Publications by authors named "Kathrine B Sylvestersen"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Regulation of GLI1 by cis DNA elements and epigenetic marks.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2019 07 2;79:10-21. Epub 2019 May 2.

Developmental Biology Program, Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, USA. Electronic address:

GLI1 is one of three transcription factors (GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3) that mediate the Hedgehog signal transduction pathway and play important roles in normal development. GLI1 and GLI2 form a positive-feedback loop and function as human oncogenes. The mouse and human GLI1 genes have untranslated 5' exons and large introns 5' of the translational start. Here we show that Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) stimulates occupancy in the introns by H3K27ac, H3K4me3 and the histone reader protein BRD4. H3K27ac and H3K4me3 occupancy is not significantly changed by removing BRD4 from the human intron and transcription start site (TSS) region. We identified six GLI binding sites (GBS) in the first intron of the human GLI1 gene that are in regions of high sequence conservation among mammals. GLI1 and GLI2 bind all of the GBS in vitro. Elimination of GBS1 and 4 attenuates transcriptional activation by GLI1. Elimination of GBS1, 2, and 4 attenuates transcriptional activation by GLI2. Eliminating all sites essentially eliminates reporter gene activation. Further, GLI1 binds the histone variant H2A.Z. These results suggest that GLI1 and GLI2 can regulate GLI1 expression through protein-protein interactions involving complexes of transcription factors, histone variants, and reader proteins in the regulatory intron of the GLI1 gene. GLI1 acting in trans on the GLI1 intron provides a mechanism for GLI1 positive feedback and auto-regulation. Understanding the combinatorial protein landscape in this locus will be important to interrupting the GLI positive feedback loop and providing new therapeutic approaches to cancers associated with GLI1 overexpression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2019.04.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6570425PMC
July 2019

Proteome-wide analysis of arginine monomethylation reveals widespread occurrence in human cells.

Sci Signal 2016 08 30;9(443):rs9. Epub 2016 Aug 30.

Department of Proteomics, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

The posttranslational modification of proteins by arginine methylation is functionally important, yet the breadth of this modification is not well characterized. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 8030 arginine methylation sites within 3300 human proteins in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, indicating that the occurrence of this modification is comparable to phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. A site-level conservation analysis revealed that arginine methylation sites are less evolutionarily conserved compared to arginines that were not identified as modified by methylation. Through quantitative proteomics and RNA interference to examine arginine methylation stoichiometry, we unexpectedly found that the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of arginine methyltransferases catalyzed methylation independently of arginine sequence context. In contrast to the frequency of somatic mutations at arginine methylation sites throughout the proteome, we observed that somatic mutations were common at arginine methylation sites in proteins involved in mRNA splicing. Furthermore, in HeLa and U2OS cells, we found that distinct arginine methyltransferases differentially regulated the functions of the pre-mRNA splicing factor SRSF2 (serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2) and the RNA transport ribonucleoprotein HNRNPUL1 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like 1). Knocking down PRMT5 impaired the RNA binding function of SRSF2, whereas knocking down PRMT4 [also known as coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1)] or PRMT1 increased the RNA binding function of HNRNPUL1. High-content single-cell imaging additionally revealed that knocking down CARM1 promoted the nuclear accumulation of SRSF2, independent of cell cycle phase. Collectively, the presented human arginine methylome provides a missing piece in the global and integrative view of cellular physiology and protein regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.aaf7329DOI Listing
August 2016

Large-Scale Identification of the Arginine Methylome by Mass Spectrometry.

Curr Protoc Protein Sci 2015 Nov 2;82:24.7.1-24.7.17. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

Department of Proteomics, The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The attachment of one or more methylation groups to the side chain of arginine residues is a regulatory mechanism for cellular proteins. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based characterization allow comprehensive identification of arginine methylation sites by peptide-level enrichment strategies. Described in this unit is a 4-day protocol for enrichment of arginine-methylated peptides and subsequent identification of thousands of distinct sites by mass spectrometry. Specifically, the protocol explains step-by-step sample preparation, enrichment using commercially available antibodies, prefractionation using strong cation exchange, and identification using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. A strategy for relative quantification is described using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Approaches for analysis of arginine methylation site occupancy are also discussed. Collectively, the unit describes the essential parameters required for a successful and comprehensive experiment detailing the arginine methylome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0471140864.ps2407s82DOI Listing
November 2015

Biotin starvation causes mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation and partial rescue by the SIRT3-like deacetylase Hst4p.

Nat Commun 2015 Jul 9;6:7726. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

Department of Proteomics, The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

The essential vitamin biotin is a covalent and tenaciously attached prosthetic group in several carboxylases that play important roles in the regulation of energy metabolism. Here we describe increased acetyl-CoA levels and mitochondrial hyperacetylation as downstream metabolic effects of biotin deficiency. Upregulated mitochondrial acetylation sites correlate with the cellular deficiency of the Hst4p deacetylase, and a biotin-starvation-induced accumulation of Hst4p in mitochondria supports a role for Hst4p in lowering mitochondrial acetylation. We show that biotin starvation and knockout of Hst4p cause alterations in cellular respiration and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results suggest that Hst4p plays a pivotal role in biotin metabolism and cellular energy homeostasis, and supports that Hst4p is a functional yeast homologue of the sirtuin deacetylase SIRT3. With biotin deficiency being involved in various metabolic disorders, this study provides valuable insight into the metabolic effects biotin exerts on eukaryotic cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4510963PMC
July 2015

Proteomic analysis of arginine methylation sites in human cells reveals dynamic regulation during transcriptional arrest.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2014 Aug 21;13(8):2072-88. Epub 2014 Feb 21.

From the ā€”Department of Proteomics, The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark;

The covalent attachment of methyl groups to the side-chain of arginine residues is known to play essential roles in regulation of transcription, protein function, and RNA metabolism. The specific N-methylation of arginine residues is catalyzed by a small family of gene products known as protein arginine methyltransferases; however, very little is known about which arginine residues become methylated on target substrates. Here we describe a proteomics methodology that combines single-step immunoenrichment of methylated peptides with high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify endogenous arginine mono-methylation (MMA) sites. We thereby identify 1027 site-specific MMA sites on 494 human proteins, discovering numerous novel mono-methylation targets and confirming the majority of currently known MMA substrates. Nuclear RNA-binding proteins involved in RNA processing, RNA localization, transcription, and chromatin remodeling are predominantly found modified with MMA. Despite this, MMA sites prominently are located outside RNA-binding domains as compared with the proteome-wide distribution of arginine residues. Quantification of arginine methylation in cells treated with Actinomycin D uncovers strong site-specific regulation of MMA sites during transcriptional arrest. Interestingly, several MMA sites are down-regulated after a few hours of transcriptional arrest. In contrast, the corresponding di-methylation or protein expression levels are not altered, confirming that MMA sites contain regulated functions on their own. Collectively, we present a site-specific MMA data set in human cells and demonstrate for the first time that MMA is a dynamic post-translational modification regulated during transcriptional arrest by a hitherto uncharacterized arginine demethylase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/mcp.O113.032748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125738PMC
August 2014

Specificity and commonality of the phosphoinositide-binding proteome analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry.

Cell Rep 2014 Feb 23;6(3):578-91. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Department of Proteomics, The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Phosphoinositides (PIPs) play key roles in signaling and disease. Using high-resolution quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified PIP-interacting proteins and profiled their binding specificities toward all seven PIP variants. This analysis revealed 405 PIP-binding proteins, which is greater than the total number of phospho- or ubiquitin-binding domains. Translocation and inhibitor assays of identified PIP-binding proteins confirmed that our methodology targets direct interactors. The PIP interactome encompasses proteins from diverse cellular compartments, prominently including the nucleus. Our data set revealed a consensus motif for PI(3,4,5)P3-interacting pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, which enabled in silico identification of phosphoinositide interactors. Members of the dedicator of cytokinesis family C exhibited specificity toward both PI(3,4,5)P3 and PI(4,5)P2. Structurally, this dual specificity is explained by a decreased number of positively charged residues in the L1 subdomain compared with DOCK1. The presented PIP-binding proteome and its specificity toward individual PIPs should be a valuable resource for the community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2013.12.038DOI Listing
February 2014

Glutamine methylation in histone H2A is an RNA-polymerase-I-dedicated modification.

Nature 2014 Jan 18;505(7484):564-8. Epub 2013 Dec 18.

1] Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK [2] Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK.

Nucleosomes are decorated with numerous post-translational modifications capable of influencing many DNA processes. Here we describe a new class of histone modification, methylation of glutamine, occurring on yeast histone H2A at position 105 (Q105) and human H2A at Q104. We identify Nop1 as the methyltransferase in yeast and demonstrate that fibrillarin is the orthologue enzyme in human cells. Glutamine methylation of H2A is restricted to the nucleolus. Global analysis in yeast, using an H2AQ105me-specific antibody, shows that this modification is exclusively enriched over the 35S ribosomal DNA transcriptional unit. We show that the Q105 residue is part of the binding site for the histone chaperone FACT (facilitator of chromatin transcription) complex. Methylation of Q105 or its substitution to alanine disrupts binding to FACT in vitro. A yeast strain mutated at Q105 shows reduced histone incorporation and increased transcription at the ribosomal DNA locus. These features are phenocopied by mutations in FACT complex components. Together these data identify glutamine methylation of H2A as the first histone epigenetic mark dedicated to a specific RNA polymerase and define its function as a regulator of FACT interaction with nucleosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3901671PMC
January 2014

A new cellular stress response that triggers centriolar satellite reorganization and ciliogenesis.

EMBO J 2013 Nov 11;32(23):3029-40. Epub 2013 Oct 11.

Ubiquitin Signaling Group, Department of Disease Biology, The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Centriolar satellites are small, granular structures that cluster around centrosomes, but whose biological function and regulation are poorly understood. We show that centriolar satellites undergo striking reorganization in response to cellular stresses such as UV radiation, heat shock, and transcription blocks, invoking acute and selective displacement of the factors AZI1/CEP131, PCM1, and CEP290 from this compartment triggered by activation of the stress-responsive kinase p38/MAPK14. We demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase MIB1 is a new component of centriolar satellites, which interacts with and ubiquitylates AZI1 and PCM1 and suppresses primary cilium formation. In response to cell stress, MIB1 is abruptly inactivated in a p38-independent manner, leading to loss of AZI1, PCM1, and CEP290 ubiquitylation and concomitant stimulation of ciliogenesis, even in proliferating cells. Collectively, our findings uncover a new two-pronged signalling response, which by coupling p38-dependent phosphorylation with MIB1-catalysed ubiquitylation of ciliogenesis-promoting factors plays an important role in controlling centriolar satellite status and key centrosomal functions in a cell stress-regulated manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emboj.2013.223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3844950PMC
November 2013

Advances in characterizing ubiquitylation sites by mass spectrometry.

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2013 Feb 5;17(1):49-58. Epub 2013 Jan 5.

Department of Proteomics, The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health Sciences, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

The attachment of one or more ubiquitin moieties to proteins plays a central regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Protein ubiquitylation regulates numerous cellular processes, including protein degradation, signal transduction, DNA repair and cell division. The characterization of ubiquitylation is a two-fold challenge that involves the mapping of ubiquitylation sites and the determination of ubiquitin chain topology. This review focuses on the technical advances in the mass spectrometry-based characterization of ubiquitylation sites, which have recently involved the large-scale identification of ubiquitylation sites by peptide-level enrichment strategies. The discovery that ubiquitylation is a widespread modification similar to phosphorylation and acetylation suggests cross-talk may also occur at the post translational modification level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2012.12.009DOI Listing
February 2013

Systems-wide analysis of ubiquitylation dynamics reveals a key role for PAF15 ubiquitylation in DNA-damage bypass.

Nat Cell Biol 2012 Oct 23;14(10):1089-98. Epub 2012 Sep 23.

Ubiquitin Signaling Group, Department of Disease Biology, The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Protein ubiquitylation has emerged as a key regulatory mechanism in DNA-damage signalling and repair pathways. We report a proteome-wide, site-specific survey of ubiquitylation changes after ultraviolet irradiation, identifying numerous upregulated and downregulated ubiquitylation sites on known components of DNA-damage signalling, as well as on proteins not previously implicated in this process. Our results uncover a critical role for PCNA-associated factor PAF15 (p15(PAF)/KIAA0101) ubiquitylation during DNA replication. During unperturbed S phase, chromatin-associated PAF15 is modified by double mono-ubiquitylation of Lys 15 and 24 templated through PCNA binding. Replication blocks trigger rapid, proteasome-dependent removal of Lys 15/24-ubiquitylated PAF15 from PCNA, facilitating bypass of replication-fork-blocking lesions by allowing recruitment of translesion DNA synthesis polymerase polĪ· to mono-ubiquitylated PCNA at stalled replisomes. Our findings demonstrate widespread involvement of ubiquitin signalling in genotoxic-stress responses and identify a critical function for dynamic PAF15 ubiquitylation in safeguarding genome integrity when DNA replication is challenged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb2579DOI Listing
October 2012

Mass spectrometric analysis of lysine ubiquitylation reveals promiscuity at site level.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2011 Mar 7;10(3):M110.003590. Epub 2010 Dec 7.

Department of Proteomics, The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health Sciences, DK-2200 Copenhagen.

The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to proteins regulates numerous processes in eukaryotic cells. Here we report the identification of 753 unique lysine ubiquitylation sites on 471 proteins using higher-energy collisional dissociation on the LTQ Orbitrap Velos. In total 5756 putative ubiquitin substrates were identified. Lysine residues targeted by the ubiquitin-ligase system show no unique sequence feature. Surface accessible lysine residues located in ordered secondary regions, surrounded by smaller and positively charged amino acids are preferred sites of ubiquitylation. Lysine ubiquitylation shows promiscuity at the site level, as evidenced by low evolutionary conservation of ubiquitylation sites across eukaryotic species. Among lysine modifications a significant overlap (20%) between ubiquitylation and acetylation at site level highlights extensive competitive crosstalk among these modifications. This site-specific crosstalk is not prevalent among cell cycle ubiquitylations. Between SUMOylation and ubiquitylation the preferred interaction is through mixed-chain conjugation. Overall these data provide novel insights into the site-specific selection and regulatory function of lysine ubiquitylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/mcp.M110.003590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047152PMC
March 2011

Fgf9 signalling stimulates Spred and Sprouty expression in embryonic mouse pancreas mesenchyme.

Gene Expr Patterns 2011 Jan-Feb;11(1-2):105-11. Epub 2010 Oct 8.

Hagedorn Research Institute, Department of Developmental Biology, Gentofte, Denmark.

Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are critical for normal pancreas development. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)-10 is expressed in the pancreatic mesenchyme and its signalling is required for normal growth and regulation of gene expression in the pancreatic epithelium. However, little is known about putative Fgf signalling to the mesenchyme. Here we have examined the embryonic pancreas expression of differentially spliced Fgf receptor isoforms and their targets; the Sprouty (Spry) and Spred family genes which are induced by Fgf signalling. Using qPCR to quantify mRNA levels in microdissected pancreatic epithelium and mesenchyme as well as in FACS isolated Pdx1-GFP(+) and -GFP(-) cell populations we demonstrate that several members of the Spred and Sprouty families are expressed in embryonic mouse pancreas and find Spred1 and -2 as well as Spry2 and -4 to be predominantly expressed in pancreatic mesenchyme. Using embryonic pancreas explant cultures we demonstrate that Spred1/2 and Spry2/4 expression is regulated by Fgf receptor signalling and is increased by treatment with Fgf9, but not by Fgf7 or Fgf10. We extend previous work showing that Fgf9 is expressed in pancreatic mesenchyme, and since Fgf9 is known to activate the mesenchyme-specific "c"-splice forms of Fgf receptors, while Fgf7 and -10 both activate the epithelium-specific "b"-splice forms of Fgf receptors, these results suggest that Fgf signalling is active in the pancreatic mesenchyme, where expression of Spred1/2 and Spry2/4 appear downstream of Fgf9 signalling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gep.2010.10.001DOI Listing
March 2011