Publications by authors named "Katja Roscher"

7 Publications

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Assessment of platelet biology in equine patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 Mar 22;33(2):300-307. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Equine Clinic, Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.

In addition to maintaining hemostasis, platelets have an important role in modulating innate and adaptive immune responses. A low platelet count has been found to be a negative prognostic factor for survival in humans and horses with critical illnesses, such as sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Decreased platelet aggregation, caused by in vivo activation, has been found in human patients with severe sepsis. In our prospective controlled study, we assessed platelet biology in blood samples from 20 equine SIRS cases and 120 healthy control horses. Platelet variables such as platelet count, large platelet count, clumps, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and mean platelet component concentration were analyzed by laser flow cytometry (Advia 2120) from KEDTA blood and from citrate blood. Hirudin blood samples were analyzed by impedance aggregometry (Multiplate analyzer; Roche) for platelet aggregation, including spontaneous aggregation and aggregation by 4 different agonists: adenosine diphosphate (ADPtest), ADP + prostaglandin E1 (ADPtestHS), arachidonic acid (ASPItest), and collagen (COLtest). SIRS cases had significantly lower platelet counts in KEDTA blood ( < 0.0001) compared to control horses. There were no significant differences in aggregation values between SIRS cases and controls. Non-surviving SIRS horses did not have statistically significant lower platelet counts or lower aggregation values for COLtest, ADPtest, or ADPtestHS compared to surviving SIRS horses, although 5 non-survivors were thrombocytopenic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638720983791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944423PMC
March 2021

[Theileria equi-infection in 2 German horses returning from a trail ride in southern France].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2020 Apr 23;48(2):124-129. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Institut für Parasitologie, Zentrum für Infektionsmedizin, Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover.

Equine piroplasmosis, caused by the protozoan pathogens or , is endemic in many (sub-)tropical regions worldwide, including Southern Europe. In Germany, it mainly plays a role as an imported parasitosis. Nevetherless, tick species with known vector potential for equine piroplasms occur in Germany. Thus, a long-term establishment of autochthonous cycles after introduction via infected equids or ticks cannot be excluded. In the present case, 2 horses developed clinical infection after returning from a trail riding trip to southern France. During treatment, a feeding tick was discovered on one of the horses, which was identified as a specimen. This tick species cannot establish in Germany under the current climatic conditions; nevertheless, this discovery illustrates the potential of introducing infected ticks to Germany. The 2 horses were treated with imidocarb (3 mg/kg i. m.; 3 treatments in 3-day intervals) and no adverse drug effects were recorded. To prevent establishment of autochthonous infection cycles in Germany as well as a chronic manifestation of piroplasmosis, treatment should aim at eliminating the parasites despite possible adverse effects of imidocarb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1110-2998DOI Listing
April 2020

Effects of a blend of green tea and curcuma extract supplementation on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in horses and ponies.

PeerJ 2019 12;7:e8053. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Nutrition Diseases and Dietetics, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany.

Background: In horses and ponies numerous medical conditions are known to be linked with inflammation in different tissues, especially in the liver. Besides affecting other metabolic pathways such as the expression of certain interleukins (IL), inflammation is associated with stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In particular, ER stress leads to adaptive stress response and can be measured by several markers of inflammatory and stress signalling pathways, like nuclear factor κB (NF-kB).

Objectives: To investigate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory reactions and their modulation in horses and ponies by feeding a polyphenol-rich supplement consisting of green tea and curcuma.

Methods: In a cross-over study, 11 animals were allocated to either a placebo or a supplement group and supplemented with 10 g of a blend of green tea and curcuma extract (GCE) or a placebo (calcium carbonate) once daily. After 21 days of supplementation, all animals underwent a LPS challenge to induce moderate systemic inflammation. Blood samples and liver biopsies were taken at standardized time points: 24 hours before and 12 hours after LPS challenge. Inflammatory blood parameters such as serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) were measured in serum. Hepatic mRNA levels of selected markers of inflammation such as were quantified by RT-qPCR. In addition, liver biopsies were examined histologically for inflammatory alterations.

Results: Blood markers of acute inflammatory response increased after LPS challenge. In the liver, the proinflammatory cytokine showed significantly lower mRNA levels after LPS challenge in the supplemented group ( = 0.04) compared to the placebo group. Levels of the hepatic mRNA increased significantly in the placebo group ( = 0.04). There were no significant differences between supplemented and placebo groups concerning other markers of inflammation and markers of ER stress within the liver. The number of hepatic macrophages were not different after LPS challenge in both feeding groups.

Conclusion: LPS was able to induce inflammation but seemed less suitable to induce ER stress in the horses and ponies. The polyphenol-rich supplement showed some potential to reduce inflammatory responses. Nevertheless, the supplementation did not exert an overall anti-inflammatory effect in horses and ponies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6857679PMC
November 2019

[Thrombocytopenia in horses].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2018 Apr 4;46(2):73-79. Epub 2018 May 4.

Objective: The retrospective study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of true thrombocytopenia and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-induced pseudothrombocytopenia in horses and ponies and to assess the diagnostic and prognostic utility of true thrombocytopenia.

Material And Methods: In 3592 patients (2008-2015) hematological data (ADVIA® 2120, Siemens) were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were platelet counts < 90 x 109/l (EDTA-blood) and/or < 84 x 109/l (citrate blood). Thrombocytopenia was classified as true, EDTA-induced, and questionable. Patients with true thrombocytopenia were assigned to nine groups according to their history and four groups depending on the main diagnosis (inflammatory disorders, neoplasia, non-inflammatory intestinal disease, others). The frequencies of diagnoses were compared to the overall clinic population.

Results: Thrombocytopenia was diagnosed in 123/3592 patients (3.4 %) and classified as true in 60/123 (49 %), EDTA-induced in 6/123 (5 %), and questionable in 57/123 (46 %) of cases. In true thrombocytopenia, the most common reasons for referral were lethargy (23/60, 38 %), fever (19/60, 32 %), and colic (17/60, 28 %). In these patients inflammation, neoplasia, non-inflammatory intestinal disease, and others were diagnosed in 25/60 (42 %), 11/60 (18 %), 10/60 (17 %), and 14/60 (23 %) of cases, respectively. Compared with the overall clinic population, there was an increased frequency of neoplasia (18 % versus 1 %). The mortality rate was significantly higher at 38 % in comparison with the overall population. Remarkably high mortality rates of 32 % and 82 % were observed in patients with inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, respectively.

Conclusion And Clinical Relevance: True thrombocytopenia is relatively rare in horses with internal medical conditions and should be verified by measurement in samples with citrate as anticoagulant. Thrombocytopenia is rarely the primary reason for referral and is a negative prognostic factor in neoplastic and inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15653/TPG-170429DOI Listing
April 2018

Retrospective evaluation of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus from Western, Northern, and Central Europe (2000-2014). Part 2: Prognostic assessment.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2017 Nov 28;27(6):697-706. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

The Equine Hospital, Center for Fundamental and Applied Research for Animal and Health (FARAH), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Belgium.

Objective: To identify prognostic variables for adult equids and foals with tetanus.

Design: Multicenter retrospective study (2000-2014).

Setting: Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referral centers.

Animals: One hundred fifty-five adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Variables from history and clinical examination were statistically compared between survivors and nonsurvivors (adults: 49 survivors, 85 nonsurvivors; foals: 7 survivors, 10 nonsurvivors). Cases euthanized for financial reasons were excluded. Mortality rates in adults and foals were 68.4% and 66.7%, respectively. Variables associated with survival in adults included: standing, normal intestinal sounds and defecation, voluntarily drinking, eating soft or normal food, lower heart and respiratory rates, high base excess on admission, longer diagnosis time, treatment and hospitalization delay, and mild severity grade. Variables associated with death included: anorexia, dysphagia, dyspnea, low blood potassium concentration on admission, moderate and severe disease grading, development of dysphagia, dyspnea, recumbency and seizures during hospitalization, treatment with glycerol guaiacolate, intravenous fluids, and intravenous glucose solutions. Variables associated with survival in foals included standing on admission, voluntarily eating soft food and drinking, older age, and longer hospitalization delay. Outcome was not different between different tetanus antitoxin (TAT) dosages, although there was a trend of increasing survival rate with increasing TAT dosages. Cases with appropriate vaccination prior to development of tetanus were rare, but had improved outcome and shorter hospitalization.

Conclusions: Prognosis for equine tetanus is poor with similar outcome and prognostic factors in foals and adults. The prognostic assessment of cases with tetanus provides clinicians with new evidence-based information related to patient management. Several prognostic indicators relate to the ability to eat or drink, and more severe clinical signs relate to poor outcome. Increasing intravenous dosages of TAT has no significant effect on outcome, but the positive trend identified may support a recommendation for high intravenous TAT dosages. Further evaluation is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vec.12669DOI Listing
November 2017

Retrospective evaluation of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus in Western, Northern, and Central Europe (2000-2014). Part 1: Description of history and clinical evolution.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2017 Nov 28;27(6):684-696. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Bell Equine Veterinary Clinic, Maidstone, United Kingdom.

Objective: To describe clinical data of hospitalized adult equids and foals with tetanus.

Design: Multicenter retrospective study (2000-2014).

Setting: Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referral centers.

Animals: One hundred fifty-five adult equids (>6 months) and 21 foals (<6 months) with tetanus.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Information on geographic, annual and seasonal data, demographic- and management-related data, clinical history, clinical examination and blood analysis on admission, complications, treatments, and outcomes were described and statistically compared between adults and foals. The described cases were often young horses. In 4 adult horses, tetanus developed despite appropriate vaccination and in 2 foals despite preventive tetanus antitoxin administration at birth. Castration, hoof abscesses, and wounds were the most common entry sites for adults; umbilical cord infections and wounds for foals. Stiffness was the commonest observed initial clinical sign. Blood analyses frequently revealed an inflammatory response, hemoconcentration, muscle damage, azotemia, negative energy balance, liver damage, and electrolyte and acid base disturbances. Common complications or clinical signs developing during hospitalization included dysphagia, dyspnea, recumbency, hyperthermia, seizures, hyperlipemia, gastrointestinal impactions, dysuria, and laryngeal spasms. Cases were supported with wound debridement, antimicrobial treatment, tetanus antitoxin, muscle spasm and seizure control, analgesia, anti-inflammatory drugs, fluid therapy, and nutritional support. Mortality rates were 68.4% in adult horses and 66.7% in foals. Foals differed from adult horses with respect to months of occurrence, signalment, management-related data, potential causative events, clinical signs on admission, blood analysis, complications, and severity grades.

Conclusions: This is the first study that rigorously describes a large population of equids affected by tetanus. The information provided is potentially useful to clinicians for early recognition and case management of tetanus in adult horses and foals. Tetanus affects multiple organ systems, requiring broad supportive and intensive care. Neonatal and adult tetanus in the horse should be considered as distinct syndromes, as in human medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vec.12668DOI Listing
November 2017

Inhibition of platelet function with clopidogrel, as measured with a novel whole blood impedance aggregometer in horses.

Vet J 2015 Mar 5;203(3):332-6. Epub 2015 Jan 5.

Clinical Pathophysiology and Veterinary Clinical Pathology, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Justus-Liebig-University, Frankfurter Str. 126, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

This study aimed to validate a loading and maintenance clopidogrel dosing scheme for the inhibition of platelet function, measured by whole blood impedance aggregometry in healthy adult horses. Ten Warmblood horses received oral clopidogrel once daily. Doses were based on 50 kg weight categories and resulted in one loading dose of 6-6.5 mg/kg bodyweight and maintenance doses of 1.2-1.4 mg/kg over the next 4 days. Platelet function was measured via whole blood multiple electrode impedance aggregometry prior to (T0) and at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h following the loading dose. Aggregometries for collagen (COLtest), arachidonic acid (ASPItest), adenosine diphosphate (ADPtest) and ADP with prostaglandin E1 (ADPtestHS) were performed. Statistical analyses included one way repeated measures ANOVAs and subsequent Dunnett's tests. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen remained unchanged. There were significant inhibitions in the ASPItest (P <0.01 at 192 h, and P <0.05 at 240 h) and the ADPtest and ADPtestHS (P < 0.01, with the exception of 240 h). The loading dose of clopidogrel induced rapid inhibition of platelet function within hours, and the low dose was suitable for maintaining the inhibition over the 4 days of therapy. Recovery of platelet function was restored 6 days after the cessation of medication, determined with the ADPtest and ADPtestHS, but remained inhibited with the ASPItest. The prolonged effect of clopidogrel may indicate differences in the activation of platelets between horses and humans that were previously unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.12.028DOI Listing
March 2015