Publications by authors named "Kathleen J Herron"

7 Publications

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Uncovering an intermediate phenotype associated with rs2200733 at 4q25 in lone atrial fibrillation.

Am J Cardiol 2011 Jun 8;107(12):1802-5. Epub 2011 Apr 8.

Cardiovascular Genetics Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Genomewide association studies have reproducibly identified rs2200733T on chromosome 4q25 as a risk factor for the most common sustained arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation (AF). The biologic basis for cardiac electrical instability conferred by this noncoding variant is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate potential relations between rs2200733 versus clinical and electrocardiographic traits in a cohort of patients with early-onset AF who lack traditional risk factors. Congruent with previous reports, the minor T allele was overrepresented in subjects with lone AF. All genotype groups were statistically similar for age at diagnosis, gender distribution, family history, body mass index, AF type, ventricular rate, QRS duration, corrected QT interval, and use of PR interval--prolonging medications. However, a novel association was identified between the TT genotype and duration of the PR interval. The TT group had a mean PR interval of 189.5 ± 35.8 ms in comparison to mean PR intervals of 172.0 ± 29.0 and 171.0 ± 27.1 ms for the CT and CC groups, respectively (p = 0.013 and p = 0.0056). In conclusion, PR interval length, an established risk factor for AF, represents an rs2200733-associated intermediate phenotype.
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June 2011

Mutations in ribonucleic acid binding protein gene cause familial dilated cardiomyopathy.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2009 Sep;54(10):930-41

Cardiovascular Genetics Laboratory, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Objectives: We sought to identify a novel gene for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Background: DCM is a heritable, genetically heterogeneous disorder that remains idiopathic in the majority of patients. Familial cases provide an opportunity to discover unsuspected molecular bases of DCM, enabling pre-clinical risk detection.

Methods: Two large families with autosomal-dominant DCM were studied. Genome-wide linkage analysis was used to identify a disease locus, followed by fine mapping and positional candidate gene sequencing. Mutation scanning was then performed in 278 unrelated subjects with idiopathic DCM, prospectively identified at the Mayo Clinic.

Results: Overlapping loci for DCM were independently mapped to chromosome 10q25-q26. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing of affected individuals in each family revealed distinct heterozygous missense mutations in exon 9 of RBM20, encoding ribonucleic acid (RNA) binding motif protein 20. Comprehensive coding sequence analyses identified missense mutations clustered within this same exon in 6 additional DCM families. Mutations segregated with DCM (peak composite logarithm of the odds score >11.49), were absent in 480 control samples, and altered residues within a highly conserved arginine/serine (RS)-rich region. Expression of RBM20 messenger RNA was confirmed in human heart tissue.

Conclusions: Our findings establish RBM20 as a DCM gene and reveal a mutation hotspot in the RS domain. RBM20 is preferentially expressed in the heart and encodes motifs prototypical of spliceosome proteins that regulate alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing, thus implicating a functionally distinct gene in human cardiomyopathy. RBM20 mutations are associated with young age at diagnosis, end-stage heart failure, and high mortality.
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September 2009

Atrial natriuretic peptide frameshift mutation in familial atrial fibrillation.

N Engl J Med 2008 Jul;359(2):158-65

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, USA.

Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia that is hereditary in a small subgroup of patients. In a family with 11 clinically affected members, we mapped an atrial fibrillation locus to chromosome 1p36-p35 and identified a heterozygous frameshift mutation in the gene encoding atrial natriuretic peptide. Circulating chimeric atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was detected in high concentration in subjects with the mutation, and shortened atrial action potentials were seen in an isolated heart model, creating a possible substrate for atrial fibrillation. This report implicates perturbation of the atrial natriuretic peptide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway in cardiac electrical instability.
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July 2008

Lone atrial fibrillation: influence of familial disease on gender predilection.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2008 Aug 21;19(8):802-6. Epub 2008 Mar 21.

Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Introduction: Epidemiological studies report a male predominance in lone atrial fibrillation (LAF). Phenotypic differences between sporadic and familial LAF could aid in deciding which cases should undergo family screening. We sought to determine gender distribution in sporadic and familial LAF, gender-based differences, and phenotypic differences between sporadic and familial LAF.

Methods: Since November 2000, 192 unrelated LAF probands were recruited. Sporadic LAF was defined as the absence of a family history of LAF. Familial LAF was classified as possible if one first- or second-degree relative had LAF, or confirmed if >or= 2 relatives had LAF. Affected relatives (n = 87) of 34 confirmed familial probands were also evaluated. For unrelated LAF probands, differences in proportions and means were tested using chi(2) and ANOVA, respectively. Difference in gender ratio among the family history groups was tested using mixed models.

Results: Male proportion was greater among sporadic (82%) and possible familial probands (84%) than confirmed familial probands (62%), and affected relatives (54%), P < 0.001. Sporadic LAF was more common in men (62%) than women (51%), P = 0.03. More women were affected by palpitation and nocturnal symptoms than men. More patients had permanent AF in the confirmed familial group (27%), compared with the possible familial (7%) and the sporadic LAF group (8%), P = 0.05, but no other phenotypic discriminators were identified.

Conclusions: Male predilection for LAF is attenuated as the likelihood of dominant Mendelian inheritance increases. Increased frequency of "sporadic" LAF among men could be partially due to X-linked recessive inheritance. Finally, sporadic and familial LAF are clinically indistinguishable.
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August 2008

X-linked nonsyndromic sinus node dysfunction and atrial fibrillation caused by emerin mutation.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2008 May 4;19(5):510-5. Epub 2008 Feb 4.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, and Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a heritable disorder with male predilection, suggesting a sex chromosome defect in certain patients. Loss-of-function truncation mutations in EMD, encoding the nuclear membrane protein emerin, cause X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) characterized by localized contractures and skeletal myopathy in adolescence, sinus node dysfunction (SND) in early adulthood, and atrial fibrillation as a variably associated trait. This study sought to identify the genetic basis for male-restricted, nonsyndromic sinus node dysfunction and AF in a multigenerational family.

Methods And Results: Genealogical and medical records, and DNA samples, were obtained. Progressive SND and AF occurred in four males related through maternal lineages, consistent with X-linked inheritance. Skeletal myopathy was absent, even at advanced ages. Targeted X chromosome genotyping mapped the disease locus to Xq28, implicating EMD as a positional candidate gene. DNA sequencing revealed hemizygosity for an in-frame 3-bp deletion in EMD (Lys37del) in affected males, disrupting a residue within the LEM binding domain critical for nuclear assembly but leaving the remainder of the protein intact. Buccal epithelial cell staining with emerin antibody demonstrated near-total functional loss of emerin. Female relatives underwent prospective electrocardiographic and genetic testing. Those heterozygous for Lys37del had approximately 50-70% emerin-positive nuclei and variable degrees of paroxysmal supraventricular arrhythmia.

Conclusions: Mutation of EMD can underlie X-linked familial AF. Lys37del is associated with epithelial cell emerin deficiency, as in EDMD, yet it causes electrical atriomyopathy in the absence of skeletal muscle disease. Targeted genetic testing of EMD should be considered in patients with SND-associated AF and/or family history suggesting X-linked inheritance.
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May 2008

Sodium channel mutations and susceptibility to heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

JAMA 2005 Jan;293(4):447-54

Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minn 55905, USA.

Context: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a genetically heterogeneous disorder, causes heart failure and rhythm disturbances. The majority of identified DCM genes encode structural proteins of the contractile apparatus and cytoskeleton. Recently, genetic defects in calcium and potassium regulation have been discovered in patients with DCM, implicating an alternative disease mechanism. The full spectrum of genetic defects in DCM, however, has not been established.

Objectives: To identify a novel gene for DCM at a previously mapped locus, define the spectrum of mutations in this gene within a DCM cohort, and determine the frequency of DCM among relatives inheriting a mutation in this gene.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Refined mapping of a DCM locus on chromosome 3p in a multigenerational family and mutation scanning in 156 unrelated probands with DCM, prospectively identified at the Mayo Clinic between 1987 and 2004. Relatives underwent screening echocardiography and electrocardiography and DNA sample procurement.

Main Outcome Measure: Correlation of identified mutations with cardiac phenotype.

Results: Refined locus mapping revealed SCN5A, encoding the cardiac sodium channel, as a candidate gene. Mutation scans identified a missense mutation (D1275N) that cosegregated with an age-dependent, variably expressed phenotype of DCM, atrial fibrillation, impaired automaticity, and conduction delay. In the DCM cohort, additional missense (T220I, R814W, D1595H) and truncation (2550-2551insTG) SCN5A mutations, segregating with cardiac disease or arising de novo, were discovered in unrelated probands. Among individuals with an SCN5A mutation 27% had early features of DCM (mean age at diagnosis, 20.3 years), 38% had DCM (mean age at diagnosis, 47.9 years), and 43% had atrial fibrillation (mean age at diagnosis, 27.8 years).

Conclusions: Heritable SCN5A defects are associated with susceptibility to early-onset DCM and atrial fibrillation. Similar or even identical mutations may lead to heart failure, arrhythmia, or both.
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January 2005

Familial atrial fibrillation is a genetically heterogeneous disorder.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2003 Jun;41(12):2185-92

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to identify and characterize familial cases of atrial fibrillation (AF) in our clinical practice and to determine whether AF is genetically heterogeneous.

Background: Atrial fibrillation is not generally regarded as a heritable disorder, yet a genetic locus for familial AF was previously mapped to chromosome 10.

Methods: Of 2,610 patients seen in our arrhythmia clinic during an 18-month study period, 914 (35%) were diagnosed with AF. Familial cases were identified by history and medical records review. Four multi-generation families with autosomal dominant AF (FAF 1 to 4) were tested for linkage to the chromosome 10 AF locus.

Results: Fifty probands (5% of all AF patients; 15% of lone AF patients) were identified with lone AF (age 41 +/- 9 years) and a positive family history (1 to 9 additional relatives affected). In FAF 1 to 3, AF was associated with rapid ventricular response. In contrast, AF in FAF-4 was associated with a slow ventricular response and, with progression of the disease, junctional rhythm and cardiomyopathy. Genotyping of FAF 1 to 4 with deoxyribonucleic acid markers spanning the chromosome 10q22-q24 region excluded linkage of AF to this locus. In FAF-4, linkage was also excluded to the chromosome 3p22-p25 and lamin A/C loci associated with familial AF, conduction system disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy.

Conclusions: Familial AF is more common than previously recognized, highlighting the importance of genetics in disease pathogenesis. In four families with AF, we have excluded linkage to chromosome 10q22-q24, establishing that at least two disease genes are responsible for this disorder.
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June 2003