Publications by authors named "Kathryn Kolibaba"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Bintrafusp alfa (M7824), a bifunctional fusion protein targeting TGF-β and PD-L1: results from a phase I expansion cohort in patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

Neurooncol Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;3(1):vdab058. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Austin Brain Tumor Center, Austin, Texas, USA.

Background: For patients with recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM), there are few options following treatment failure with radiotherapy plus temozolomide. Bintrafusp alfa is a first-in-class bifunctional fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of the TGF-βRII receptor (a TGF-β "trap") fused to a human IgG1 antibody blocking PD-L1.

Methods: In this phase I, open-label expansion cohort (NCT02517398), patients with rGBM that progressed after radiotherapy plus temozolomide received bintrafusp alfa 1200 mg Q2W until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or trial withdrawal. Response was assessed per RANO criteria. The primary endpoint was disease control rate (DCR); secondary endpoints included safety.

Results: As of August 24, 2018, 35 patients received bintrafusp alfa for a median of 1.8 (range, 0.5-20.7) months. Eight patients (22.9%) experienced disease control as assessed by an independent review committee: 2 had a partial response, 4 had stable disease, and 2 had non-complete response/non-progressive disease. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.6) months; 6- and 12-month PFS rates were 15.1% and 11.3%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 5.3 (95% CI, 2.6-9.4) months; 6- and 12-month OS rates were 44.5% and 30.8%, respectively. The DCR (95% CI) was 66.7% (22.3-95.7%) for patients with -mutant GBM ( = 6) and 13.8% (3.9-31.7%) for patients with -wild-type GBM ( = 29). Disease control was seen regardless of PD-L1 expression. Twenty-five patients (71.4%) experienced treatment-related adverse events (grade ≥3; 17.1% [ = 6]).

Conclusions: The percentage of patients achieving disease control and the manageable safety profile may warrant further investigation of bintrafusp alfa in GBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdab058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156979PMC
April 2021

Ublituximab plus ibrutinib versus ibrutinib alone for patients with relapsed or refractory high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (GENUINE): a phase 3, multicentre, open-label, randomised trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Apr 22;8(4):e254-e266. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and high-risk features have poorer outcomes on ibrutinib than those without high-risk features. The aim of this study was to assess the benefit of adding ublituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, to ibrutinib therapy in this population.

Methods: We did a randomised, phase 3, multicentre study (GENUINE) of patients aged 18 years or older with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with at least one of 17p deletion, 11q deletion, or TP53 mutation, at 119 clinics in the USA and Israel. Eligible patients had received at least one previous chronic lymphocytic leukaemia therapy and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or lower. We randomised patients (1:1) using permuted block randomisation with a block size of four and stratified by previous lines of therapy (one vs two or more) to receive ibrutinib alone or ibrutinib in combination with ublituximab. Treatment allocation was not masked to patients or investigators. Ibrutinib was given orally daily at 420 mg for all cycles. Ublituximab was given intravenously in 28-day cycles, with increasing doses during cycle 1 (≤150 mg on day 1, 750 mg on day 2, and 900 mg on days 8 and 15) and continuing at 900 mg on day 1 of cycles 2-6. After cycle 6, ublituximab was given at 900 mg every three cycles. The study was initially designed with co-primary endpoints of progression-free survival and overall response rate but due to protracted patient accrual, the protocol was amended to have a single primary endpoint of independent review committee-assessed overall response rate (defined as the proportion of patients who had a partial response, complete response, or complete response with incomplete marrow recovery according to the 2008 International Workshop on CLL criteria) in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was evaluated in the population of patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02301156, and the final analysis is presented.

Findings: 224 patients were assessed for eligibility, of whom 126 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive ublituximab plus ibrutinib (n=64) or ibrutinib alone (n=62) between Feb 6, 2015, and Dec 19, 2016. After a median follow-up of 41·6 months (IQR 36·7-47·3), the overall response rate was 53 (83%) of 64 patients in the ublituximab plus ibrutinib group and 40 (65%) of 62 patients in the ibrutinib group (p=0·020). 117 patients, including 59 in the ublituximab plus ibrutinib group and 58 in the ibrutinib group, received at least one dose of treatment and were included in safety analyses. Most adverse events were grade 1 or 2. The most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were neutropenia (11 [19%] patients in the ublituximab plus ibrutinib group and seven [12%] in the ibrutinib group), anaemia (five [8%] and five [9%]), and diarrhoea (six [10%] and three [5%]). The most common serious adverse events were pneumonia (six [10%] in the ublituximab plus ibrutinib group and four [7%] in the ibrutinib group), atrial fibrillation (four [7%] and one [2%]), sepsis (four [7%] and one [2%]), and febrile neutropenia (three [5%] and one [2%]). Two patients in the ublituximab plus ibrutinib group died due to adverse events (one cardiac arrest and one failure to thrive), neither of which were treatment-related. Five patients in the ibrutinib group died due to adverse events, including one cardiac arrest, one cerebral infarction, one intracranial haemorrhage, one Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia infection, and one unexplained death; the death due to cardiac arrest was considered to be treatment-related.

Interpretation: The addition of ublituximab to ibrutinib resulted in a statistically higher overall response rate without affecting the safety profile of ibrutinib monotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. These findings provide support for the addition of ublituximab to Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of these patients.

Funding: TG Therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30433-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Phase I Study of Alvocidib Followed by 7+3 (Cytarabine + Daunorubicin) in Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 01 30;27(1):60-69. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: Alvocidib is a cyclin-dependent kinase 9 inhibitor leading to downregulation of the antiapoptotic BCL-2 family member, MCL-1. Alvocidib has shown clinical activity in a timed sequential regimen with cytarabine and mitoxantrone in relapsed/refractory and newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but has not been studied in combination with traditional 7+3 induction therapy.

Patients And Methods: A multiinstitutional phase I dose-escalation study of alvocidib on days 1-3 followed by 7+3 (cytarabine 100 mg/m/day i.v. infusion days 5-12 and daunorubicin 60 mg/m i.v. days 5-7) was performed in newly diagnosed AML ≤65 years. Core-binding factor AML was excluded.

Results: There was no MTD on this study; the recommended phase II dose of alvocidib was 30 mg/m i.v. over 30 minutes followed by 60 mg/m i.v. infusion over 4 hours. There was one dose-limiting toxicity of cytokine release syndrome. The most common grade ≥3 nonhematologic toxicities were diarrhea (44%) and tumor lysis syndrome (34%). Overall, 69% (22/32) of patients achieved complete remission (CR). In an exploratory cohort, eight of nine (89%) patients in complete remission had no measurable residual disease, as determined by a centralized flow cytometric assay. Clinical activity was seen in patients with secondary AML, AML with myelodysplastic syndrome-related changes, and a genomic signature of secondary AML (50%, 50%, and 92% CR rates, respectively).

Conclusions: Alvocidib can be safely administered prior to 7+3 induction with encouraging clinical activity. These findings warrant further investigation of alvocidib combinations in newly diagnosed AML. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT03298984.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2649DOI Listing
January 2021

Polatuzumab vedotin in combination with immunochemotherapy in patients with previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an open-label, non-randomised, phase 1b-2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2019 07 14;20(7):998-1010. Epub 2019 May 14.

US Oncology Research, The Woodlands, TX, USA; Willamette Valley Cancer Institute, Eugene, OR, USA.

Background: Polatuzumab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate targeting the CD79b component of the B-cell receptor, has demonstrated activity as a single agent and in combination with rituximab in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In this study, we evaluated the safety and preliminary activity of polatuzumab vedotin in combination with rituximab or obinutuzumab and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone (CHP) in patients with previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Methods: This was an open-label, non-randomised study composed of a phase 1b dose escalation and a phase 2 dose expansion at 11 hospitals and health centres in the USA and France. Patients aged 18 years or older with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma were eligible. Exclusion criteria included peripheral neuropathy with grade greater than 1, major surgery within 4 weeks before enrolment, known CNS involvement of lymphoma, and uncontrolled heart disease. Phase 1b dose escalation had a three-plus-three design and established the recommended phase 2 dose. Phase 2 expansion evaluated the recommended phase 2 dose of polatuzumab vedotin in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with an International Prognostic Index (IPI) of 2-5. Patients received cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m on day 1 intravenously, doxorubicin 50 mg/m on day 1 intravenously, and prednisone 100 mg once daily on days 1-5 of each 21-day cycle orally (CHP), plus either rituximab 375 mg/m intravenously on day 1 of each cycle (R-CHP) or obinutuzumab 1000 mg intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 of cycle 1 and on day 1 of the following cycles (G-CHP). Polatuzumab vedotin was administered on day 2 of cycles 1 and 2, and on day 1 of the following cycles at 1·0-2·4 mg/kg during the escalation phase and at the recommended phase 2 dose during the expansion phase. Treatment could last six or eight cycles, depending on investigator preference. The primary endpoints of the study were safety and tolerability, and determination of the maximum tolerated dose (or recommended phase 2 dose) of polatuzumab vedotin. All endpoints were analysed per protocol in the safety evaluable population, defined as all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01992653.

Findings: Between Dec 4, 2013, and July 26, 2016, 85 patients were enrolled. 82 patients were included in the safety and activity evaluable populations, 25 in phase 1b and 57 in phase 2. In light of information from other studies using polatuzumab vedotin reported during this study, in which the safety profile associated with exposure to polatuzumab vedotin at doses higher than 1·8 mg/kg every 3 weeks was not outweighed by any clinical benefit, the recommended phase 2 dose was set to 1·8 mg/kg in the R-CHP cohort and no higher doses were explored in this study. 66 patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma received the polatuzumab vedotin recommended phase 2 dose (45 R-CHP; 21 G-CHP). In 66 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who received the recommended phase 2 dose, the most common adverse events of grade 3 or worse were neutropenia (20 [30%]), febrile neutropenia (12 [18%]), and thrombocytopenia (six [9%]). Among the 70 patients (any histology) who received the recommended phase 2 dose, 19 (27%) had grade 1 peripheral neuropathy, eight (11%) grade 2, and two (3%) grade 3. Four deaths were reported during follow-up: two treatment-related (one complication of atrial fibrillation and one septic shock) and two due to disease progression. As of the cutoff date of Dec 29, 2017, median follow-up time was 21·5 months (IQR 16·7-24·3) for the untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cohort treated at the polatuzumab vedotin recommended phase 2 dose. 59 (89%) patients achieved an overall response at end of treatment (51 [77%] patients had a complete response, and eight [12%] patients had a partial response).

Interpretation: The safety of incorporating polatuzumab vedotin to R-CHP or G-CHP was as expected and managable. Preliminary clinical activity in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma seems promising and encouraged a phase 3 trial comparing polatuzumab vedotin with R-CHP to R-CHOP.

Funding: F Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30091-9DOI Listing
July 2019

Polatuzumab vedotin or pinatuzumab vedotin plus rituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma: final results from a phase 2 randomised study (ROMULUS).

Lancet Haematol 2019 May 29;6(5):e254-e265. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

US Oncology and Willamette Valley Cancer Institute, Springfield, OR, USA.

Background: Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) polatuzumab vedotin (pola) and pinatuzumab vedotin (pina) showed clinical activity and tolerability in phase 1 trials. The aim of this multicentre, open-label, phase 2 study was to compare rituximab plus pola (R-pola) or pina (R-pina) in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma.

Methods: In this phase 2 randomised study at 39 investigational sites in six countries, patients were randomly assigned (1:1), by use of a dynamic hierarchical randomisation scheme, to receive R-pola or R-pina (375 mg/m rituximab plus 2·4 mg/kg ADCs) every 21 days until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity up to 1 year. Treatment allocations were not masked to the investigator, patients or sponsor after the patients were enrolled and randomly assigned. The primary objectives were safety and tolerability, and antitumour response. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01691898, and is closed to accrual.

Findings: 81 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 42 with follicular lymphoma were recruited between Sept 27, 2012, and Oct 10, 2013, and were assigned to treatment. 81 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 41 patients with follicular lymphoma were eligible for analysis. Of the 42 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who received R-pina, 25 (60%, 95% CI 43-74) achieved an objective response and 11 (26%, 95% CI 14-42) achieved a complete response. Of the 39 patients in this cohort who received R-pola, 21 (54%, 95% CI 37-70) achieved an objective response, and eight (21%, 95% CI 9-36) achieved a complete response. Of the 21 patients in the follicular lymphoma cohort who received R-pina, 13 (62%, 95% CI 38-82) achieved an objective response, and one (5%, 95% CI 0·1-24) achieved a complete response. Of the 20 patients in this cohort who received R-pola, 14 (70%, 95% CI 46-88) achieved an objective response, and nine (45%, 95% CI 23-68) achieved a complete response. In the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cohort, grade 3-5 adverse events occurred in 33 (79%) of 42 patients receiving R-pina (most common were neutropenia [29%] and hyperglycaemia [10%]; nine [21%] grade 5 adverse events, five of which were infection-related), and in 30 (77%) of 39 patients receiving R-pola (most common were neutropenia [23%], anaemia [8%] and diarrhoea [8%]; no grade 5 adverse events). In the follicular lymphoma cohort, grade 3-5 adverse events occurred in 13 (62%) of 21 patients receiving R-pina (most common were neutropenia [29%] and hyperglycaemia [14%]; no grade 5 adverse events) and in ten (50%) of 20 patients receiving R-pola (most common were neutropenia [15%] and diarrhoea [10%]; one grade 5 adverse event).

Interpretation: R-pina and R-pola are potential treatment options in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Pola was selected by the study funder for further development in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, partly because of longer durations of response than pina, and an overall benefit-risk favouring R-pola.

Funding: F Hoffmann-La Roche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30026-2DOI Listing
May 2019

First-Line Treatment of Patients With Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma or Mantle-Cell Lymphoma With Bendamustine Plus Rituximab Versus R-CHOP or R-CVP: Results of the BRIGHT 5-Year Follow-Up Study.

J Clin Oncol 2019 04 27;37(12):984-991. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

14 US Oncology Research, The Woodlands, TX.

Purpose: The BRIGHT study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00877006) was initiated to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine plus rituximab (BR) with either rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) or rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CVP) for treatment-naive patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma or mantle-cell lymphoma. This publication provides long-term follow-up data.

Patients And Methods: Patients were monitored for a minimum of 5 years after completion of study treatment for the time-to-event end points of progression-free survival (PFS), event-free survival, duration of response, and overall survival per investigator assessment. Data on the number of patients who received second-line anticancer treatment and the occurrence of other malignancies were also collected.

Results: The medians were not reached for any of the time-to event end points for either the BR or R-CHOP/R-CVP study treatment groups by study completion. PFS rates at 5 years were 65.5% in the BR treatment group and 55.8% in the R-CHOP/R-CVP group. The difference in PFS was considered significant with a hazard ratio of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.85; = .0025). The hazard ratio for event-free survival and duration of response ( = .0020 and .0134, respectively) also favored the BR regimen over R-CHOP/R-CVP. However, no significant difference in overall survival was observed. The overall safety profiles of BR, R-CHOP, and R-CVP were as expected; no new safety data were collected during long-term follow-up. A higher number of secondary malignancies was noted in the BR treatment group.

Conclusion: Overall, BR demonstrated better long-term disease control than R-CHOP/R-CVP and should be considered as a first-line treatment option for patients with indolent and mantle-cell lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.00605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6494265PMC
April 2019

An open-label phase 2 trial of entospletinib in indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma.

Br J Haematol 2019 01 5;184(2):215-222. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Willamette Valley Cancer Institute and Research Center/The US Oncology Network, Eugene, OR, USA.

Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) mediates B-cell receptor signalling in normal and malignant B cells. Entospletinib is an oral, selective Syk inhibitor. Entospletinib monotherapy was evaluated in a multicentre, phase 2 study of patients with relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma or mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Subjects received 800 mg entospletinib twice daily. Forty-one follicular lymphoma (FL), 17 lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (LPL/WM), 17 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) and 39 MCL patients were evaluated. The primary endpoint was a progression-free survival (PFS) rate (defined as not experiencing progression or death) at 16 weeks for patients with MCL and at 24 weeks for patients with FL, LPL/WM and MZL. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were fatigue, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, headache and cough. Common laboratory abnormalities were anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia; aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, total bilirubin and serum creatinine were all increased. PFS at 16 weeks in the MCL cohort was 63·9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 45-77·8%]; PFS at 24 weeks in the FL, LPL/WM, MCL and MZL cohorts was 51·5% (95% CI 32·8-67·4%), 69·8% (95% CI 31·8-89·4%), 56·6% (95% CI 37·5-71·8%) and 46·2% (95% CI 18·5-70·2%), respectively. Entospletinib had limited single-agent activity with manageable toxicity in these patient populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6585960PMC
January 2019

A phase 1 trial of SGN-CD70A in patients with CD70-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma.

Invest New Drugs 2019 04 22;37(2):297-306. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1500 E. Medical Center Dr. SPC 591, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Purpose This first-in-human study evaluated SGN-CD70A, an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) directed against the integral plasma membrane protein CD70 and linked to a pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer, in patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) CD70-positive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) including diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and Grade 3b follicular lymphoma (FL3b). Methods SGN-CD70A was administered intravenously on Day 1 of 3-week cycles beginning at 8 mcg/kg with planned dose escalation to 200 mcg/kg. Due to observations of prolonged thrombocytopenia, the study was amended to dose every 6 weeks (q6wk). Results Twenty patients were enrolled and treated with SGN-CD70A. The maximum tolerated dose of SGN-CD70A was 30 mcg/kg q6wk. The most common adverse events (AEs) reported were thrombocytopenia (75%), nausea (55%), anemia (50%), and fatigue (50%). The onset for treatment-related thrombocytopenia typically occurred during Cycle 1. Most of the treatment-related events of thrombocytopenia were ≥ Grade 3. Antitumor activity in patients included 1 complete remission (CR) and 3 partial remissions (PRs), 2 of which were ongoing for at least 42.9 weeks. SGN-CD70A exposures were approximately dose proportional, with a mean terminal half-life of 3 to 5 days. Conclusions While modest single-agent activity was observed in heavily pretreated NHL patients, the applicability of SGN-CD70A is limited by the frequency and severity of thrombocytopenia, despite the long-term response with limited drug exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-018-0655-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440937PMC
April 2019

Extended dosing with CC-486 (oral azacitidine) in patients with myeloid malignancies.

Am J Hematol 2018 10 3;93(10):1199-1206. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Celgene Corporation, Summit, New Jersey.

CC-486 (oral azacitidine) is an epigenetic modifier in clinical development for treatment of hematological cancers. This study of extended CC-486 dosing included patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). After a pharmacokinetic assessment period, 31 patients (MDS n = 18, CMML n = 4, and AML n = 9) entered a clinical phase in which they received CC-486 300 mg once-daily for 21 days of repeated 28-day cycles. Median age was 71 years (range: 53-93); 42% of patients were aged ≥75 years. A total of 5 patients with AML (63%) had prior MDS. Median number of CC-486 treatment cycles was 4 (range: 1-32). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were gastrointestinal (84% of patients) and hematologic (81%). Most common grade 3-4 TEAEs were neutropenia (n = 13, 42%) and anemia (n = 9, 29%). Ten patients experienced grade 4 neutropenia. Infrequently, CC-486 dose was interrupted or reduced due to gastrointestinal (n = 5, 16%) or hematologic (n = 6, 19%) TEAEs. Overall response rate (complete remission [CR], CR with incomplete hematological recovery [CRi], partial remission [PR], marrow CR) in the MDS/CMML subgroups was 32% and in the AML subgroup (CR/CRi/PR) was 22%. Red blood cell transfusion independence rates in the MDS/CMML and AML subgroups were 33% and 25%, respectively, and 2 MDS/CMML patients attained hematologic improvement as a best response on-study. No baseline gene mutation was predictive of response/nonresponse. CC-486 allows flexible dosing and schedules to improve tolerability or response. Neutropenia in early treatment cycles deserves scrutiny and may warrant initiation of prophylactic antibiotics. KEY POINTS: The safety profile of oral CC-486 was comparable to that of injectable azacitidine; most adverse events were hematological and gastrointestinal. Extended (21-day/cycle) CC-486 dosing induced responses in patients with hematological malignancies, many of whom had prior DNMTi failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6221082PMC
October 2018

Randomized Phase II Study of R-CHOP With or Without Bortezomib in Previously Untreated Patients With Non-Germinal Center B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Nov 1;35(31):3538-3546. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

John P. Leonard, Weill Cornell Medicine and New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY; Kathryn S. Kolibaba, Compass Oncology, Vancouver, WA; Kathryn S. Kolibaba and Nicholas J. DiBella, US Oncology Research, The Woodlands; Robert Collins, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; James A. Reeves, Florida Cancer Specialists, Fort Myers; Julio Hajdenberg, University of Florida Health Cancer Center at Orlando Health, Orlando, FL; Anil Tulpule, Keck Medicine of University of Southern California; Sven de Vos, University of California at Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles; Tatjana Kolevska, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center Northern California, Vallejo; Robert Robles, Bay Area Cancer Research Group (Diablo Valley Medical Group), Pleasant Hill; Andrew Horodner, Cancer Care Associates Medical Group, Redondo Beach, CA; Ian W. Flinn, Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN; Christopher R. Flowers, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, GA; Nicholas J. DiBella, Rocky Mountain Cancer Centers, Aurora, CO; Steven W. Papish, Summit Medical Group MD Anderson Cancer Center, Camden, NJ; Parameswaran Venugopal, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL; Amir Tabatabai, York Cancer Center/Cancer Care Associates of York, York, PA; and Jaehong Park, Rachel Neuwirth, George Mulligan, Kaveri Suryanarayan, and Dixie-Lee Esseltine, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA.

Purpose To evaluate the impact of the addition of bortezomib to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) on outcomes in previously untreated patients with non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods After real-time determination of non-GCB DLBCL using the Hans immunohistochemistry algorithm, 206 patients were randomly assigned (1:1; stratified by International Prognostic Index [IPI] score) to six 21-day cycles of standard R-CHOP alone or R-CHOP plus bortezomib 1.3 mg/m intravenously on days 1 and 4 (VR-CHOP). The primary end point, progression-free survival (PFS), was evaluated in 183 patients with centrally confirmed non-GCB DLBCL who received one or more doses of study drug (91 R-CHOP, 92 VR-CHOP). Results After a median follow-up of 34 months, with 25% (R-CHOP) and 18% (VR-CHOP) of patients having had PFS events, the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS was 0.73 (90% CI, 0.43 to 1.24) with VR-CHOP ( P = .611). Two-year PFS rates were 77.6% with R-CHOP and 82.0% with VR-CHOP; they were 65.1% versus 72.4% in patients with high-intermediate/high IPI (HR, 0.67; 90% CI, 0.34 to 1.29), and 90.0% versus 88.9% (HR, 0.85; 90% CI, 0.35 to 2.10) in patients with low/low-intermediate IPI. Overall response rate with R-CHOP and VR-CHOP was 98% and 96%, respectively. The overall survival HR was 0.75 (90% CI, 0.38 to 1.45); 2-year survival rates were 88.4% and 93.0%, respectively. In the safety population (100 R-CHOP and 101 VR-CHOP patients), grade ≥ 3 adverse events included neutropenia (53% v 49%), thrombocytopenia (13% v 29%), anemia (7% v 15%), leukopenia (26% v 25%), and neuropathy (1% v 5%). Conclusion Outcomes for newly diagnosed, prospectively enrolled patients with non-GCB DLBCL were more favorable than expected with R-CHOP and were not significantly improved by adding bortezomib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.73.2784DOI Listing
November 2017

Ublituximab (TG-1101), a novel glycoengineered anti-CD20 antibody, in combination with ibrutinib is safe and highly active in patients with relapsed and/or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: results of a phase 2 trial.

Br J Haematol 2017 Feb 16;176(3):412-420. Epub 2016 Dec 16.

US Oncology Research, Morristown, NJ, USA.

Ibrutinib is effective in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL); however, treatment resistance remains a problem. Ublituximab is a novel, glycoengineered anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed CLL. We report the results of a phase 2 study evaluating combination therapy with ibrutinib and ublituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL. Patients received ibrutinib 420 mg once daily. Ublituximab was administered on days 1, 8 and 15 of cycle 1 followed by day 1 of cycles 2-6. Response assessments were completed at cycles 3 and 6; patients then continued on ibrutinib monotherapy per standard of care. Forty-one of 45 enrolled patients were evaluable for efficacy. Safety was consistent with prior experience for each drug, with infusion reactions the most prevalent adverse event. Combination therapy resulted in an overall response rate (ORR) of 88% at 6 months. In the 20 patients with high-risk features (17p or 11q deletions or TP53 mutation) and evaluable for efficacy, the ORR was 95%, with three patients (15%) achieving negative minimal residual disease. Median time to response was 8 weeks. Ublituximab in combination with ibrutinib resulted in rapid and high response rates. The long-term clinical benefit of ublituximab will be defined by an ongoing phase 3 trial (NCT 02301156).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5299538PMC
February 2017

Differences in Quality of Life Between Bendamustine-Rituximab and R-CHOP/R-CVP in Patients With Previously Untreated Advanced Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma or Mantle Cell Lymphoma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2016 Apr 15;16(4):182-190.e1. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Blood Cancer Research Program, Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN.

Background: We previously reported results of the phase III, randomized, noninferiority trial comparing bendamustine-rituximab (BR) with standard R-CHOP (rituximab/cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone)/R-CVP (rituximab/cyclophosphamide/vincristine/prednisone) in previously untreated advanced indolent non-Hodgkin and mantle cell lymphomas. Here we report health-related quality of life (HRQOL) results from the trial.

Methods: HRQOL, as measured by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), was a secondary end point. Differences between group means in global health status (GHS), 5-item functioning, and 9 symptoms/single-item measures at week 1 of cycle 1 and end-of- cycles 3 and 6 were examined using the screening (baseline) score as a covariate in analysis of covariance.

Results: Overall EORTC QLQ-C30 compliance was 75.2%, 89.5%, and 89.9% at week 1 of cycle 1 and end-of-cycles 3 and 6, respectively. Patients treated with BR reported improvements in Cognitive Functioning, Physical Functioning, Social Functioning, Emotional Functioning, and GHS as well as reduction in dyspnea, constipation, and fatigue at some, but not all, time points. Patients treated with standard therapy reported less nausea/vomiting at one time point.

Conclusion: Compared with patients treated with standard therapy, patients treated with BR reported better quality of life in several areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2016.01.001DOI Listing
April 2016

Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Blood 2016 Jan 15;127(1):79-86. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

US Oncology Research, Vancouver, WA; Willamette Valley Cancer Institute and Research Center, Eugene, OR.

Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-03-634394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4705612PMC
January 2016

An open-label phase 2 trial of entospletinib (GS-9973), a selective spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Blood 2015 Apr 18;125(15):2336-43. Epub 2015 Feb 18.

Willamette Valley Cancer Institute and Research Center/US Oncology Research, Springfield, OR;

Small-molecule inhibitors of kinases involved in B-cell receptor signaling are an important advance in managing lymphoid malignancies. Entospletinib (GS-9973) is an oral, selective inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase. This multicenter, phase 2 study enrolled subjects with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; n = 41) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 145). Participants received 800 mg entospletinib twice daily. We report efficacy outcomes in the CLL cohort (n = 41) and safety outcomes in all cohorts (N = 186). The primary end point was a progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 24 weeks in subjects with CLL. The PFS rate at 24 weeks was 70.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.3%-82.7%); median PFS was 13.8 months (95% CI, 7.7 months to not reached). The objective response rate was 61.0% (95% CI, 44.5%-75.8%), including 3 subjects (7.3%) who achieved nodal response with persistent lymphocytosis. Fifty-four subjects (29.0%) had serious adverse events (SAEs). The most common treatment-emergent SAEs included dyspnea, pneumonia, febrile neutropenia, dehydration, and pyrexia. Common grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities included neutropenia (14.5%) and reversible alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase elevations (13.4%). Entospletinib demonstrates clinical activity in subjects with relapsed or refractory CLL with acceptable toxicity. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01799889.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-08-595934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4401348PMC
April 2015

Randomized trial of bendamustine-rituximab or R-CHOP/R-CVP in first-line treatment of indolent NHL or MCL: the BRIGHT study.

Blood 2014 May 3;123(19):2944-52. Epub 2014 Mar 3.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN;

This randomized, noninferiority (NI), global, phase 3 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of bendamustine plus rituximab (BR) vs a standard rituximab-chemotherapy regimen (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone [R-CHOP] or rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone [R-CVP]) for treatment-naive patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or mantle cell lymphoma. Investigators preassigned the standard treatment regimen they considered most appropriate for each patient; patients were randomized to receive BR (n = 224) or standard therapy (R-CHOP/R-CVP, n = 223) for 6 cycles; 2 additional cycles were permitted at investigator discretion. Response was assessed by a blinded independent review committee. BR was noninferior to R-CHOP/R-CVP, as assessed by the primary end point of complete response rate (31% vs 25%, respectively; P = .0225 for NI [0.88 margin]). The overall response rates for BR and R-CHOP/R-CVP were 97% and 91%, respectively (P = .0102). Incidences of vomiting and drug-hypersensitivity reactions were significantly higher in patients treated with BR (P < .05), and incidences of peripheral neuropathy/paresthesia and alopecia were significantly higher in patients treated with standard-therapy regimens (P < .05). These data indicate BR is noninferior to standard therapy with regard to clinical response with an acceptable safety profile. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00877006.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-11-531327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260975PMC
May 2014

Molecular monitoring of response in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

Manag Care 2013 Jul;22(7):40, 50-61

Northwest Cancer Specialists, Vancouver, WA 98684, USA.

Purpose: To discuss the importance of regular, consistent use of molecular testing to monitor treatment response and minimal residual disease in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), as recommended in established practice guidelines.

Design: This review outlines the efficacy of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in eliciting significant treatment responses in patients with CML; describes the positive effect of achieving molecular responses on long-term outcomes; discusses the importance of regular, consistent molecular monitoring in CML; and highlights issues critical to the implementation of molecular monitoring in routine practice.

Methods: Published literature pertaining to molecular monitoring of the response to BCR-ABL1 TKI therapy for CML was searched and reviewed.

Results: BCR-ABL1 TKI therapy for CML can reduce the disease burden to a level detectable only by molecular methods. Although practice guidelines recognize the importance of molecular monitoring of disease
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July 2013

Demographics, treatment patterns, safety, and real-world effectiveness in patients aged 70 years and over with chronic lymphocytic leukemia receiving bendamustine with or without rituximab: a retrospective study.

Ther Adv Hematol 2013 Jun;4(3):157-71

Compass Oncology, 120 SE 136th Avenue, Vancouver, WA 98684, USA.

Objectives: Bendamustine is a unique cytotoxic agent active against various human malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In vitro studies suggest that cytotoxic activity of bendamustine on CLL-derived cells is synergized by rituximab. A retrospective chart review was conducted to characterize treatment-naïve outpatients and those with relapsed disease aged 70 years and over with CLL receiving bendamustine (with or without rituximab) and to evaluate real-world patterns of care, safety, and effectiveness.

Methods: Using McKesson Specialty Care/US Oncology Network iKnowMed databases, 91 outpatients with at least two recorded visits and at least two cycles of bendamustine monotherapy or bendamustine-rituximab combination therapy were identified and included. Mean age at diagnosis and start of first therapy was 70.3 and 77.4 years respectively, and 63.7% of patients were men.

Results: Observed overall response rate was 56.3% in pooled treatment-naïve patients [n = 9; complete response (CR) 18.8%; partial response (PR) 37.5%; nodular partial response (nPR) 0%] and 58.7% in pooled patients with relapsed disease (n = 44; CR 13.3%; PR 44.0%; nPR 1.3%). Median time to progressive disease has not been reached for the 16 treatment-naïve patients (median follow up 15.1 months), and was 18.4 months for those with relapsed disease (n = 73). No unexpected toxicities were observed. Overall rate of blood/bone marrow toxicities (all grades) was 40.7%; grade 3/4 rates were 18.8% in treatment-naïve patients and 25.3% in those with relapsed disease. Most frequent nonhematologic adverse events were fatigue and rash.

Conclusion: In this retrospective chart review of 91 outpatients with CLL aged 70 years and over, bendamustine (with or without rituximab) was an effective therapeutic option with manageable toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2040620713478629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3666446PMC
June 2013

Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib (PCI-32765) has significant activity in patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell malignancies.

J Clin Oncol 2013 Jan 8;31(1):88-94. Epub 2012 Oct 8.

Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305-5821, USA.

Purpose: Survival and progression of mature B-cell malignancies depend on signals from the B-cell antigen receptor, and Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical signaling kinase in this pathway. We evaluated ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a small-molecule irreversible inhibitor of BTK, in patients with B-cell malignancies.

Patients And Methods: Patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia received escalating oral doses of ibrutinib. Two schedules were evaluated: one, 28 days on, 7 days off; and two, once-daily continuous dosing. Occupancy of BTK by ibrutinib in peripheral blood was monitored using a fluorescent affinity probe. Dose escalation proceeded until either the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) was achieved or, in the absence of MTD, until three dose levels above full BTK occupancy by ibrutinib. Response was evaluated every two cycles.

Results: Fifty-six patients with a variety of B-cell malignancies were treated over seven cohorts. Most adverse events were grade 1 and 2 in severity and self-limited. Dose-limiting events were not observed, even with prolonged dosing. Full occupancy of the BTK active site occurred at 2.5 mg/kg per day, and dose escalation continued to 12.5 mg/kg per day without reaching MTD. Pharmacokinetic data indicated rapid absorption and elimination, yet BTK occupancy was maintained for at least 24 hours, consistent with the irreversible mechanism. Objective response rate in 50 evaluable patients was 60%, including complete response of 16%. Median progression-free survival in all patients was 13.6 months.

Conclusion: Ibrutinib, a novel BTK-targeting inhibitor, is well tolerated, with substantial activity across B-cell histologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2012.42.7906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5505166PMC
January 2013

Results of a phase 2 study of bortezomib in patients with relapsed or refractory indolent lymphoma.

Blood 2010 Jan 19;115(3):475-80. Epub 2009 Nov 19.

US Oncology Research Inc, The Woodlands, TX, USA.

This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of single-agent bortezomib in indolent B-cell lymphoma that had relapsed from or was refractory to rituximab. Sixty patients enrolled: 59 were treated with bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 for up to eight 21-day cycles; responders could receive 4 additional cycles; maintenance was optional. Fifty-three evaluable patients completed more than 2 cycles. The median age was 70 years, 53% female, Ann Arbor stage III-IIIE (28%) and IV (65%); 43 patients (72%) had more than 2 prior regimens; and 6 patients went on to maintenance. Overall responses are as follows: 1 complete response (1.9%), 3 unconfirmed complete response (5.7%), 3 partial response (5.7%), 34 stable disease (64.2%), and 12 progressive disease (22.6%). Median time to response = 2.2 months (range, 1.2-5.3 months); duration of response = 7.9 months (2.8-21.3 months); 1-year survival was 73% and 2-year survival was 58%; median survival = 27.7 months (range, 1.4-30.9 months); median progression-free survival = 5.1 months (range, 0.2-27.7 months), median time to progression = 5.1 months (range, 0.2-27.7 months), and median event-free survival = 1.8 months (range, 0.2-27.7 months). Treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse events included: thrombocytopenia (20%), fatigue (10%), neutropenia (8.5%), and neuropathy and diarrhea (6.8% each). This study demonstrates that bortezomib has modest activity against marginal zone and follicular lymphoma; it has the potential for combination with other agents in low-grade lymphomas. Maintenance therapy should be explored further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-08-233155DOI Listing
January 2010

Results of a Phase II trial of gemcitabine, mitoxantrone, and rituximab in relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma.

Invest New Drugs 2009 Oct 25;27(5):476-81. Epub 2008 Oct 25.

US Oncology Research, Inc., Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Gemcitabine (G) has shown activity in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as a single agent. The combination of mitoxantrone (M) and rituximab (R) is also active in MCL. The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of G+M+R in relapsed or refractory MCL.

Patients And Methods: Sixteen patients were enrolled between April 2005 and January 2007, 88% had Stage IV MCL, Median patient age was 74 years. Patients received gemcitabine 900 mg/m(2) IV (30-60 min infusion) on Days 1 and 8, mitoxantrone 10 mg/m(2) IV (5-10 min infusion) on day 1, and rituximab 375 mg/m(2) IV on Day 1 (max 400 mg/hour) of the 21-day cycle. Patients received a median of 6 cycles (range, 1-8).

Results: Best responses were CR 20% (95%CI, 0, 40.2), PR 27% (95%CI, 4.3, 49.1), SD 40% (95%CI, 15.2, 64.8), and PD 13% (95%CI, 0, 30.5). Median survival and PFS have not been reached with a median follow-up of 10.7 months. The most common Grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia (100%), thrombocytopenia (67%), leukopenia (53%), and anemia (33%). The study was closed early due to slow accrual owing to an alternative treatment which became available at the time.

Conclusion: The combination of G+M+R in MCL was well-tolerated with manageable toxicity using growth factors to minimize neutropenia; further studies are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-008-9191-7DOI Listing
October 2009
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