Publications by authors named "Katie Sandison"

3 Publications

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Evaluation of the efficiency of tumor and tissue delivery of carrier-mediated agents (CMA) and small molecule (SM) agents in mice using a novel pharmacokinetic (PK) metric: relative distribution index over time (RDI-OT).

J Nanopart Res 2014 Nov;16(11)

Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) Eshelman School of Pharmacy, 120 Mason Farm Road, Suite 1013, CB 7361, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7361, USA.

The pharmacokinetics (PK) of carrier-mediated agents (CMA) is dependent upon the carrier system. As a result, CMA PK differs greatly from the PK of small molecule (SM) drugs. Advantages of CMAs over SMs include prolonged circulation time in plasma, increased delivery to tumors, increased antitumor response, and decreased toxicity. In theory, CMAs provide greater tumor drug delivery than SMs due to their prolonged plasma circulation time. We sought to create a novel PK metric to evaluate the efficiency of tumor and tissue delivery of CMAs and SMs. We conducted a study evaluating the plasma, tumor, liver, and spleen PK of CMAs and SMs in mice bearing subcutaneous flank tumors using standard PK parameters and a novel PK metric entitled relative distribution over time (RDI-OT), which measures efficiency of delivery. RDI-OT is defined as the ratio of tissue drug concentration to plasma drug concentration at each time point. The standard concentration versus time area under the curve values (AUC) of CMAs were higher in all tissues and plasma compared with SMs. However, 8 of 17 SMs had greater tumor RDI-OT AUC values than their CMA comparators and all SMs had greater tumor RDI-OT AUC values than their CMA comparators. Our results indicate that in mice bearing flank tumor xenografts, SMs distribute into tumor more efficiently than CMAs. Further research in additional tumor models that may more closely resemble tumors seen in patients is needed to determine if our results are consistent in different model systems.
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November 2014

Efficacy of Carboplatin Alone and in Combination with ABT888 in Intracranial Murine Models of BRCA-Mutated and BRCA-Wild-Type Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Mol Cancer Ther 2015 Apr;14(4):920-30

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Patients with breast cancer brain metastases have extremely limited survival and no approved systemic therapeutics. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) commonly metastasizes to the brain and predicts poor prognosis. TNBC frequently harbors BRCA mutations translating to platinum sensitivity potentially augmented by additional suppression of DNA repair mechanisms through PARP inhibition. We evaluated brain penetrance and efficacy of carboplatin ± the PARP inhibitor ABT888, and investigated gene-expression changes in murine intracranial TNBC models stratified by BRCA and molecular subtype status. Athymic mice were inoculated intracerebrally with BRCA-mutant: SUM149 (basal), MDA-MB-436 (claudin-low); or BRCA-wild-type (wt): MDA-MB-468 (basal), MDA-MB-231BR (claudin-low). TNBC cells were treated with PBS control [intraperitoneal (IP), weekly], carboplatin (50 mg/kg/wk, IP), ABT888 (25 mg/kg/d, oral gavage), or their combination. DNA damage (γ-H2AX), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3, cC3), and gene expression were measured in intracranial tumors. Carboplatin ± ABT888 significantly improved survival in BRCA-mutant intracranial models compared with control, but did not improve survival in BRCA-wt intracranial models. Carboplatin + ABT888 revealed a modest survival advantage versus carboplatin in BRCA-mutant models. ABT888 yielded a marginal survival benefit in the MDA-MB-436, but not in the SUM149 model. BRCA-mutant SUM149 expression of γ-H2AX and cC3 proteins was elevated in all treatment groups compared with control, whereas BRCA-wt MDA-MB-468 cC3 expression did not increase with treatment. Carboplatin treatment induced common gene-expression changes in BRCA-mutant models. Carboplatin ± ABT888 penetrates the brain and improves survival in BRCA-mutant intracranial TNBC models with corresponding DNA damage and gene-expression changes. Combination therapy represents a potential promising treatment strategy for patients with TNBC brain metastases warranting further clinical investigation.
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April 2015

Genetically engineered cancer models, but not xenografts, faithfully predict anticancer drug exposure in melanoma tumors.

Oncologist 2012 19;17(10):1303-16. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, 1013 Genetic Medicine Building, CB 7361, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7361, USA.

Background: Rodent studies are a vital step in the development of novel anticancer therapeutics and are used in pharmacokinetic (PK), toxicology, and efficacy studies. Traditionally, anticancer drug development has relied on xenograft implantation of human cancer cell lines in immunocompromised mice for efficacy screening of a candidate compound. The usefulness of xenograft models for efficacy testing, however, has been questioned, whereas genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) and orthotopic syngeneic transplants (OSTs) may offer some advantages for efficacy assessment. A critical factor influencing the predictability of rodent tumor models is drug PKs, but a comprehensive comparison of plasma and tumor PK parameters among xenograft models, OSTs, GEMMs, and human patients has not been performed.

Methods: In this work, we evaluated the plasma and tumor dispositions of an antimelanoma agent, carboplatin, in patients with cutaneous melanoma compared with four different murine melanoma models (one GEMM, one human cell line xenograft, and two OSTs).

Results: Using microdialysis to sample carboplatin tumor disposition, we found that OSTs and xenografts were poor predictors of drug exposure in human tumors, whereas the GEMM model exhibited PK parameters similar to those seen in human tumors.

Conclusions: The tumor PKs of carboplatin in a GEMM of melanoma more closely resembles the tumor disposition in patients with melanoma than transplanted tumor models. GEMMs show promise in becoming an improved prediction model for intratumoral PKs and response in patients with solid tumors.
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June 2013