Publications by authors named "Katja Remlinger"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an essential proviral host factor for human rhinovirus species A and C.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 11 15;117(44):27598-27607. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599;

Human rhinoviruses (RVs) are positive-strand RNA viruses that cause respiratory tract disease in children and adults. Here we show that the innate immune signaling protein STING is required for efficient replication of members of two distinct RV species, RV-A and RV-C. The host factor activity of STING was identified in a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen and confirmed in primary human small airway epithelial cells. Replication of RV-A serotypes was strictly dependent on STING, whereas RV-B serotypes were notably less dependent. Subgenomic RV-A and RV-C RNA replicons failed to amplify in the absence of STING, revealing it to be required for a step in RNA replication. STING was expressed on phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P)-enriched membranes and was enriched in RV-A16 compared with RV-B14 replication organelles isolated in isopycnic gradients. The host factor activity of STING was species-specific, as murine STING (mSTING) did not rescue RV-A16 replication in STING-deficient cells. This species specificity mapped primarily to the cytoplasmic, ligand-binding domain of STING. Mouse-adaptive mutations in the RV-A16 2C protein allowed for robust replication in cells expressing mSTING, suggesting a role for 2C in recruiting STING to RV-A replication organelles. Palmitoylation of STING was not required for RV-A16 replication, nor was the C-terminal tail of STING that mediates IRF3 signaling. Despite co-opting STING to promote its replication, interferon signaling in response to STING agonists remained intact in RV-A16 infected cells. These data demonstrate a surprising requirement for a key host mediator of innate immunity to DNA viruses in the life cycle of a small pathogenic RNA virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2014940117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959528PMC
November 2020

GSK2818713, a Novel Biphenylene Scaffold-Based Hepatitis C NS5A Replication Complex Inhibitor with Broad Genotype Coverage.

J Med Chem 2020 04 7;63(8):4155-4170. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, United States.

Pan-genotype NS5A inhibitors underpin hugely successful hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy. The discovery of GSK2818713 (), a nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) HCV inhibitor characterized by a significantly improved genotype coverage relative to first-generation NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir (DCV), is detailed herein. The SAR analysis revealed cooperative potency effects of the biphenylene, bicyclic pyrrolidine (Aoc), and methyl-threonine structural motifs. Relative to DCV, improved activity against genotype 1a (gt1a) and gt1b NS5A variants as well as HCV chimeric replicons containing NS5A fragments from genotypes 2-6. Long-term treatment of subgenomic replicons with potently and durably decreased HCV RNA levels for gt1a, gt2a, and gt3a. These properties, suitable pharmacokinetics, and the lack of cross-resistance resulted in the selection of as a preclinical candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b02176DOI Listing
April 2020

T Cell- and Monocyte-Specific RNA-Sequencing Analysis in Septic and Nonseptic Critically Ill Patients and in Patients with Cancer.

J Immunol 2019 10 4;203(7):1897-1908. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110;

Sepsis is characterized as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host immune response to infection. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differential effect of sepsis on innate versus adaptive immunity, in humans, by examining RNA expression in specific immune cell subsets, including monocytes/macrophages and CD4 and CD8 T cells. A second aim was to determine immunosuppressive mechanisms operative in sepsis that might be amenable to immunotherapy. Finally, we examined RNA expression in peripheral cells from critically ill nonseptic patients and from cancer patients to compare the unique immune response in these disorders with that occurring in sepsis. Monocytes, CD4 T cells, and CD8 T cells from septic patients, critically ill nonseptic patients, patients with metastatic colon cancer, and healthy controls were analyzed by RNA sequencing. Sepsis induced a marked phenotypic shift toward downregulation of multiple immune response pathways in monocytes suggesting that impaired innate immunity may be fundamental to the immunosuppression that characterizes the disorder. In the sepsis cohort, there was a much more pronounced effect on gene transcription in CD4 T cells than in CD8 T cells. Potential mediators of sepsis-induced immunosuppression included , , and , which were highly upregulated in multiple cell types. Multiple negative costimulatory molecules, including , , , and , were also highly upregulated in sepsis. Although cancer had much more profound effects on gene transcription in CD8 T cells, common immunosuppressive mechanisms were present in all disorders, suggesting that immunoadjuvant therapies that are effective in one disease may also be efficacious in the others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1900560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6761013PMC
October 2019

Therapeutically Attenuating Neutrophil Recruitment With a CXCR2 Antagonist in Combination With Oseltamivir Ameliorates Influenza-Induced Lung Injury and Disease.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Apr 7;6(4):ofz106. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

GlaxoSmithKline, Upper Providence, Pennsylvania.

Mice were infected with influenza and treated with a CXCR2 antagonist in combination with antiviral or antiviral alone starting 4 days postinfection. Neutrophil recruitment to the lung was reduced, and improvements in health outcomes and lung consolidation were observed in combination-treated mice with no evidence of worsening outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6483135PMC
April 2019

Nuisance Compounds, PAINS Filters, and Dark Chemical Matter in the GSK HTS Collection.

SLAS Discov 2018 07 26;23(6):532-545. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

2 GlaxoSmithKline R&D Pharmaceuticals, Sample Management Technologies, Collegeville, PA, USA.

High-throughput screening (HTS) hits include compounds with undesirable properties. Many filters have been described to identify such hits. Notably, pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS) has been adopted by the community as the standard term to refer to such filters, and very useful guidelines have been adopted by the American Chemical Society (ACS) and subsequently triggered a healthy scientific debate about the pitfalls of draconian use of filters. Using an inhibitory frequency index, we have analyzed in detail the promiscuity profile of the whole GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) HTS collection comprising more than 2 million unique compounds that have been tested in hundreds of screening assays. We provide a comprehensive analysis of many previously published filters and newly described classes of nuisance structures that may serve as a useful source of empirical information to guide the design or growth of HTS collections and hit triaging strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2472555218768497DOI Listing
July 2018

No association found between the detection of either xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus or polytropic murine leukemia virus and chronic fatigue syndrome in a blinded, multi-site, prospective study by the establishment and use of the SolveCFS BioBank.

BMC Res Notes 2014 Aug 4;7:461. Epub 2014 Aug 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Background: In 2009, a retrospective study reported the detection of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in clinical isolates derived from individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS). While many efforts to confirm this observation failed, one report detected polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV), instead of XMRV. In both studies, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods were employed which could provide the basis for the development of a practical diagnostic tool. To confirm these studies, we hypothesized that the ability to detect these viruses will not only depend upon the technical details of the methods employed but also on the criteria used to diagnose CFS and the availability of well characterized clinical isolates.

Methods: A repository of clinical isolates from geographically distinct sites was generated by the collection of fresh blood samples from well characterized CFS and healthy subjects. Molecular techniques were used to generate assay positive controls and to determine the lower limit of detection (LLOD) for murine retroviral and Intracisternal A particle (Cell 12(4):963-72, 1977) detection methods.

Results: We report the establishment of a repository of well-defined, clinical isolates from five, geographically distinct regions of the US, the comparative determination of the LLODs and validation efforts for the previously reported detection methods and the results of an effort to confirm the association of these retroviral signatures in isolates from individuals with CFS in a blinded, multi-site, prospective study. We detected various, murine retroviral DNA signatures but were unable to resolve a difference in the incidence of their detection between isolates from CFS (5/72; 6.7%) and healthy (2/37; 5.4%) subjects (Fisher's Exact Test, p-value = 1). The observed sequences appeared to reflect the detection of endogenous murine retroviral DNA, which was not identical to either XMRV or pMLV.

Conclusions: We were unable to confirm a previously reported association between the detection of XMRV or pMLV sequences and CFS in a prospective, multi-site study. Murine retroviral sequences were detected at a low frequency that did not differ between CFS and control subjects. The nature of these sequences appeared to reflect the detection of pre-existing, endogenous, murine retroviral DNA in the PCR reagents employed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4236736PMC
August 2014

Multiplex protein analysis to determine fibrosis stage and progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014 Dec 9;12(12):2113-20.e1-3. Epub 2014 May 9.

National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Unit in Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and the University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Background & Aims: Noninvasive tests cannot differentiate between adjacent stages of fibrosis, which limits assessment of disease progression and regression during therapy. We investigated whether levels of cytokines and extracellular matrix proteins in serum and biopsy samples can be used to determine actual stage of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and in prognosis.

Methods: We collected data from 383 treatment-naive patients with CHC from the Duke Hepatology Clinical Research Database and Biorepository, from 2006 through 2009, for use in the training set. Serum samples were obtained from 100 individuals without CHC (controls). We selected 37 serum biomarkers for customized array analysis by using the SearchLight multiplex sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data from 434 treatment-naive patients with CHC, which were obtained from the Trent HCV cohort, were used in the validation analysis. Multivariable modeling, marker selection, and validation included randomForest and Obuchowski measures, with independent comparison with FibroSURE.

Results: Four serum markers (levels of hyaluronic acid, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, alpha-2 macroglobulin, and retinol-binding protein 4) and age associated with fibrosis stage (F0-1, F2-3, or F4); these had Obuchowski measures of 0.85-0.89, with misclassification rates of 38% and 29% in training and validation sets, compared with 50% for the FibroSURE test. In the training set, area under the curve values for the multiplex markers were similar to those from the FibroSURE test: stages F0 vs F1 (0.51 vs 0.53), F1 vs F2 (0.60 vs 0.59), F2 vs F3 (0.69 vs 0.72), and F3 vs F4 (0.51 vs 0.52). Area under the curve values were similar in the validation cohort. In longitudinal analyses of 133 paired biopsies, 9 markers (level of alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, hyaluronic acid, intracellular adhesion molecule 1, interleukin 4, CXCL10, CXCL9, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) were associated with change in the histologic activity index (P values ranging from .000 to .049), and 4 (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin 12, interleukin 2, and matrix metalloproteinase 13) were associated with a change in fibrosis stage (P values ranging from .001 to .042).

Conclusions: We identified serum biomarkers that can be measured by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine levels of fibrosis in patients with CHC, although misclassification is frequent and results are comparable with those from the FibroSURE test. Changes in protein levels in biopsy samples were associated with progression of fibrosis in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2014.04.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4225180PMC
December 2014

Preclinical characterization of GSK2336805, a novel inhibitor of hepatitis C virus replication that selects for resistance in NS5A.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2014 14;58(1):38-47. Epub 2013 Oct 14.

GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

GSK2336805 is an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with picomolar activity on the standard genotype 1a, 1b, and 2a subgenomic replicons and exhibits a modest serum shift. GSK2336805 was not active on 22 RNA and DNA viruses that were profiled. We have identified changes in the N-terminal region of NS5A that cause a decrease in the activity of GSK2336805. These mutations in the genotype 1b replicon showed modest shifts in compound activity (<13-fold), while mutations identified in the genotype 1a replicon had a more dramatic impact on potency. GSK2336805 retained activity on chimeric replicons containing NS5A patient sequences from genotype 1 and patient and consensus sequences for genotypes 4 and 5 and part of genotype 6. Combination and cross-resistance studies demonstrated that GSK2336805 could be used as a component of a multidrug HCV regimen either with the current standard of care or in combination with compounds with different mechanisms of action that are still progressing through clinical development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01363-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3910799PMC
September 2014

In vitro characterization of GSK2485852, a novel hepatitis C virus polymerase inhibitor.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013 Nov 12;57(11):5216-24. Epub 2013 Aug 12.

GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

GSK2485852 (referred to here as GSK5852) is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) in the low nanomolar range in the genotype 1 and 2 subgenomic replicon system as well as the infectious HCV cell culture system. We have characterized the antiviral activity of GSK5852 using chimeric replicon systems with NS5B genes from additional genotypes as well as NS5B sequences from clinical isolates of patients infected with HCV of genotypes 1a and 1b. The inhibitory activity of GSK5852 remained unchanged in these intergenotypic and intragenotypic replicon systems. GSK5852 furthermore displays an excellent resistance profile and shows a <5-fold potency loss across the clinically important NS5B resistance mutations P495L, M423T, C316Y, and Y448H. Testing of a diverse mutant panel also revealed a lack of cross-resistance against known resistance mutations in other viral proteins. Data from both the newer 454 sequencing method and traditional population sequencing showed a pattern of mutations arising in the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in replicon cells exposed to GSK5852. GSK5852 was more potent than HCV-796, an earlier inhibitor in this class, and showed greater reductions in HCV RNA during long-term treatment of replicons. GSK5852 is similar to HCV-796 in its activity against multiple genotypes, but its superior resistance profile suggests that it could be an attractive component of an all-oral regimen for treating HCV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00874-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3811320PMC
November 2013

Longitudinal changes in total body creatine pool size and skeletal muscle mass using the D-creatine dilution method.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2013 Jun 25. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

Muscle Metabolism Discovery Performance Unit, Metabolic Pathways and Cardiovascular Therapeutic Area, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, USA,

Background: We recently validated in cross-sectional studies a new method to determine total body creatine pool size and skeletal muscle mass based on D-creatine dilution from an oral dose and detection of urinary creatinine enrichment by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Routine clinical use of the method in aging and disease will require repeated application of the method, with a more widely available technology than IRMS, to enable determination of change in skeletal muscle mass in longitudinal studies. We therefore adapted the method to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology, and sought to establish proof of concept for the repeated application of the method in a longitudinal study. Because the turnover of creatine is slow, it was also critical to determine the impact of background enrichment from an initial dose of oral D-creatine on subsequent, longitudinal measurements of change in muscle mass.

Methods: Rats were given an oral tracer dose of D-creatine (1.0 mg/kg body weight) at 10 and 17 weeks of age. LC-MS/MS was used to determine urinary D-creatine, and urinary D-creatinine enrichment, at time intervals after D-creatine administration. Total body creatine pool size was calculated from urinary D-creatinine enrichment at isotopic steady state 72 h after administration of D-creatine tracer.

Results: At 10 weeks of age, rat lean body mass (LBM) measured by quantitative magnetic resonance correlated with creatine pool size (r = 0.92, P = 0.0002). Over the next 7 weeks, the decline in urinary D-creatinine enrichment was slow and linear, with a rate constant of 2.73 ± 0.06 %/day. Subtracting background urinary D-creatinine enrichment from the elevated enrichment following a second dose of D-creatine at 17 weeks permitted repeat calculations of creatine pool size. As at 10 weeks, 17-week LBM correlated with creatine pool size (r = 0.98, P <0.0001). In addition, the change in creatine pool size was correlated with the change in LBM during the 7 weeks of rat growth between measurements (r = 0.96, P <0.0001).

Conclusion: The LC-MS/MS-based D-creatine dilution method can be applied repeatedly to measure total body creatine skeletal muscle mass change in longitudinal study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13539-013-0110-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3774916PMC
June 2013

Total-body creatine pool size and skeletal muscle mass determination by creatine-(methyl-D3) dilution in rats.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2012 Jun 15;112(11):1940-8. Epub 2012 Mar 15.

Muscle Metabolism Discovery Performance Unit, Metabolic Pathways and Cardiovascular Therapeutic Area, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

There is currently no direct, facile method to determine total-body skeletal muscle mass for the diagnosis and treatment of skeletal muscle wasting conditions such as sarcopenia, cachexia, and disuse. We tested in rats the hypothesis that the enrichment of creatinine-(methyl-d(3)) (D(3)-creatinine) in urine after a defined oral tracer dose of D(3)-creatine can be used to determine creatine pool size and skeletal muscle mass. We determined 1) an oral tracer dose of D(3)-creatine that was completely bioavailable with minimal urinary spillage and sufficient enrichment in the body creatine pool for detection of D(3)-creatine in muscle and D(3)-creatinine in urine, and 2) the time to isotopic steady state. We used cross-sectional studies to compare total creatine pool size determined by the D(3)-creatine dilution method to lean body mass determined by independent methods. The tracer dose of D(3)-creatine (<1 mg/rat) was >99% bioavailable with 0.2-1.2% urinary spillage. Isotopic steady state was achieved within 24-48 h. Creatine pool size calculated from urinary D(3)-creatinine enrichment at 72 h significantly increased with muscle accrual in rat growth, significantly decreased with dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, was correlated with lean body mass (r = 0.9590; P < 0.0001), and corresponded to predicted total muscle mass. Total-body creatine pool size and skeletal muscle mass can thus be accurately and precisely determined by an orally delivered dose of D(3)-creatine followed by the measurement of D(3)-creatinine enrichment in a single urine sample and is promising as a noninvasive tool for the clinical determination of skeletal muscle mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00122.2012DOI Listing
June 2012

Rosiglitazone Induces Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Differentiated Murine 3T3-L1 and C3H/10T1/2 Adipocytes.

PPAR Res 2011 15;2011:179454. Epub 2011 Oct 15.

Metabolic Discovery Technology Group, Molecular Discovery Research, GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

Growing evidence indicates that PPARγ agonists, including rosiglitazone (RSG), induce adipose mitochondrial biogenesis. By systematically analyzing mitochondrial gene expression in two common murine adipocyte models, the current study aimed to further establish the direct role of RSG and capture temporal changes in gene transcription. Microarray profiling revealed that in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 and C3H/10T1/2 adipocytes treated with RSG or DMSO vehicle for 1, 2, 4, 7, 24, and 48 hrs, RSG overwhelmingly increased mitochondrial gene transcripts time dependently. The timing of the increases was consistent with the cascade of organelle biogenesis, that is, initiated by induction of transcription factor(s), followed by increases in the biosynthesis machinery, and then by increases in functional components. The transcriptional increases were further validated by increased mitochondrial staining, citrate synthase activity, and O(2) consumption, and were found to be associated with increased adiponectin secretion. The work provided further insight on the mechanism of PPARγ-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in differentiated adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/179454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195302PMC
November 2011

A rapid microtiter plate assay for measuring the effect of compounds on Staphylococcus aureus membrane potential.

J Microbiol Methods 2010 Nov 27;83(2):254-6. Epub 2010 Aug 27.

Antibacterial Discovery Performance Unit, Infectious Diseases Center of Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Collegeville, PA 19426, United States.

We developed a homogenous microtiter based assay using the cationic dye 3, 3'-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide, DiOC2(3), to measure the effect of compounds on membrane potential in Staphylococcus aureus. In a screen of 372 compounds from a synthetic compound collection with anti-Escherichia coli activity due to unknown modes of action at least 17% demonstrated potent membrane activity, enabling rapid discrimination of nuisance compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2010.08.012DOI Listing
November 2010

Cholestyramine reverses hyperglycemia and enhances glucose-stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 release in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010 Jul 22;334(1):164-70. Epub 2010 Apr 22.

Department of Biology, Metabolic Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) have shown antidiabetic effects in both humans and animals but the underlying mechanism is not clear. In the present study, we evaluated cholestyramine in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Although control ZDF rats had continuous increases in blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum glucose and a decrease in serum insulin throughout a 5-week study, the cholestyramine-treated ZDF rats showed a dose-dependent decrease and normalization in serum glucose and HbA1c. An oral glucose tolerance test showed a significant increase in glucose-stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and insulin release in rats treated with cholestyramine. Quantitative analysis of gene expression indicated that cholestyramine treatment decreased farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activity in the liver and the intestine without liver X receptor (LXR) activation in the liver. Moreover, a combination of an FXR agonist with cholestyramine did not reduce the antihyperglycemic effect over cholestyramine alone, suggesting that the FXR-small heterodimer partner-LXR pathway was not required for the glycemic effects of cholestyramine. In summary, our results demonstrated that cholestyramine could completely reverse hyperglycemia in ZDF rats through improvements in insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta-cell function. Enhancement in GLP-1 and PYY secretion is an important mechanism for BAS-mediated antidiabetic efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.110.166892DOI Listing
July 2010

Gene expression profiling indicates the roles of host oxidative stress, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and intracellular transport genes in the replication of hepatitis C virus.

J Virol 2010 May 3;84(10):5404-14. Epub 2010 Mar 3.

Department of Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St. Mary's Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease. The identification and characterization of key host cellular factors that play a role in the HCV replication cycle are important for the understanding of disease pathogenesis and the identification of novel antiviral therapeutic targets. Gene expression profiling of JFH-1-infected Huh7 cells by microarray analysis was performed to identify host cellular genes that are transcriptionally regulated by infection. The expression of host genes involved in cellular defense mechanisms (apoptosis, proliferation, and antioxidant responses), cellular metabolism (lipid and protein metabolism), and intracellular transport (vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton regulation) was significantly altered by HCV infection. The gene expression patterns identified provide insight into the potential mechanisms that contribute to HCV-associated pathogenesis. These include an increase in proinflammatory and proapoptotic signaling and a decrease in the antioxidant response pathways of the infected cell. To investigate whether any of the host genes regulated by infection were required by HCV during replication, small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of host gene expression in HCV-infected cells was performed. Decreasing the expression of host genes involved in lipid metabolism (TXNIP and CYP1A1 genes) and intracellular transport (RAB33b and ABLIM3 genes) reduced the replication and secretion of HCV, indicating that they may be important factors for the virus replication cycle. These results show that major changes in the expression of many different genes in target cells may be crucial in determining the outcome of HCV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02529-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2863852PMC
May 2010

ERRgamma regulates cardiac, gastric, and renal potassium homeostasis.

Mol Endocrinol 2010 Feb 4;24(2):299-309. Epub 2009 Dec 4.

Gene Expression Laboratory and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

Energy production by oxidative metabolism in kidney, stomach, and heart, is primarily expended in establishing ion gradients to drive renal electrolyte homeostasis, gastric acid secretion, and cardiac muscle contraction, respectively. In addition to orchestrating transcriptional control of oxidative metabolism, the orphan nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma), coordinates expression of genes central to ion homeostasis in oxidative tissues. Renal, gastric, and cardiac tissues subjected to genomic analysis of expression in perinatal ERRgamma null mice revealed a characteristic dysregulation of genes involved in transport processes, exemplified by the voltage-gated potassium channel, Kcne2. Consistently, ERRgamma null animals die during the first 72 h of life with elevated serum potassium, reductions in key gastric acid production markers, and cardiac arrhythmia with prolonged QT intervals. In addition, we find altered expression of several genes associated with hypertension in ERRgamma null mice. These findings suggest a potential role for genetic polymorphisms at the ERRgamma locus and ERRgamma modulators in the etiology and treatment of renal, gastric, and cardiac dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/me.2009-0114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2817599PMC
February 2010