications by authors named "Katrina Zell"

12 Publications

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Acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Apr;97(17):e0487

Department of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Respiratory Institute.

There are limited data on the epidemiology of acute respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The prognosis of acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation is believed to be grim in this population. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of patients with underlying severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation.A retrospective study of patients admitted to a quaternary referral medical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2008 and December 2012 with a diagnosis of severe COPD and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure.We evaluated 670 patients with an established diagnosis of severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure of whom 47% were male with a mean age of 63.7 ± 12.4 years and Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score of 76.3 ± 27.2. Only seventy-nine (12%) were admitted with a COPD exacerbation, 27(4%) had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 78 (12%) had pneumonia, 78 (12%) had sepsis, and 312 (47%) had other causes of respiratory failure, including pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, etc. Eighteen percent of the patients received a trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 3 days (interquartile range IQR 2-7); the median duration for ICU length of stay (LOS) was 5 (IQR 2-9) days and the median duration of hospital LOS was 12 (IQR 7-22) days. The overall ICU mortality was 25%. Patients with COPD exacerbation had a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation (2 vs 4 days; P = .04), ICU (3 vs 5 days; P = .01), and hospital stay (10 vs 13 days; P = .01). The ICU mortality (9% vs 27%; P < .001), and the hospital mortality (17% vs 32%; P = .004) for mechanically ventilated patients with an acute exacerbation of severe COPD were lower than those with other etiologies of acute respiratory failure. A 1-unit increase in the APACHE III score was associated with a 1% decrease and having an active cancer was associated with a 45% decrease in ICU survival (P < .001). A discharge home at the time of index admission was associated an increased overall survival compared with any other discharge location (P < .001).We report good early outcomes, but significant long-term morbidity in patients with severe COPD requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. A higher APACHE score and presence of active malignancy are associated with a decrease in ICU survival, whereas a discharge home is associated with an increase in the overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000010487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5944543PMC
April 2018

Epidemiology of anaphylaxis at a tertiary care center: A report of 730 cases.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2017 01;118(1):80-85

Department of Allergy and Immunology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Recent data reveal that the rate of anaphylaxis is increasing and suggest that idiopathic anaphylaxis may account for most of these cases.

Objective: To determine the pattern of anaphylaxis at a tertiary care referral center.

Methods: A retrospective electronic medical record review spanning 12 years (2002-2013) identified patients with anaphylaxis.

Results: Of the 4,777 records reviewed, 730 patients met our anaphylaxis definition. Median age was 34.0 years; 72.7% were adults, 58.6% were female, and 86.8% were white. Median time to evaluation by an allergist was 8.8 months. Foods were the most common cause (29.9%), followed by Hymenoptera venom (24.6%), idiopathic anaphylaxis (13.7%), and medications (13.3%). The most common foods were peanuts (23.9%), tree nuts (21.6%), shellfish (16.1%), and egg and milk (both 10.1%). The most common cause of anaphylaxis in adults was Hymenoptera venom. The most frequent symptoms were urticaria and/or angioedema, reported in 84.7% of cases. Atopy was present in 43.8%. In 15.4% of cases, anaphylaxis was not the chief reason for the office visit.

Conclusion: We found food allergy was the most common overall cause of anaphylaxis, with peanut the most frequent food trigger. Idiopathic anaphylaxis was not the most common cause but accounted for 13.7% of all cases. Approximately 1 in 6 cases of anaphylaxis may be missed if a comprehensive evaluation is not performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2016.10.025DOI Listing
January 2017

Rapid On-Site Evaluation in Detection of Granulomas in the Mediastinal Lymph Nodes.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2016 06;13(6):850-5

2 Respiratory Institute, and.

Rationale: Rapid On-Site Evaluation (ROSE) of specimens collected by endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided-transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) ensures sample adequacy and triages subsequent biopsy procedures. EBUS-TBNA allows sampling of lymph nodes in granulomatous diseases; however, the ability of ROSE to predict the final diagnosis in this setting has not been well characterized.

Objectives: We performed a retrospective evaluation to study the utility of ROSE in the diagnosis of granulomatous diseases as well as to establish the procedure characteristics that would optimize the concordance between ROSE and final diagnosis.

Methods: Charts of patients with a cytological diagnosis of granuloma by EBUS-TBNA between June 2008 and May 2013 were reviewed. Preliminary ROSE findings and final cytological diagnosis were compared. Patient demographics and procedure variables were assessed using mean (±SD). The variables collected were considered in a logistic regression analysis using concordance as the outcome.

Measurements And Main Results: In our study, 255 procedures were performed to sample 625 lymph nodes that contained granulomas. An average of 2.4 (±1.2) lymph nodes were biopsied per procedure, with a mean size of 14.4 (±7.9) mm. The concordance between ROSE and the final diagnosis was 81.6%. The concordance rate was not impacted by needle size, lymph nodes size or station, number of stations biopsied, or passes per lymph node. The concordance did improve with the experience of the bronchoscopist (P < 0001).

Conclusions: In this single-center study, there was a high concordance between ROSE and the final cytological diagnosis for mediastinal lymph nodes containing granulomas that were sampled by EBUS-TBNA. ROSE may serve to reduce procedure time, enhance sample triaging, and obviate the need for further invasive testing. The only variable associated with increased concordance was the experience of the operator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201507-435OCDOI Listing
June 2016

Multicenter study of nursing role complexity on environmental stressors and emotional exhaustion.

Appl Nurs Res 2016 May 24;30:52-7. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

Office of Research and Innovation in the Nursing Institute of Cleveland Clinic Health System, Cleveland, Ohio, 44095. Electronic address:

Among nurses, work and cognitive complexity patterns of care were previously associated with environmental stressors, but it is unknown if complexity patterns are also associated with emotional exhaustion. A multicenter sample of hospital nurses (N=281) completed valid, reliable questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariable modeling. Registered nurse characteristics did not vary by work setting. Overall mean (standard deviation [SD]) standardized complexity of care score was 45.82 (13.73), reflecting moderate complexity during 3-hour work periods. Nurses experienced greater cognitive complexity patterns than work complexity patterns (p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, overall complexity of care and work and cognitive complexity patterns were not associated with high emotional exhaustion. Higher work complexity pattern score was associated with more environmental stressors (p=0.009), but there was no association between overall complexity of care or cognitive complexity pattern and environmental stressors. Interventions that reduce environmental stressors might reduce work complexity of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2015.08.010DOI Listing
May 2016

Outcomes of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes who achieve stable disease after treatment with hypomethylating agents.

Leuk Res 2016 Feb 22;41:43-7. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, FL, United States. Electronic address:

Treatment with hypomethylating agents (HMAs) improves overall survival (OS) in patients who achieve a response of stable disease (SD) or better (complete remission [CR], partial remission [PR], or hematologic improvement [HI]). It is not well established if patients who achieve SD at 4-6 months of therapy should be offered different therapies to optimize their response or continue with the same regimen. Clinical data were obtained from the MDS Clinical Research Consortium database. SD was defined as no evidence of progression and without achievement of any other responses. Of 291 patients treated with AZA or DAC, 55% achieved their best response (BR) at 4-6 months. Among patients with SD at 4-6 months, 29 (20%) achieved a better response at a later treatment time point. Younger patients with lower bone marrow blast percentages, and intermediate risk per IPSS-R were more likely to achieve a better response (CR, PR, or HI) after SD at 4-6 months. Patients with SD who subsequently achieved CR had superior OS compared to patients who remained with SD (28.1 vs. 14.4 months, respectively, p=.04). In conclusion, patients treated with HMAs who achieves CR after a SD status had longer survival with continuous treatment after 6 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2015.12.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4986515PMC
February 2016

Popular on YouTube: a critical appraisal of the educational quality of information regarding asthma.

Allergy Asthma Proc 2015 Nov-Dec;36(6):e121-6

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: Asthma affects >300 million people globally, including 25 million in the United States. Patients with asthma frequently use the Internet as a source of information. YouTube is one of the three most popular Web sites.

Objective: To determine the educational quality of YouTube videos for asthma.

Methods: We performed a YouTube search by using the keyword "asthma." The 200 most frequently viewed relevant videos were included in the study. Asthma videos were analyzed for characteristics, source, and content. Source was further classified as asthma health care provider, other health care provider, patient, pharmaceutical company, and professional society and/or media. A scoring system was created to evaluate quality (-10 to 30 points). Negative points were assigned for misleading information.

Results: Two hundred videos were analyzed, with a median of 18,073.5 views, 31.5 likes, and 2 dislikes, which spanned a median of 172 seconds. More video presenters were male (60.5%). The most common type of video source was other health care providers (34.5%). The most common video content was alternative treatments (38.0%), including live-fish ingestion; reflexology; acupressure and/or acupuncture; Ayurveda; yoga; raw food, vegan, gluten-free diets; marijuana; Buteyko breathing; and salt therapy. Scores for videos supplied by asthma health care providers were statistically significantly different from other sources (p < 0.001) and had the highest average score (9.91).

Conclusion: YouTube videos of asthma were frequently viewed but were a poor source of accurate health care information. Videos by asthma health care providers were rated highest in quality. The allergy/immunology community has a clear opportunity to enhance the value of educational material on YouTube.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2500/aap.2015.36.3890DOI Listing
August 2016

Impact of Bar-code Medication Administration on Medication Administration Best Practices.

Comput Inform Nurs 2015 Nov;33(11):502-8

Author Affiliations: Office of Nursing Informatics (Mss Bowers, Goda, Bene, Sibila, Piccin, Golla, and Dani) and Department of Quantitative Health Services, Cleveland Clinic (Ms Zell), OH.

Medication errors in hospitals are common and often lead to patient harm, contributing to increased costs and hospital length of stay. Bar-code medication administration can improve patient safety by leveraging technology to improve accuracy throughout the medication administration process. This study was designed to determine whether implementation of a bar-code medication administration process could improve the safety of medication administration. Researchers used a pre-post comparative design to describe the workflow process of nurses during medication administration before and after implementation of a pilot bar-code medication administration process. It was proposed that implementation of bar-code medication administration would increase real-time medication administration documentation, decrease medication administration-related errors, increase Workstation on Wheels usage at the bedside for medication administration, and increase use of the electronic medication administration record for medication retrieval. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data and assess differences in distributions between preimplementation and postimplementation phases. There was a marked increase in use of the Workstation on Wheels at the bedside as well as real-time documentation. Use of the electronic medication administration record to retrieve medications did not increase after implementation. Medication errors showed a slight rate increase after bar-code medication administration was introduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CIN.0000000000000198DOI Listing
November 2015

Association of impaired heart rate recovery with cardiopulmonary complications after lung cancer resection surgery.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2015 Apr 21;149(4):1168-73.e3. Epub 2014 Nov 21.

Respiratory Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Objectives: Patients who undergo lung resection surgery are at risk for postoperative morbidity and mortality. Appropriate selection of the surgical candidate is crucial in the treatment of lung cancer. Heart rate recovery is a measure of physical fitness. We aimed to investigate the association of impaired heart rate recovery with cardiopulmonary complications after lung resection surgery for treatment of lung cancer.

Methods: Data from consecutive patients who, between 2009 and 2013, underwent heart rate recovery evaluation after 6-minute walk tests before lung resection surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Impaired heart rate recovery was defined as a 12-beat or less decrease in peak heart rate at 1 minute after the 6-minute walk test. Postoperative cardiopulmonary complications were as defined by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database. Logistic regression was performed, including previously known risk factors for postoperative complications after lung resection surgery.

Results: A total of 96 patients had heart rate recovery evaluated within 6 months of lung resection surgery for treatment of lung cancer. Thirty-one patients had impaired heart rate recovery, 17 of whom (55%) had cardiopulmonary complications. A total of 65 patients had normal heart rate recovery, 17 of whom (26%) had cardiopulmonary complications. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, impaired heart rate recovery was significantly associated with postoperative cardiopulmonary complications (odds ratio, 4.97; confidence interval, 1.79-13.8; P = .002). No patient died within 30 days after surgery.

Conclusions: Impaired heart rate recovery after the 6-minute walk test is associated with postoperative cardiopulmonary complications in patients who underwent lung resection surgery for treatment of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.11.037DOI Listing
April 2015

Antibiotics are an important identifiable cause of perioperative anaphylaxis in the United States.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2015 Jan-Feb;3(1):101-5.e1. Epub 2014 Nov 25.

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: The diagnosis of perioperative anaphylaxis (PA) remains challenging, given its clinical setting, exposure to multiple medications, and rarity. Previous reports have found that PA is most frequently caused by neuromuscular-blocking agents.

Objective: To determine characteristics and causes of PA at our center.

Methods: We performed a retrospective medical record review to identify patients with anaphylaxis. Cases were further categorized by manifestations of anaphylaxis, age, sex, atopy, timing, tryptase level, and previous PA events. Cases with a cause identified by skin or in vitro tests were classified as IgE-mediated anaphylaxis.

Results: Thirty cases were identified. Seventeen (57%) had an identifiable cause: antibiotics in 10 (59%)-β-lactams in and metronidazole in 1; latex in 3 (18%); and neuromuscular blockers in 4 (23%). There was no identifiable cause in 13 cases. The most frequent presenting sign of PA was hypotension (97%). Seven patients (23%) presented with cardiac arrest. A minority (17%) exhibited urticaria. Only four had a history of atopy. Most of the reactions occurred during the anesthesia induction phase. Elevated serum tryptase level was found in 10 of 10 (100%) cases of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis compared with 4 of 10 (40%) cases without an identifiable cause.

Conclusions: We found that antibiotics were the most common identifiable cause of PA. Our findings imply that antibiotic exposure warrants careful attention in the evaluation and management of patients with PA, particularly for those who require repeat and/or future surgeries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2014.11.005DOI Listing
February 2016

Heart rate recovery and survival in patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy for treatment of early-stage lung cancer.

J Radiosurg SBRT 2015 ;3(3):193-201

Respiratory Institute, Cleveland Clinic; 9500 Euclid Avenue - NA23, Cleveland, OH 44195 USA.

Objectives: Up to 25% of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are considered high-risk for surgery, due to severe medical comorbidity and/or poor pulmonary reserve. Many of these patients are treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Prognosis in this subgroup of patients is difficult to determine. We investigated the association of impaired heart rate recovery (HRR) with survival in patients who received SBRT for treatment of early-stage lung cancer.

Methods: We collected data from consecutive patients who, between October 2009 and December 2012, received SBRT for treatment of lung cancer at the Cleveland Clinic, and had 6-minute walk test (6MWT) followed by HRR evaluation performed within six months of initiation of treatment. Impaired HRR was defined as a ≤ 12 beat decrease within the first minute following the 6MWT. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard ratios.

Results: Forty nine patients who received SBRT for treatment of early-stage lung cancer had HRR data available. Thirty two (65%) patients had impaired HRR following the 6MWT. In univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses, impaired HRR was associated with poorer survival (HR: 11.0, 95% CI: 1.42 - 84.4, p = 0.004, and HR: 15.8, 95% CI: 1.96 - 128.0, p = 0.010, respectively). The 2-year overall survival rates were 52.6% for those with impaired HRR, and 94.1% for those with normal HRR.

Conclusion: Impaired HRR was associated with poorer survival in patients who received SBRT for treatment of early-stage lung cancer. HRR following the 6MWT can be one of the factors considered in patient selection for treatment with SBRT, along with other medical comorbidities.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5746334PMC
January 2015

Survival in patients with metachronous second primary lung cancer.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2015 Jan;12(1):79-84

1 Medicine Institute.

Rationale: Four to 10% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer subsequently develop a metachronous second primary lung cancer. The decision to perform surveillance or screening imaging for patients with potentially cured lung cancer must take into account the outcomes expected when detecting metachronous second primaries.

Objectives: To assess potential survival differences between patients with metachronous second primary lung cancer compared to matched patients with first primary lung cancer.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients diagnosed with lung cancer at the Cleveland Clinic (2006-2010). Metachronous second primary lung cancer was defined as lung cancer diagnosed after a 4-year, disease-free interval from the first lung cancer, or if there were two different histologic subtypes diagnosed at different times. Patients with first primary lung cancer diagnosed in the same time period served as control subjects. Propensity score matching was performed using age, sex, smoking history, histologic subtype, and collaborative stage, with a 1:3 case-control ratio. Survival analyses were performed by Cox proportional hazards modeling and Kaplan-Meier estimates.

Measurements And Main Results: Forty-four patients met criteria for having a metachronous second primary lung cancer. There were no statistically significant differences between case subjects and control subjects in prognostic variables. The median survival time and 2-year overall survival rate for the metachronous second primary group, compared with control subjects, were as follows: 11.8 versus 18.4 months (P = 0.18) and 31.0 versus 40.9% (P = 0.28). The survival difference was largest in those with stage I metachronous second primaries (median survival time, 26.8 vs. 60.4 mo, P = 0.09; 2-year overall survival, 56.3 vs. 71.2%, P = 0.28).

Conclusions: Patients with stage I metachronous second primary lung cancer may have worse survival than those who present with a first primary lung cancer. This could influence the benefit-risk balance of screening the high-risk cohort with a previously treated lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201406-261OCDOI Listing
January 2015