Publications by authors named "Kathy Q Zhu"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Functional genomics unique to week 20 post wounding in the deep cone/fat dome of the Duroc/Yorkshire porcine model of fibroproliferative scarring.

PLoS One 2011 Apr 20;6(4):e19024. Epub 2011 Apr 20.

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Background: Hypertrophic scar was first described over 100 years ago; PubMed has more than 1,000 references on the topic. Nevertheless prevention and treatment remains poor, because 1) there has been no validated animal model; 2) human scar tissue, which is impossible to obtain in a controlled manner, has been the only source for study; 3) tissues typically have been homogenized, mixing cell populations; and 4) gene-by-gene studies are incomplete.

Methodology/principal Findings: We have assembled a system that overcomes these barriers and permits the study of genome-wide gene expression in microanatomical locations, in shallow and deep partial-thickness wounds, and pigmented and non-pigmented skin, using the Duroc(pigmented fibroproliferative)/Yorkshire(non-pigmented non-fibroproliferative) porcine model. We used this system to obtain the differential transcriptome at 1, 2, 3, 12 and 20 weeks post wounding. It is not clear when fibroproliferation begins, but it is fully developed in humans and the Duroc breed at 20 weeks. Therefore we obtained the derivative functional genomics unique to 20 weeks post wounding. We also obtained long-term, forty-six week follow-up with the model.

Conclusions/significance: 1) The scars are still thick at forty-six weeks post wounding further validating the model. 2) The differential transcriptome provides new insights into the fibroproliferative process as several genes thought fundamental to fibroproliferation are absent and others differentially expressed are newly implicated. 3) The findings in the derivative functional genomics support old concepts, which further validates the model, and suggests new avenues for reductionist exploration. In the future, these findings will be searched for directed networks likely involved in cutaneous fibroproliferation. These clues may lead to a better understanding of the systems biology of cutaneous fibroproliferation, and ultimately prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scarring.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0019024PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3080398PMC
April 2011

Spatial and temporal localization of the melanocortin 1 receptor and its ligand α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone during cutaneous wound repair.

J Histochem Cytochem 2011 Mar 12;59(3):278-88. Epub 2011 Jan 12.

Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA.

Growing evidence indicates that the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and its ligand α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) have other functions in the skin in addition to pigment production. Activation of the MC1R/α-MSH signaling pathway has been implicated in the regulation of both inflammation and extracellular matrix homeostasis. However, little is known about the role of MC1R/α-MSH signaling in the regulation of inflammatory and fibroproliferative responses to cutaneous injury. Although MC1R and α-MSH localization has been described in uninjured skin, their spatial and temporal expression during cutaneous wound repair has not been investigated. In this study, the authors report the localization of MC1R and α-MSH in murine cutaneous wounds, human acute burns, and hypertrophic scars. During murine wound repair, MC1R and α-MSH were detected in inflammatory cells and suprabasal keratinocytes at the leading edge of the migrating epithelial tongue. MC1R and α-MSH protein levels were upregulated in human burn wounds and hypertrophic scars compared to uninjured human skin, where receptor and ligand were absent. In burn wounds and hypertrophic scars, MC1R and α-MSH localized to epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. This spatiotemporal localization of MC1R and α-MSH in cutaneous wounds warrants future investigation into the role of MC1R/α-MSH signaling in the inflammatory and fibroproliferative responses to cutaneous injury. This article contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1369/0022155410397999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3201153PMC
March 2011

Expression of collagen genes in the cones of skin in the Duroc/Yorkshire porcine model of fibroproliferative scarring.

J Burn Care Res 2008 Sep-Oct;29(5):815-27

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.

During the past decades there has been minimal improvement in prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scarring. Reasons include the lack of a validated animal model, imprecise techniques to dissect scar into the histologic components, and limited methodology for measurement of gene expression. These problems have been addressed with the Duroc/Yorkshire model of healing, laser capture microdissection, and the Affymetrix Porcine GeneChip. Here we compared collagen gene expression in fibroproliferative healing in the Duroc breed to nonfibroproliferative healing in the Yorkshires. We made shallow and deep dorsal wounds, biopsied at 1, 2, 3, 12, and 20 weeks. We sampled the dermal cones by laser capture microdissection, extracted and amplified the RNA, and hybridized Affymetrix Porcine GeneChips. We also obtained samples of human hypertrophic scar approximately 20 weeks postinjury. Data were normalized and statistical analysis performed with mixed linear regression using the Bioconductor R/maanova package. Genes for further analysis were also restricted with four biologic criteria, including that the 20-week deep Duroc expression match the human samples. Eleven collagen genes and seven collagen types were differentially over expressed in deep Duroc wounds including 1a1, 1a2, 3a1, 4a1, 4a2, 5a1, 5a2, 5a3, 6a3 (transcript variant 5), 14a1 and 15a1. COL7a1 gene was differentially under expressed in deep Duroc wounds. The results suggest that collagens I, III, IV, V, VI, VII, XIV, and XV [corrected] are involved in the process of fibroproliferative scarring. With these clues, we will attempt to construct the regulatory pathway(s) of fibroproliferative healing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b013e3181848141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2853751PMC
January 2009

Review of the female Duroc/Yorkshire pig model of human fibroproliferative scarring.

Wound Repair Regen 2007 Sep-Oct;15 Suppl 1:S32-9

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA.

Hypertrophic scarring after burns is an unsolved problem and remains as devastating today as it was in the 40s and it may be that the main reason for this is the lack of an accepted, useful animal model. The female, red Duroc pig was described as a model of hypertrophic scarring nearly 30 years ago but then vanished from the literature. This seemed strange since the authors reported that 12 of 12 pigs developed thick scar. In the mid 90s we explored the model and found that, indeed, the red Duroc pig does make thick scar. Other authors have established that the Yorkshire pig does not heal in this fashion so there is the possibility of a same species control. We have continued to explore the Duroc/Yorkshire model and herein describe our experiences. Is it a perfect model of hypertrophic scarring? No. Is it a useful model of hypertrophic scarring? Time will tell. We have now obtained gene expression data from the Duroc/Yorkshire model and analysis is underway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-475X.2007.00223.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2886711PMC
January 2008

The microvasculature in cutaneous wound healing in the female red Duroc pig is similar to that in human hypertrophic scars and different from that in the female Yorkshire pig.

J Burn Care Res 2007 May-Jun;28(3):500-6

Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital, The Fourth-affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, PR China.

The female red Duroc pig has been found to be a promising model of hypertrophic scarring. The female Yorkshire pig has been demonstrated to heal in a very different manner, more resembling human normotrophic scarring. Given these observations, we studied microvessel density, an important aspect of wound healing, in human hypertrophic scars and the scars of the female Duroc and Yorkshire pigs. We studied microvessel density in uninjured skin; hypertrophic scars at 6 months or less, 7 to 12, and longer than 12 months; female Duroc tissues at 3 weeks and 3 and 5 months; and similar Yorkshire tissue, including uninjured skin and shallow and deep wounds. Antifactor VIII-related antigen was used to mark the endothelial cells. Computed assessment of microvessel density was used to quantify the microvasculature. In human hypertrophic scars, the microvessels were increased dramatically, and microvessel density and area were significantly elevated. We found similar results in the Duroc tissues at 5 months after deep wounding. In contrast, we found far less microvasculature and, at 5 months, the values had returned to normal in the Yorkshire tissues. This quantitative study of microvessel density further validates the female Duroc pig as an animal model of hypertrophic scarring and the female Yorkshire pig as a control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0B013E318053DAFEDOI Listing
October 2007

Histology of the thick scar on the female, red Duroc pig: final similarities to human hypertrophic scar.

Burns 2006 Sep 14;32(6):669-77. Epub 2006 Aug 14.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

The etiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar remain puzzles even after decades of research. A significant reason is the lack of an accepted animal model of the process. The female, red Duroc pig model was described long ago. Since the skin of the pig is similar to that of humans, we are attempting to validate this model and found it to be encouraging. In this project we quantified myofibroblasts, mast cells and collagen nodules in the thick scar of the Duroc pig and compared these to the values for human hypertrophic scar. We found the results to be quite similar and so further validated the model. In addition, we observed that soon after wounding an inflammatory cell layer forms. The thickness of the inflammatory layer approaches the thickness of the skin removed as if the remaining dermis "knows" how much dermis is gone. In deep wounds this inflammatory layer thickens and this thickness is predictive of the thickness of the ultimate scar.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2006.03.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2878281PMC
September 2006

Substance P levels and neutral endopeptidase activity in acute burn wounds and hypertrophic scar.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2005 Apr;115(4):1095-102

Department of Surgery and the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash, USA.

Background: Substance P, a cutaneous neuroinflammatory mediator released from peripheral nerves, plays a role in responses to injury. Neutral endopeptidase is a cell membrane-bound metallopeptidase enzyme that regulates substance P activity. The question of substance P involvement in hypertrophic scar development has been based on observations that hypertrophic scars have increased numbers of nerves. The authors hypothesized that hypertrophic scar has greater substance P levels and decreased neutral endopeptidase activity compared with uninjured skin and acute partial-thickness burns, which may contribute to an exuberant response to injury.

Methods: The authors obtained small skin samples of deep partial-thickness burns (n = 7; postburn days 7 to 78) and uninjured skin (n = 14) from patients (eight male patients and six female patients; 2 to 71 years old) undergoing burn wound excision. Hypertrophic scar samples were obtained from six patients (three male patients and three female patients; 8 to 47 years old) undergoing surgical excision 13 to 64 months after burn injury. Protein concentrations were determined using a bicinchoninic acid assay. Substance P concentration was determined by means of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutral endopeptidase activity was measured using an enzymatic assay that quantifies a fluorescent degradation product, methoxy-2-naphthylamine (MNA). Substance P and neutral endopeptidase data were standardized to sample weight.

Results: Substance P levels were greater in hypertrophic scar (3506 pg/g) compared with uninjured skin (1698 pg/g; p < 0.03) and burned skin (958 pg/g; p < 0.01). Hypertrophic scar samples had decreased neutral endopeptidase enzyme activity (8.8 pM MNA/hour/microg) compared with normal skin (16.3 pM MNA/hour/microg; p < 0.05). Acute burn wounds (27.9 pM MNA/hour/microg) demonstrated increased neutral endopeptidase enzyme activity (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Increased substance P concentration in hypertrophic scar correlates with histologic findings of increased nerve numbers in hypertrophic scar samples. Decreased neutral endopeptidase enzyme activity in hypertrophic scar may contribute to increased available substance P that may result in an exuberant neuroinflammatory response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000156151.54042.daDOI Listing
April 2005

Changes in VEGF and nitric oxide after deep dermal injury in the female, red Duroc pig-further similarities between female, Duroc scar and human hypertrophic scar.

Burns 2005 Feb;31(1):5-10

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington, Harborview Medical Center, Box 359796, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA, USA.

Despite decades of research, our understanding of human hypertrophic scar is limited. A reliable animal model could significantly increase our understanding. We previously confirmed similarities between scarring in the female, red, Duroc pig and human hypertrophic scarring. The purpose of this study was to: (1) measure vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in wounds on the female Duroc; and (2) to compare the NO levels to those reported for human hypertrophic scar. Shallow and deep wounds were created on four female Durocs. VEGF levels were measured using ELISA and NO levels with the Griess reagent. VEGF and NO levels were increased in deep wounds at 10 days when compared to shallow wounds (p < 0.05). At 15 weeks, VEGF and NO levels had returned to the level of shallow wounds. At 21 weeks, VEGF and NO levels had declined below baseline levels in deep wounds and the NO levels were significantly lower (p < 0.01). We found that VEGF and NO exhibit two distinctly different temporal patterns in shallow and deep wounds on the female Durocs. Furthermore, NO is decreased in female, Duroc scar as it is in human, hypertrophic scar further validating the usefulness of the model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2004.08.010DOI Listing
February 2005

Further similarities between cutaneous scarring in the female, red Duroc pig and human hypertrophic scarring.

Burns 2004 Sep;30(6):518-30

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Mailstop 359796, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.

Knowledge of the pathophysiology of hypertrophic scarring following deep dermal injuries is minimal due to the lack of an animal model. We previously confirmed that thick scars in female, red Duroc pigs (FRDP) are similar to human hypertrophic scar. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TGFbeta1, IGF-1, decorin, and versican expression in FRDP wounds. Deep and shallow wounds on the backs of two FRDPs were studied over 5 months. Immunohistochemistry was performed for TGFbeta1, IGF-1, decorin, and versican. TGFbeta1 and IGF-1 mRNA were evaluated by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. In shallow wounds (1) TGFbeta1 protein was not detectable and IGF-1 protein was seen at 10 days post-wounding. TGFbeta1 and IGF-1 mRNA were elevated for 30 days. (2) Decorin protein was not detected at 10th day, but returned to levels of uninjured skin. (3) Versican protein was not detectable at any time. In deep wounds, (1) TGFbeta1 and IGF-1 protein and mRNA were elevated early, (2) decorin protein was greatly reduced for the first 90 days, and (3) versican protein was present from 30 to 150 days. These findings correlate with findings reported in the literature for human hypertrophic scar and further validate the FRDP model of hypertrophic scarring.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2004.02.005DOI Listing
September 2004

Nerve quantification in female red Duroc pig (FRDP) scar compared to human hypertrophic scar.

Burns 2004 Feb;30(1):57-64

Nan Shan People's Hospital, ShenZhen, China.

A significant impediment to studying hypertrophic scar is the lack of an animal model. We have confirmed similarities between scarring in the female red Duroc pig (FRDP) and human hypertrophic scar and conclude that this model warrants validation. Reports have suggested that the cutaneous nervous system may play a role in hypertrophic scar development and several studies have shown nerve density in hypertrophic scar to be increased. The purpose of this study was to further validate the FRDP model of hypertrophic scar by quantifying nerves in FRDP tissue and comparing the findings to human hypertrophic scar. Wounds of varying depth were created on the backs of two FRDP and tissue samples were harvested at 10 days, 1 month and 5 months post-wounding. Human specimens were obtained from six burn patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed and digital images were captured. Color subtractive computer-assisted image analysis was used to quantify nerve density and nerve area fraction. The results demonstrate that nerve tissue is increased in FRDP scar tissue and is quite similar to that in human hypertrophic scar and to that described in the literature. These data provide additional evidence that the FRDP model may be useful for studying hypertrophic scarring.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2003.09.004DOI Listing
February 2004

The female, red Duroc pig as an animal model of hypertrophic scarring and the potential role of the cones of skin.

Burns 2003 Nov;29(7):649-64

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, 98104, Seattle, WA, USA.

Hypertrophic scarring occurs after deep dermal wounds. Our understanding of the etiology is poor; one reason is the lack of an animal model. In 1972, Silverstein described scarring in the Duroc pig but the model was never confirmed nor disproved. Another reason, as we previously suggested, is that hypertrophic scarring only occurs within regions of human skin that contain cones and the cones have not been studied in relation to hypertrophic scarring. We, therefore (i) explored healing in the female, red Duroc model for similarities to human hypertrophic scarring, studying wound thickness, appearance, healing status at 3 weeks, histology, and immunocytochemical localization of decorin, versican, TGFbeta1 and IGF-1; and (ii) examined Duroc skin for cones. We found that healing after deep wounds in Duroc pigs is similar, but not identical, to human hypertrophic scarring. We also found that Duroc skin contains cones. Healing in the female, red Duroc pig is sufficiently similar to human hypertrophic scarring to warrant further study so that it can be accepted or rejected as a model of human hypertrophic scarring. In addition, the relationship of the cones to hypertrophic scarring needs further detail and can be studied in this model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0305-4179(03)00205-5DOI Listing
November 2003
-->