Publications by authors named "Kathy Rexrode"

6 Publications

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Genetic and lifestyle risk factors for MRI-defined brain infarcts in a population-based setting.

Neurology 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Objective: To explore genetic and lifestyle risk factors of MRI-defined brain infarcts (BI) in large population-based cohorts.

Methods: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and examined associations of vascular risk factors and their genetic risk scores (GRS) with MRI-defined BI and a subset of BI, namely, small subcortical BI (SSBI), in 18 population-based cohorts (n = 20,949) from 5 ethnicities (3,726 with BI, 2,021 with SSBI). Top loci were followed up in 7 population-based cohorts (n = 6,862; 1,483 with BI, 630 with SBBI), and we tested associations with related phenotypes including ischemic stroke and pathologically defined BI.

Results: The mean prevalence was 17.7% for BI and 10.5% for SSBI, steeply rising after age 65. Two loci showed genome-wide significant association with BI: FBN2, = 1.77 × 10; and LINC00539/ZDHHC20, = 5.82 × 10. Both have been associated with blood pressure (BP)-related phenotypes, but did not replicate in the smaller follow-up sample or show associations with related phenotypes. Age- and sex-adjusted associations with BI and SSBI were observed for BP traits ( value for BI, = 9.38 × 10; = 5.23 × 10 for hypertension), smoking ( = 4.4 × 10; = 1.2 × 10), diabetes ( = 1.7 × 10; = 2.8 × 10), previous cardiovascular disease ( = 1.0 × 10; = 2.3 × 10), stroke ( = 3.9 × 10; = 3.2 × 10), and MRI-defined white matter hyperintensity burden ( = 1.43 × 10; = 3.16 × 10), but not with body mass index or cholesterol. GRS of BP traits were associated with BI and SSBI ( ≤ 0.0022), without indication of directional pleiotropy.

Conclusion: In this multiethnic GWAS meta-analysis, including over 20,000 population-based participants, we identified genetic risk loci for BI requiring validation once additional large datasets become available. High BP, including genetically determined, was the most significant modifiable, causal risk factor for BI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000006851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369905PMC
January 2019

Pooled Analysis of Six Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Interventions for Vasomotor Symptoms.

Obstet Gynecol 2015 Aug;126(2):413-422

MsFLASH Data Coordinating Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the Group Health Research Institute, and the University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington; the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, and the Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California; the VA Medical Center/University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; the School of Nursing and the Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana; and the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: To describe the effects of six interventions for menopausal vasomotor symptoms relative to control in a pooled analysis, facilitating translation of the results for clinicians and symptomatic women. The Menopause Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers for Symptoms and Health network tested these interventions in three randomized clinical trials.

Methods: An analysis of pooled individual-level data from three randomized clinical trials is presented. Participants were 899 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with at least 14 bothersome vasomotor symptoms per week. Interventions included 10-20 mg escitalopram per day, nonaerobic yoga, aerobic exercise, 1.8 g per day omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, 0.5 mg low-dose oral 17-beta-estradiol (E2) per day, and 75 mg low-dose venlafaxine XR per day. The main outcome measures were changes from baseline in mean daily vasomotor symptom frequency and bother during 8-12 weeks of treatment. Linear regression models estimated differences in outcomes between each intervention and corresponding control group adjusted for baseline characteristics. Models included trial-specific intercepts, effects of the baseline outcome measure, and time.

Results: The 8-week reduction in vasomotor symptom frequency from baseline relative to placebo was similar for escitalopram at -1.4 per day (95% confidence interval [CI] -2.7 to -0.2), low-dose E2 at -2.4 (95% CI -3.4 to -1.3), and venlafaxine at -1.8 (95% CI -2.8 to -0.8); vasomotor symptom bother reduction was minimal and did not vary across these three pharmacologic interventions (mean -0.2 to -0.3 relative to placebo). No effects on vasomotor symptom frequency or bother were seen with aerobic exercise, yoga, or omega-3 supplements.

Conclusion: These analyses suggest that escitalopram, low-dose E2, and venlafaxine provide comparable, modest reductions in vasomotor symptom frequency and bother among women with moderate hot flushes.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00894543 (MsFLASH 01), NCT01178892 (MsFLASH 02), and NCT01418209 (MsFLASH 03).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000000927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4526122PMC
August 2015

Effects of estrogen and venlafaxine on menopause-related quality of life in healthy postmenopausal women with hot flashes: a placebo-controlled randomized trial.

Menopause 2015 Jun;22(6):607-15

From the 1Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente of Northern California, Oakland, CA; 2University of California, San Diego, CA; 3Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; 4Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; 5MsFLASH Coordinating Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 6School of Nursing, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN; 7Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA; 8Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 9Departments of Obstetrics/Gynecology and Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA; 10Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA; 11University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA; and 12VA Medical Center/University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effects of low-dose estradiol (E2) or venlafaxine on menopause-related quality of life and associated symptoms in healthy perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with hot flashes.

Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of low-dose oral 17β-E2 0.5 mg/day and venlafaxine XR 75 mg/day, versus identical placebo, was conducted among 339 women (aged 40-62 y) experiencing two or more vasomotor symptoms (VMS) per day (mean [SD], 8.07 [5.29]) who were recruited at three clinical sites from November 2011 to October 2012. The primary trial outcome, as reported previously, was frequency of VMS at 8 weeks. Here, we report on secondary endpoints of total and domain scores from the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and from measures of pain (Pain, Enjoyment in life, and General activity scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-7), and perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale).

Results: Treatment with both E2 and venlafaxine resulted in significantly greater improvement in quality of life, as measured by total MENQOL scores, compared with placebo (E2: mean difference at 8 wk, -0.4; 95% CI, -0.7 to -0.2; P < 0.001; venlafaxine: mean difference at 8 wk, -0.2; 95% CI, -0.5 to 0.0; P = 0.04). Quality-of-life domain analyses revealed that E2 had beneficial treatment effects on all domains of the MENQOL except for the psychosocial domain, whereas venlafaxine benefits were observed only in the psychosocial domain. Neither E2 nor venlafaxine improved pain, anxiety, or depressive symptoms, although baseline symptom levels were low. Modest benefits were observed for perceived stress with venlafaxine.

Conclusions: Both low-dose E2 and venlafaxine are effective pharmacologic agents for improving menopause-related quality of life in healthy women with VMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000000364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4610378PMC
June 2015

ABO blood group and risk of coronary heart disease in two prospective cohort studies.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2012 Sep 14;32(9):2314-20. Epub 2012 Aug 14.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Objective: Epidemiological data regarding the association between ABO blood groups and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been inconsistent. We sought to investigate the associations between ABO blood group and CHD risk in prospective cohort studies.

Methods And Results: Two large, prospective cohort studies (the Nurses' Health Study [NHS] including 62 073 women and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study [HPFS] including 27 428 men) were conducted with more than 20 years of follow-up (26 years in NHS and 24 years in HPFS). A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the associations from the present study and previous studies. In NHS, during 1 567 144 person-years of follow-up, 2055 participants developed CHD; in HPFS, 2015 participants developed CHD during 517 312 person-years of follow-up. ABO blood group was significantly associated with the risk of developing CHD in both women and men (log-rank test; P=0.0048 and 0.0002, respectively). In the combined analysis adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, compared with participants with blood group O, those with blood groups A, B, or AB were more likely to develop CHD (adjusted hazard ratios [95% CI] for incident CHD were 1.06 [0.99-1.15], 1.15 [1.04-1.26], and 1.23 [1.11-1.36], respectively). Overall, 6.27% of the CHD cases were attributable to inheriting a non-O blood group. Meta-analysis indicated that non-O blood group had higher risk of CHD (relative risk =1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.18; P=0.001) compared with O blood group.

Conclusions: These data suggest that ABO blood group is significantly associated with CHD risk. Compared with other blood groups, those with the blood type O have moderately lower risk of developing CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.248757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3488453PMC
September 2012

Dietary fat quality and risk of sudden cardiac death in women.

Am J Clin Nutr 2012 Sep 1;96(3):498-507. Epub 2012 Aug 1.

Center for Arrhythmia Prevention, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Dietary n-3 PUFAs are inversely associated with risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD); however, little is known about other fats and SCD. Furthermore, concerns have been raised that high n-6 PUFA intake may attenuate the benefits of n-3 PUFAs.

Objective: We examined associations and selected interactions between dietary fatty acids, expressed as a proportion of total fat and SCD.

Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study among 91,981 women aged 34-59 y from the Nurses' Health Study in 1980. Over 30 y, we documented 385 SCDs.

Results: In multivariable models, women in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of SFA intake had an RR of SCD of 1.44 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.98). Conversely, women in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of PUFA intake had an RR of SCD of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.78). Intakes of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs were both significantly associated with a lower risk of SCD, and n-6 PUFAs did not modify the association between n-3 PUFAs and SCD. MUFAs and trans fats were not associated with SCD risk. After further adjustment for coronary heart disease (CHD) and CHD risk factors potentially in the causal pathway, the association between PUFAs and SCD remained significant, whereas the association for SFAs was no longer significant.

Conclusions: Intake of PUFAs as a proportion of fat was inversely associated with SCD risk, independent of traditional CHD risk factors. These results support dietary guidelines to improve dietary fat quality by replacing intake of SFAs with n-6 and n-3 PUFAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.040287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3417213PMC
September 2012

Dietary intakes of flavonols and flavones and coronary heart disease in US women.

Am J Epidemiol 2007 Jun 22;165(11):1305-13. Epub 2007 Mar 22.

Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Dietary flavonols and flavones are subgroups of flavonoids that have been suggested to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The authors prospectively evaluated intakes of flavonols and flavones in relation to risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD in the Nurses' Health Study. They assessed dietary information from the study's 1990, 1994, and 1998 food frequency questionnaires and computed cumulative average intakes of flavonols and flavones. Cox proportional hazards regression with time-varying variables was used for analysis. During 12 years of follow-up (1990-2002), the authors documented 938 nonfatal myocardial infarctions and 324 CHD deaths among 66,360 women. They observed no association between flavonol or flavone intake and risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD. However, a weak risk reduction for CHD death was found among women with a higher intake of kaempferol, an individual flavonol found primarily in broccoli and tea. Women in the highest quintile of kaempferol intake relative to those in the lowest had a multivariate relative risk of 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.48, 0.93; p for trend = 0.04). The lower risk associated with kaempferol intake was probably attributable to broccoli consumption. These prospective data do not support an inverse association between flavonol or flavone intake and CHD risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwm016DOI Listing
June 2007