Publications by authors named "Kathleen J Maheras"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Rapid Treatment with Intramuscular Magnesium Sulfate During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Does Not Provide Neuroprotection Following Cardiac Arrest.

Mol Neurobiol 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Brain injury is the most common cause of death for patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Magnesium is an attractive neuroprotective compound which protects neurons from ischemic injury by reducing neuronal calcium overload via NMDA receptor modulation and preventing calcium-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. Intramuscular (IM) delivery of MgSO during CPR has the potential to target these mechanisms within an early therapeutic window. We hypothesize that IM MgSO administrated during CPR could achieve therapeutic serum magnesium levels within 15 min after ROSC and improve neurologic outcomes in a rat model of asphyxial cardiac arrest. Male Long Evans rats were subjected to 8-min asphyxial cardiac arrest and block randomized to receive placebo, 107 mg/kg, 215 mg/kg, or 430 mg/kg MgSO IM at the onset of CPR. Serum magnesium concentrations increased rapidly with IM delivery during CPR, achieving twofold to fourfold increase by 15 min after ROSC in all magnesium dose groups. Rats subjected to cardiac arrest or sham surgery were block randomized to treatment groups for assessment of neurological outcomes. We found that IM MgSO during CPR had no effect on ROSC rate (p > 0.05). IM MgSO treatment had no statistically significant effect on 10-day survival with good neurologic function or hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron survival compared to placebo treatment. In conclusion, a single dose IM MgSO during CPR achieves up to fourfold baseline serum magnesium levels within 15 min after ROSC; however, this treatment strategy did not improve survival, recovery of neurologic function, or neuron survival. Future studies with repeated dosing or in combination with hypothermic targeted temperature management may be indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02645-xDOI Listing
January 2022

Mitochondrial fission and mitophagy are independent mechanisms regulating ischemia/reperfusion injury in primary neurons.

Cell Death Dis 2021 05 12;12(5):475. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy are constitutive and complex systems that ensure a healthy mitochondrial network through the segregation and subsequent degradation of damaged mitochondria. Disruption of these systems can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and has been established as a central mechanism of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Emerging evidence suggests that mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy are integrated systems; however, the role of this relationship in the context of I/R injury remains unclear. To investigate this concept, we utilized primary cortical neurons isolated from the novel dual-reporter mitochondrial quality control knockin mice (C57BL/6-Gt(ROSA)26Sortm1(CAG-mCherry/GFP)Ganl/J) with conditional knockout (KO) of Drp1 to investigate changes in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagic flux during in vitro I/R injury. Mitochondrial dynamics was quantitatively measured in an unbiased manner using a machine learning mitochondrial morphology classification system, which consisted of four different classifications: network, unbranched, swollen, and punctate. Evaluation of mitochondrial morphology and mitophagic flux in primary neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation (OGD/R) revealed extensive mitochondrial fragmentation and swelling, together with a significant upregulation in mitophagic flux. Furthermore, the primary morphology of mitochondria undergoing mitophagy was classified as punctate. Colocalization using immunofluorescence as well as western blot analysis revealed that the PINK1/Parkin pathway of mitophagy was activated following OGD/R. Conditional KO of Drp1 prevented mitochondrial fragmentation and swelling following OGD/R but did not alter mitophagic flux. These data provide novel evidence that Drp1 plays a causal role in the progression of I/R injury, but mitophagy does not require Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03752-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8115279PMC
May 2021

Machine learning-based classification of mitochondrial morphology in primary neurons and brain.

Sci Rep 2021 03 4;11(1):5133. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

The mitochondrial network continually undergoes events of fission and fusion. Under physiologic conditions, the network is in equilibrium and is characterized by the presence of both elongated and punctate mitochondria. However, this balanced, homeostatic mitochondrial profile can change morphologic distribution in response to various stressors. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a method that robustly measures mitochondrial morphology with high accuracy. Here, we developed a semi-automated image analysis pipeline for the quantitation of mitochondrial morphology for both in vitro and in vivo applications. The image analysis pipeline was generated and validated utilizing images of primary cortical neurons from transgenic mice, allowing genetic ablation of key components of mitochondrial dynamics. This analysis pipeline was further extended to evaluate mitochondrial morphology in vivo through immunolabeling of brain sections as well as serial block-face scanning electron microscopy. These data demonstrate a highly specific and sensitive method that accurately classifies distinct physiological and pathological mitochondrial morphologies. Furthermore, this workflow employs the use of readily available, free open-source software designed for high throughput image processing, segmentation, and analysis that is customizable to various biological models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84528-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933342PMC
March 2021

Neuregulin1 modulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

J Neuroimmunol 2018 05 11;318:56-64. Epub 2018 Mar 11.

Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation, University of Illinois at Chicago, United States. Electronic address:

Neuregulin1 (NRG1) is a differentiation factor that regulates glial development, survival, synaptogenesis, axoglial interactions, and microglial activation. We previously reported that a targeted NRG1 antagonist (HBD-S-H4) given intrathecally, reduces inflammatory microglial activation in a spinal cord pain model and a neurodegenerative disease mouse model in vivo, suggesting that it may have effects in neuroninflammatory and neuronal disorders. We hypothesized that expression of HBD-S-H4 in the central nervous system (CNS) could reduce disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, we generated tetO-HBD-S-H4, a single transgenic (Tg) mouse line in, which the fusion protein in expressed in the brain, resulting in reduction of disease severity in both male and female mice when compared to sex- and age-matched wild type littermates. We also generated GFAP-tTA:tetO-HBD-S-H4 double Tg mice, which express this fusion protein in the brain and the spinal cord, they displayed sex differences in the reduction of disease severity. In healthy mice, expression of HBD-S-H4 in the CNS does not result in any significant neurological or other overt phenotypes. In myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE, female double Tg mice show delayed disease onset and reduced disease severity compared to male double Tg as well as wild type littermates. In male double Tg mice, the levels of HBD-S-H4 gene expression negatively correlates with disease severity and increased microglia associated genes' expression. In conclusion, expression of neuregulin antagonist in the brain and spinal cord protects females but not males, suggesting a complex interplay between NRG1 and sex difference in EAE that may be associated with microglia-mediated inflammation. This study provides important information for understanding the heterogeneity of disease pathology and the therapeutic potential of targeting microglial activation in male and female MS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2018.02.008DOI Listing
May 2018

Absence of Claudin 11 in CNS Myelin Perturbs Behavior and Neurotransmitter Levels in Mice.

Sci Rep 2018 02 28;8(1):3798. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.

Neuronal origins of behavioral disorders have been examined for decades to construct frameworks for understanding psychiatric diseases and developing useful therapeutic strategies with clinical application. Despite abundant anecdotal evidence for white matter etiologies, including altered tractography in neuroimaging and diminished oligodendrocyte-specific gene expression in autopsy studies, mechanistic data demonstrating that dysfunctional myelin sheaths can cause behavioral deficits and perturb neurotransmitter biochemistry have not been forthcoming. At least in part, this impasse stems from difficulties in identifying model systems free of degenerative pathology to enable unambiguous assessment of neuron biology and behavior in a background of myelin dysfunction. Herein we examine myelin mutant mice lacking expression of the Claudin11 gene in oligodendrocytes and characterize two behavioral endophenotypes: perturbed auditory processing and reduced anxiety/avoidance. Importantly, these behaviors are associated with increased transmission time along myelinated fibers as well as glutamate and GABA neurotransmitter imbalances in auditory brainstem and amygdala, in the absence of neurodegeneration. Thus, our findings broaden the etiology of neuropsychiatric disease to include dysfunctional myelin, and identify a preclinical model for the development of novel disease-modifying therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22047-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5830493PMC
February 2018

Overexpression of CHOP in Myelinating Cells Does Not Confer a Significant Phenotype under Normal or Metabolic Stress Conditions.

J Neurosci 2016 06;36(25):6803-19

Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Department of Neurology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201 Department of Neurology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201

Unlabelled: The PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) pathway of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is protective against toxic accumulations of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, but is thought to drive cell death via the transcription factor, CHOP. However, in many cell types, CHOP is an obligate step in the PERK pathway, which frames the conundrum of a prosurvival pathway that kills cells. Our laboratory and others have previously demonstrated the prosurvival activity of the PERK pathway in oligodendrocytes. In the current study, we constitutively overexpress CHOP in myelinating cells during development and into adulthood under normal or UPR conditions. We show that this transcription factor does not drive apoptosis. Indeed, we observe no detriment in mice at multiple levels from single cells to mouse behavior and life span. In light of these data and other studies, we reinterpret PERK pathway function in the context of a stochastic vulnerability model, which governs the likelihood that cells undergo cell death upon cessation of UPR protection and while attempting to restore homeostasis.

Significance Statement: Herein, we tackle the biggest controversy in the UPR literature: the function of the transcription factor CHOP as a protective or a prodeath factor. This manuscript is timely in light of the 2014 Lasker award for the UPR. Our in vivo data show that CHOP is not a prodeath protein, and we demonstrate that myelinating glial cells function normally in the presence of high CHOP expression from development to adulthood. Further, we propose a simplified view of UPR-mediated cell death after CHOP induction. We anticipate our work may turn the tide of the dogmatic view of CHOP and cause a reinvestigation of its function in different cell types. Accordingly, we believe our work will be a watershed for the UPR field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1118-15.2016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4916253PMC
June 2016

Claudin-11 Tight Junctions in Myelin Are a Barrier to Diffusion and Lack Strong Adhesive Properties.

Biophys J 2015 Oct;109(7):1387-97

Biology Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

The radial component is a network of interlamellar tight junctions (TJs) unique to central nervous system myelin. Ablation of claudin-11, a TJ protein, results in the absence of the radial component and compromises the passive electrical properties of myelin. Although TJs are known to regulate paracellular diffusion, this barrier function has not been directly demonstrated for the radial component, and some evidence suggests that the radial component may also mediate adhesion between myelin membranes. To investigate the physical properties of claudin-11 TJs, we compared fresh, unfixed Claudin 11-null and control nerves using x-ray and neutron diffraction. In Claudin 11-null tissue, we detected no changes in myelin structure, stability, or membrane interactions, which argues against the notion that myelin TJs exhibit significant adhesive properties. Moreover, our osmotic stressing and D2O-H2O exchange experiments demonstrate that myelin lacking claudin-11 is more permeable to water and small osmolytes. Thus, our data indicate that the radial component serves primarily as a diffusion barrier and elucidate the mechanism by which TJs govern myelin function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2015.08.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4601091PMC
October 2015

Increased anesthesia time using 2,2,2-tribromoethanol-chloral hydrate with low impact on mouse psychoacoustics.

J Neurosci Methods 2013 Sep 12;219(1):61-9. Epub 2013 Jul 12.

Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Background: To examine psychoacoustics in mice, we have used 2,2,2-tribromoethanol anesthesia in multiple studies. We find this drug is fast-acting and yields consistent results, providing 25-30 min of anesthesia. Our recent studies in binaural hearing prompted development of a regimen to anesthesia time to 1h. We tested a novel cocktail using 2,2,2-tribromoethanol coupled with low dose chloral hydrate to extend the effective anesthesia time.

New Method: We have established an intraperitoneal dosing regimen for 2,2,2-tribromoethanol-chloral hydrate anesthesia. To measure efficacy of the drug cocktail, we measured auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) at 10 min intervals to determine the effects on hearing thresholds and wave amplitudes and latencies.

Results: This novel drug combination increases effective anesthesia to 1h. ABR Wave I amplitudes, but not latencies, are marginally suppressed. Additionally, amplitudes of the centrally derived Waves III and V show significant inter-animal variability that is independent of stimulus intensity. These data argue against the systematic suppression of ABRs by the drug cocktail.

Comparison With Existing Methods: Using 2,2,2-tribromoethanol-chloral hydrate combination in psychoacoustic studies has several advantages over other drug cocktails, the most important being preservation of latencies from centrally- and peripherally-derived ABR waves. In addition, hearing thresholds are unchanged and wave amplitudes are not systematically suppressed, although they exhibit greater variability.

Conclusions: We demonstrate that 375 mg/kg 2,2,2-tribromoethanol followed after 5 min by 200mg/kg chloral hydrate provides an anesthesia time of 60 min, has negligible effects on ABR wave latencies and thresholds and non-systematic effects on amplitudes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2013.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3818901PMC
September 2013

Transgene-mediated rescue of spermatogenesis in Cldn11-null mice.

Biol Reprod 2012 May 3;86(5):139, 1-11. Epub 2012 May 3.

Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

Claudins comprise a large family of tight junction (TJ) proteins that are often expressed broadly during development and in adult tissues and constitute the physical barriers that occlude the paracellular space in polarized epithelia. In mouse testis, the integrity of TJs is critical to normal spermatogenesis and is dependent on CLDN11 expression. In the current study, we have generated multiple transgenic mouse lines in which steady-state levels of transgene-derived Cldn11 mRNA are up to fourfold greater than endogenous gene expression. Spermatogenesis in all founder mice harboring two copies of the endogenous Cldn11 gene is normal. These animals breed well, indicating that transgene overexpression, at least at the level of mRNA, is well tolerated by Sertoli cells. In addition, we demonstrate that the promoter/enhancer of the transgene, comprising 5 kb of genomic sequence upstream of exon 1 of the mouse Cldn11 gene, is sufficient to rescue azoospermia in Cldn11-null mice. Finally, using transient transgenic mice, we narrow the location of Sertoli cell-specific cis regulatory elements to a 2-kb region upstream of the Cldn11 transcription start site. Together, these data provide essential information for further investigation of the biological regulation of CLDN11 TJs in the testis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.111.096230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3364922PMC
May 2012
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