Publications by authors named "Katie Bardsley"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Perfusion Culture System for Assessing Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Differentiation on PLGA Scaffolds for Bone Repair.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2018 15;6:161. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

AO Research Institute Davos, Davos, Switzerland.

Biomaterials development for bone repair is currently hindered by the lack of physiologically relevant testing systems. Here we describe the novel use of a bi-directional perfusion bioreactor to support the long term culture of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) differentiated on polylactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA). Primary human BMSCs were seeded onto porous PLGA scaffolds and cultured in static vs. perfusion culture conditions for 21 days in osteogenic vs. control media. PLGA scaffolds were osteoconductive, supporting a mature osteogenic phenotype as shown by the upregulation of Runx2 and the early osteocyte marker E11. Perfusion culture enhanced the expression of osteogenic genes Osteocalcin and Osteopontin. Extracellular matrix deposition and mineralisation were spatially regulated within PLGA scaffolds in a donor dependant manner. This, together with the observed upregulation of Collagen type X suggested an environment permissive for the study of differentiation pathways associated with both intramembranous and endochondral ossification routes of bone healing. This culture system offers a platform to assess BMSC behavior on candidate biomaterials under physiologically relevant conditions. Use of this system may improve our understanding of the environmental cues orchestrating BMSC differentiation and enable fine tuning of biomaterial design as we develop tissue-engineered strategies for bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2018.00161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262350PMC
November 2018

Current State-of-the-Art 3D Tissue Models and Their Compatibility with Live Cell Imaging.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;1035:3-18

Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 7QB, UK.

Mammalian cells grow within a complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment where multiple cells are organized and surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM). The quantity and types of ECM components, alongside cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions dictate cellular differentiation, proliferation and function in vivo. To mimic natural cellular activities, various 3D tissue culture models have been established to replace conventional two dimensional (2D) culture environments. Allowing for both characterization and visualization of cellular activities within possibly bulky 3D tissue models presents considerable challenges due to the increased thickness and subsequent light scattering features of such 3D models. In this chapter, state-of-the-art methodologies used to establish 3D tissue models are discussed, first with a focus on both scaffold-free and scaffold-based 3D tissue model formation. Following on, multiple 3D live cell imaging systems, mainly optical imaging modalities, are introduced. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed, with the aim of stimulating more research in this highly demanding research area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67358-5_1DOI Listing
March 2018

Fluorescent Labeling of Collagen Production by Cells for Noninvasive Imaging of Extracellular Matrix Deposition.

Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2017 04 24;23(4):228-236. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, School of Medicine, Keele University , Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom .

Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential component of tissues and provides both integrity and biological cues for cells. Collagen is one of the major proteins found within the ECM and therefore is an essential component of all engineered tissues. Therefore, in this article, we present a method for the online real-time monitoring of collagen deposition in three-dimensional engineered constructs. This method revolves around modification of collagen through the addition of azide-L-proline to cell culture media. The incorporation of azide-L-proline into the neocollagen produced by cells can then be detected by reaction with 10 mM of a Click-IT Alexa Fluor 488 DIBO Alkyne. The reaction was shown as being specific to the collagen as little background staining was observed in cultures, which did not contain the modified proline, and the staining was also depleted after treatment with collagenase and colocalization of collagen type I staining by immunochemistry assay. Real-time online staining of collagen deposition was observed under different culture conditions without affecting proliferation. Collagen deposition was observed to be increased under mechanical stimulation; however, the localization varied across stimulation regimes. This is a new technique for real-time monitoring of cell-produced collagen and will be a valuable addition to the tissue engineering field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.tec.2017.0008DOI Listing
April 2017

Repair of bone defects in vivo using tissue engineered hypertrophic cartilage grafts produced from nasal chondrocytes.

Biomaterials 2017 01 11;112:313-323. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, 19 Claremont Crescent, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, S10 2TA, UK. Electronic address:

The regeneration of large bone defects remains clinically challenging. The aim of our study was to use a rat model to use nasal chondrocytes to engineer a hypertrophic cartilage tissue which could be remodelled into bone in vivo by endochondral ossification. Primary adult rat nasal chondrocytes were isolated from the nasal septum, the cell numbers expanded in monolayer culture and the cells cultured in vitro on polyglycolic acid scaffolds in chondrogenic medium for culture periods of 5-10 weeks. Hypertrophic differentiation was assessed by determining the temporal expression of key marker genes and proteins involved in hypertrophic cartilage formation. The temporal changes in the genes measured reflected the temporal changes observed in the growth plate. Collagen II gene expression increased 6 fold by day 7 and was then significantly downregulated from day 14 onwards. Conversely, collagen X gene expression was detectable by day 14 and increased 100-fold by day 35. The temporal increase in collagen X expression was mirrored by increases in alkaline phosphatase gene expression which also was detectable by day 14 with a 30-fold increase in gene expression by day 35. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the engineered constructs showed increased chondrocyte cell volume (31-45 μm), deposition of collagen X in the extracellular matrix and expression of alkaline phosphatase activity. However, no cartilage mineralisation was observed in in vitro culture of up to 10 weeks. On subcutaneous implantation of the hypertrophic engineered constructs, the grafts became vascularised, cartilage mineralisation occurred and loss of the proteoglycan in the matrix was observed. Implantation of the hypertrophic engineered constructs into a rat cranial defect resulted in angiogenesis, mineralisation and remodelling of the cartilage tissue into bone. Micro-CT analysis indicated that defects which received the engineered hypertrophic constructs showed 38.48% in bone volume compared to 7.01% in the control defects. Development of tissue engineered hypertrophic cartilage to use as a bone graft substitute is an exciting development in regenerative medicine. This is a proof of principal study demonstrating the potential of nasal chondrocytes to engineer hypertrophic cartilage which will remodel into bone on in vivo transplantation. This approach to making engineered hypertrophic cartilage grafts could form the basis of a new potential future clinical treatment for maxillofacial reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.10.014DOI Listing
January 2017

Defining a turnover index for the correlation of biomaterial degradation and cell based extracellular matrix synthesis using fluorescent tagging techniques.

Acta Biomater 2016 11 2;45:133-142. Epub 2016 Sep 2.

Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, School of Medicine, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 7QB, UK. Electronic address:

Non-destructive protocols which can define a biomaterial's degradation and its associated ability to support proliferation and/or promote extracellular matrix deposition will be an essential in vitro tool. In this study we investigate fluorescently tagged biomaterials, with varying rates of degradation and their ability to support cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Changes in fluorescence of the biomaterials and the release of fluorescent soluble by-products were confirmed as accurate methods to quantify degradation. It was demonstrated that increasing rates of the selected biomaterials' degradation led to a decrease in cell proliferation and concurrently an increase in osteogenic matrix production. A novel turnover index (TI), which directly describes the effect of degradation of a biomaterial on cell behaviour, was calculated. Lower TIs for proliferation and high TIs for osteogenic marker production were observed on faster degrading biomaterials, indicating that these biomaterials supported an upregulation of osteogenic markers. This TI was further validated using an ex vivo chick femur model, where the faster degrading biomaterial, fibrin, led to an increased TI for mineralisation within an epiphyseal defect. This in vitro tool, TI, for monitoring the effect of biomaterial degradation on extracellular matrix production may well act as predictor of the selected biomaterials' performance during in vivo studies.

Statement Of Significance: This paper outlines a novel metric, Turnover Index (TI), which can be utilised in tissue-engineering for the comparison of a range of biomaterials. The metric sets out to define the relationship between the rate of degradation of biomaterials with the rate of cell proliferation and ECM synthesis, ultimately allowing us to tailor material for set clinical requirements. We have discovered some novel comparative findings that cells cultured on biomaterials with increased rates of degradation have lower rates of proliferation but alternatively have a greater production of osteogenic markers compared to materials which degrade slower. By making comparisons in a rigorous manner, we can begin to define a useful matrix for materials which ultimately may aid for clinical selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2016.09.002DOI Listing
November 2016

Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccination in elk. I. Efficacy of reduced dosage.

J Wildl Dis 2002 Jan;38(1):18-26

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Wyoming, 1174 Snowy Range Road, Laramie, Wyoming 82070, USA.

Bovine brucellosis is a serious zoonotic disease affecting some populations of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and bison (Bison bison) in the Greater Yellowstone Area, USA. The fear that elk and/or bison may spread Brucella abortus to livestock has prompted efforts to reduce or eliminate the disease in wildlife. Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccine has recently been approved for use in cattle. Unlike strain 19 vaccine, RB51 does not cause false positive reactions on standard brucellosis serologic tests. If effective, it may become the vaccine of choice for wildlife. In February 1995, 45 serologically negative female elk calves were trapped and taken to the Sybille Wildlife Research and Conservation Education Unit near Wheatland, Wyoming, USA. In May 1995, 16 of these elk calves were hand-vaccinated with 1 x 10(9) colony forming units (CFU) of RB51, 16 were vaccinated with 1 x 10(8) CFU RB51 by biobullet, and 13 were given a saline placebo. The elk were bred in fall of 1996 and they were challenged with 1 x 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308 by intraconjunctival inoculation in March 1997. Thirteen (100%) control elk aborted, 14 (88%) hand-vaccinated elk aborted, and 12 (75%) biobullet vaccinated elk aborted or produced nonviable calves. These results suggest that a single dose of 1 x 10(8) to 1 x 10(9) CFU RB51 does not provide significant protection against B. abortus induced abortion in elk. However, the vaccine appears to be safe at this dose and additional study may reveal a more effective RB51 vaccine regimen for elk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-38.1.18DOI Listing
January 2002