Publications by authors named "Kathryn R Starr"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors exhibit anticonvulsant properties in the rat maximal electroshock threshold (MEST) test.

Brain Res 2010 May 18;1331:105-13. Epub 2010 Mar 18.

Department of Biology, Neurosciences Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline plc, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Ave., Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

Glycine can act as either an inhibitory neurotransmitter or as a potentiator of NMDA-dependent excitatory neurotransmission. There is some evidence that glycine can have both pro- and anticonvulsant properties in various rodent models of epilepsy. In the present study we tested several glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors including NFPS, SSR 504734, Lu AA21279, Org 25935, SB-710622, GSK931145, as well as the glycine agonist d-serine, in the maximal electroshock threshold (MEST) test in the rat. In a series of experiments, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12/group) were pre-treated with a compound of interest and then received an electric shock delivered via corneal electrodes. A cohort of satellite animals (n=3/group) was also used to measure blood and brain levels of Org 25935. All GlyT1 inhibitors increased seizure thresholds dose-dependently, indicative of anticonvulsant activity. SB-710622 and GSK931145 had lower minimum effective doses (MEDs) in the MEST test than other GlyT1 inhibitors. At estimated t(max), increases in dose administered were paralleled by increases in blood and brain concentrations of Org 25935. Thus, increasing extracellular concentration of glycine via inhibition of its uptake protects from electroshock-induced seizures in the rat. Whether strychnine-sensitive or strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites are involved in this effect remains to be determined.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.03.032DOI Listing
May 2010

Novel 5-HT(1A/1B/1D) receptors antagonists with potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitory activity.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008 Oct 3;18(20):5581-5. Epub 2008 Sep 3.

Neurosciences CEDD, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

Novel 2-methyl-5-quinolinyl-1-piperazinylalkyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones showing high affinities for the 5-HT(1A/1B/1D) receptors coupled with potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitory activity have been discovered. This is the first report describing docking of the lead compound 6-{2-[4-(2-methyl-5-quinolinyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl}-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one 1, into a model of the 5-HT transporter and the 5-HT(1A) receptor model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.08.110DOI Listing
October 2008

Discovery of potent, orally bioavailable, selective 5-HT1A/B/D receptor antagonists.

J Med Chem 2008 May 24;51(10):2887-90. Epub 2008 Apr 24.

Psychiatry Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery and Molecular Discovery Research, GlaxoSmithKline, Essex, UK.

5-HT1 receptor antagonists have been discovered with good selectivity over the 5-HT transporter. This is the first report of highly potent, selective ligands for the 5-HT1A/B/D receptors with low intrinsic activity, which represent a useful set of molecules for further understanding the roles of the 5-HT1 receptor subtypes and providing new approaches for the treatment of depression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm8001444DOI Listing
May 2008

Evaluation of the mGlu8 receptor as a putative therapeutic target in schizophrenia.

Brain Res 2007 Jun 15;1152:215-27. Epub 2007 Mar 15.

Psychiatry Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, New Frontiers Science Park North, Harlow, Essex, UK.

Aberrant glutamatergic neurotransmission may underlie the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been implicated in the disease. We have established the localization of the group III mGluR subtype, mGluR8, in the human body and investigated the biological effects of the selective mGluR8 agonist (S)-3,4-dicarboxyphenylglycine ((S)-3,4-DCPG) in schizophrenia-related animal models. The mGlu8 receptor has a widespread CNS distribution with expression observed in key brain regions associated with schizophrenia pathogenesis including the hippocampus. (S)-3,4-DCPG inhibited synaptic transmission and increased paired-pulse facilitation in rat hippocampal slices supporting the role of mGluR8 as a presynaptic autoreceptor. Using the rat Maximal Electroshock Seizure Threshold (MEST) test, (S)-3,4-DCPG (30 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced seizure activity confirming the compound to be centrally active following systemic administration. (S)-3,4-DCPG did not reverse (locomotor) hyperactivity induced by acute administration of phenylcyclidine (PCP, 1-32 mg/kg, i.p.) or amphetamine (3-30 mg/kg, i.p.) in Sprague-Dawley rats. However, 10 nmol (i.c.v.) (S)-3.4-DCPG did reverse amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in mice although it also inhibited spontaneous locomotor activity at this dose. In addition, mGluR8 null mutant mouse behavioral phenotyping revealed an anxiety-related phenotype but no deficit in sensorimotor gating. These data provide a potential role for mGluR8 in anxiety and suggest that mGluR8 may not be a therapeutic target for schizophrenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2007.03.028DOI Listing
June 2007

SB-649915-B, a novel 5-HT1A/B autoreceptor antagonist and serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is anxiolytic and displays fast onset activity in the rat high light social interaction test.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2007 Oct 14;32(10):2163-72. Epub 2007 Mar 14.

Schizophrenia and Bipolar Research, Psychiatry Centre of Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

Preclinically, the combination of an SSRI and 5-HT autoreceptor antagonist has been shown to reduce the time to onset of anxiolytic activity compared to an SSRI alone. In accordance with this, clinical data suggest the coadministration of an SSRI and (+/-) pindolol can decrease the time to onset of anxiolytic/antidepressant activity. Thus, the dual-acting novel SSRI and 5-HT(1A/B) receptor antagonist, SB-649915-B, has been assessed in acute and chronic preclinical models of anxiolysis. SB-649915-B (0.1-1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced ultrasonic vocalization in male rat pups separated from their mothers (ED(50) of 0.17 mg/kg). In the marmoset human threat test SB-649915-B (3.0 and 10 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly reduced the number of postures with no effect on locomotion. In the rat high light social interaction (SI), SB-649915-B (1.0-7.5 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and paroxetine (3.0 mg/kg, once daily) were orally administered for 4, 7, and 21 days. Ex vivo inhibition of [(3)H]5-HT uptake was also measured following SI. SB-649915-B and paroxetine had no effect on SI after 4 days. In contrast to paroxetine, SB-649915-B (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, p.o., t.i.d.) significantly (p<0.05) increased SI time with no effect on locomotion, indicative of an anxiolytic-like profile on day 7. Anxiolysis was maintained after chronic (21 days) administration by which time paroxetine also increased SI significantly. 5-HT uptake was inhibited by SB-649915-B at all time points to a similar magnitude as that seen with paroxetine. In conclusion, SB-649915-B is acutely anxiolytic and reduces the latency to onset of anxiolytic behavior compared to paroxetine in the SI model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1301341DOI Listing
October 2007

Simultaneous blockade of 5-HT1A/B receptors and 5-HT transporters results in acute increases in extracellular 5-HT in both rats and guinea pigs: in vivo characterization of the novel 5-HT1A/B receptor antagonist/5-HT transport inhibitor SB-649915-B.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2007 May 30;192(1):121-33. Epub 2007 Jan 30.

Psychiatry Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park (North), Harlow, Essex, CM19 5AW, UK.

Rationale: The delay in onset and treatment resistance of subpopulations of depressed patients to conventional serotonin reuptake inhibitors has lead to new drug development strategies to produce agents with improved antidepressant efficacy.

Objectives: We report the in vivo characterization of the novel 5-HT(1A/1B) autoreceptor antagonist/5-HT transporter inhibitor (6-[(1-{2-[(2-methyl-5-quinolinyl)oxy]ethyl}-4-piperidinyl)methyl]-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one), SB-649915-B.

Materials And Methods: Ex vivo binding was used to ascertain 5-HT(1A) receptor and serotonin transporter occupancy. 8-OH-DPAT-induced hyperlocomotion and SKF-99101-induced elevation of seizure threshold were used as markers of central blockade of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors, respectively. In vivo electrophysiology in the rat dorsal raphe and microdialysis in freely moving guinea pigs and rats were used to evaluate the functional outcome of SB-649915-B.

Results: SB-649915-B (1-10 mg/kg p.o.) produced a dose-related inhibition of 5-HT(1A) receptor radioligand binding and inhibited ex vivo [(3)H]5-HT uptake in both guinea pig and rat cortex. SB-649915-B (0.1-10 mg/kg p.o.) reversed both 8-OH-DPAT-induced hyperlocomotor activity and SKF-99101-induced elevation of seizure threshold in the rat, demonstrating in vivo blockade of both 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors, respectively. SB-649915-B (0.1-3 mg/kg i.v.) produced no change in raphe 5-HT neuronal cell firing per se but attenuated the inhibitory effect of 8-OH-DPAT. Acute administration of SB-649915-B resulted in increases (approximately two- to threefold) in extracellular 5-HT in the cortex of rats and the dentate gyrus and cortex of guinea pigs.

Conclusions: Based on these data, one may speculate that the 5-HT autoreceptor antagonist/5-HT transport inhibitor SB-649915-B will have therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of affective disorders with the potential for a faster onset of action compared to current selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-006-0691-xDOI Listing
May 2007

3,4-Dihydro-2H-benzoxazinones as dual-acting 5-HT1A receptor antagonists and serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2007 Feb 15;17(4):1033-6. Epub 2006 Nov 15.

Psychiatry Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

Investigation of halogen substitution in lead compound 1 has led to the identification of analogues which combine high affinity for 5-HT(1A) receptors and potent serotonin reuptake inhibitory activity. Several compounds show an improved selectivity over 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors and a superior pharmacokinetic profile in the rat.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.11.031DOI Listing
February 2007

Characterisation of the selective 5-HT1B receptor antagonist SB-616234-A (1-[6-(cis-3,5-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5-methoxyindol-1-yl]-1-[2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methanone hydrochloride): in vivo neurochemical and behavioural evidence of anxiolytic/antidepressant activity.

Neuropharmacology 2006 Jun 31;50(8):975-83. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

Psychiatry Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park (North), 3rd Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

The 5-HT1B receptor has attracted significant interest as a potential target for the development of therapeutics for the treatment of affective disorders such as anxiety and depression. Here we present the in vivo characterisation of a novel, selective and orally bioavailable 5-HT1B receptor antagonist, SB-616234-A (1-[6-(cis-3,5-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5-methoxyindol-1-yl]-1-[2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methanone hydrochloride). SB-616234-A reversed the 5-HT1/7 receptor agonist, SKF-99101H-induced hypothermia in guinea pigs in a dose related manner with an ED50 of 2.4 mg/kg p.o. Using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving guinea pigs, SB-616234-A (3-30 mg/kg p.o.) caused a dose-related increase in extracellular 5-HT in the dentate gyrus. Evaluation of antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of this 5-HT1B receptor antagonist was performed in a variety of models and species. SB-616234-A produced a decrease in immobility time in the mouse forced swim test; an effect suggestive of antidepressant activity. Furthermore, SB-616234-A produced dose-related anxiolytic effects in both rat and guinea pig maternal separation-induced vocalisation models with an ED50 of 1.0 and 3.3 mg/kg i.p., respectively (vs fluoxetine treatment ED50 = 2.2 mg/kg i.p. in both species). Also a significant reduction in posturing behaviours was observed in the human threat test in marmosets; an effect indicative of anxiolytic activity. In summary, SB-616234-A is a novel, potent and orally bioavailable 5-HT1B receptor antagonist which exhibits a neurochemical and behavioural profile that is consistent with both anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like activity in a variety of species. Taken together these data suggest that SB-616234-A may have therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of affective disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2006.01.010DOI Listing
June 2006

SB-616234-A (1-[6-(cis-3,5-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5-methoxyindol-1-yl]-1-[2'methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,3-oxadiazol-3-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methanone hydrochloride): a novel, potent and selective 5-HT1B receptor antagonist.

Neuropharmacology 2006 Jun 20;50(8):984-90. Epub 2006 Mar 20.

Department of Biology, Psychiatry Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, Harlow, Essex, UK.

SB-616234-A possesses high affinity for human 5-HT1B receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (pKi 8.3+/-0.2), and is over 100-fold selective for a range of molecular targets except h5-HT1) receptors (pKi 6.6+/-0.1). Similarly, affinity (pKi) for rat and guinea pig striatal 5-HT1B receptors is 9.2+/-0.1. In [35S]-GTPgammaS binding studies in the human recombinant cell line, SB-616234-A acted as a high affinity antagonist with a pA2 value of 8.6+/-0.2 whilst providing no evidence of agonist activity in this system. In [35S]-GTPgammaS binding studies in rat striatal membranes, SB-616234-A acted as a high affinity antagonist with an apparent pKB of 8.4+/-0.5, again whilst providing no evidence of agonist activity in this system. SB-616234-A (1 microM) potentiated electrically stimulated [3H]-5-HT release from guinea pig and rat cortical slices (S2/S1) ratios of 1.8 and 1.6, respectively). SB-616234-A (0.3-30 mg kg(-1) p.o.) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of ex vivo [3H]-GR125743 binding to rat striatal 5-HT1B receptors with an ED50 of 2.83+/-0.39 mg kg(-1) p.o. Taken together these data suggest that SB-616234-A is a potent and selective 5-HT(1B) autoreceptor antagonist that occupies central 5-HT1B receptors in vivo following oral administration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2006.01.008DOI Listing
June 2006

Effects of the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone on plasma prolactin levels in male rats: a comparison with clinical data.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2006 Jan 7;184(1):107-14. Epub 2005 Dec 7.

Psychiatry Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline plc, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Ave., CM19 5AW Harlow, Essex, UK.

Rationale: Hyperprolactinaemia is a common side effect of antipsychotic treatment and the clinical consequences associated with this, e.g. sexual dysfunction, can have a negative impact on patient compliance.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone on prolactin levels in rats using different treatment regimes and to compare these data with those reported clinically.

Methods: All experiments were carried out in male CD rats. In separate studies, the effects of acute, sub-chronic (7 days) and chronic (28 days) olanzapine and risperidone administration on prolactin levels were determined. Further studies investigated the time course of the prolactin response following olanzapine and risperidone treatment over 24 h.

Results: Both drugs significantly increased prolactin levels in a similar manner following acute administration, in keeping with clinically reported data. However, this elevation was still present following sub-chronic and chronic treatment, contrasting with clinical data with respect to olanzapine but not risperidone. Over 24 h, olanzapine demonstrated a more transient elevation of prolactin levels, whereas risperidone caused a robust and persistent increase in prolactin up to 24 h post-dose, closely mimicking clinical results.

Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated that olanzapine and risperidone display similar effects on prolactin levels in the rat following acute and chronic administration but differ in their prolactin response over a 24-h period. In conclusion, prolactin levels in rats following atypical antipsychotic treatment may not be fully predictive of the clinical situation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-005-0230-1DOI Listing
January 2006

A series of bisaryl imidazolidin-2-ones has shown to be selective and orally active 5-HT2C receptor antagonists.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005 Nov;15(22):4989-93

Psychiatry Centre of Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithkline Pharmaceuticals, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

Bisaryl cyclic ureas have been identified as high affinity 5-HT2C receptor antagonists with selectivity over 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B. Compounds such as 8 and 22 have shown oral activity in a centrally mediated pharmacodynamic model of 5-HT2C function in rodents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2005.08.004DOI Listing
November 2005

Neurochemical evaluation of the novel 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist/serotonin reuptake inhibitor, vilazodone.

Eur J Pharmacol 2005 Mar;510(1-2):49-57

Neuropharmacology Research, Psychiatry CEDD, Glaxo Smith Kline, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex, CM19 5AW, UK.

Vilazodone has been reported to be an inhibitor of 5-hydoxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake and a partial agonist at 5-HT1A receptors. Using [35S]GTPgammaS binding in rat hippocampal tissue, vilazodone was demonstrated to have an intrinsic activity comparable to the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT). Vilazodone (1-10 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently displaced in vivo [3H]DASB (N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)benzylamine) binding from rat cortex and hippocampus, indicating that vilazodone occupies 5-HT transporters in vivo. Using in vivo microdialysis, vilazodone (10 mg/kg p.o.) was demonstrated to cause a 2-fold increase in extracellular 5-HT but no change in noradrenaline or dopamine levels in frontal cortex of freely moving rats. In contrast, administration of 8-OH-DPAT (0.3 mg/kg s.c.), either alone or in combination with a serotonin specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; paroxetine, 3 mg/kg p.o.), produced no increase in cortical 5-HT whilst increasing noradrenaline and dopamine 2 and 4 fold, respectively. A 2-fold increase in extracellular 5-HT levels (but no change in noradrenaline or dopamine levels) was observed after combination of the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide) (WAY-100635; 0.3 mg/kg s.c.) and paroxetine (3 mg/kg p.o.). In summary, vilazodone behaved as a high efficacy partial agonist at the rat hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in vitro and occupied 5-HT transporters in vivo. In vivo vilazodone induced a selective increase in extracellular levels of 5-HT in the rat frontal cortex. This profile was similar to that seen with a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist plus an SSRI but in contrast to 8-OH-DPAT either alone or in combination with paroxetine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.01.018DOI Listing
March 2005

3,4-Dihydro-2H-benzoxazinones are 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists with potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitory activity.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005 Feb;15(3):737-41

Psychiatry Center of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

Starting from a high throughput screening hit, a series of 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzoxazinones has been identified with both high affinity for the 5-HT(1A) receptor and potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitory activity. The 5-(2-methyl)quinolinyloxy derivative combined high 5-HT(1A/1B/1D) receptor affinities with low intrinsic activity and potent inhibition of the 5-HT reuptake site (pK(i)8.2). This compound also had good oral bioavailability and brain penetration in the rat.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2004.11.030DOI Listing
February 2005