Publications by authors named "Katherine M Raspovic"

30 Publications

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Insulin Dependence Increases the Risk of 30-Day Postoperative Complications Following Ankle Fracture Surgery in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Associate Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Electronic address:

Patients with diabetes mellitus that undergo ankle fracture surgery have higher rates of postoperative complications compared to patients without diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the rate of complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, and patients without diabetes in the 30-day postoperative period following ankle fracture surgery. We also analyzed hospital length of stay, unplanned readmission, unplanned reoperation, and death. Patients who underwent operative management for ankle fractures between 2012 and 2016 were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program® database using Current Procedural Terminology codes. Multiple logistic regression was implemented. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated along with the 95% confidence interval. A total of 19,547 patients undergoing ankle surgery were identified from 2012 to 2016. Of these patients, 989 (5.06%) had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 1256 (6.43%) had noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 17,302 (88.51%) did not have diabetes mellitus. Compared to patients without diabetes, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had significantly greater adjusted odds of superficial surgical site infections, deep surgical site infections, osteomyelitis, wound dehiscence, pneumonia, unplanned intubation, mechanical ventilation, urinary tract infection, cardiac arrest, bleeding requiring transfusion, sepsis, hospital length of stay, unplanned readmission, unplanned reoperation, and death following ankle fracture surgery. We demonstrate that insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a strong predictor of 30-day postoperative complications, unplanned readmission, unplanned reoperation, and death following ankle fracture surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2021.03.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Charcot Midfoot Reconstruction: Does Subtalar Arthrodesis or Medial Column Fixation Improve Outcomes?

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Nov - Dec;59(6):1219-1223. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Assistant Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Electronic address:

Charcot neuroarthropathy is a complication of neuropathy often secondary to diabetes mellitus and most commonly affects the midfoot. In these patients, reconstruction of the foot may be required for limb salvage. A superconstruct technique has previously been described using intramedullary beaming fixation of the midfoot and hindfoot to span the zone of injury. Inclusion of the subtalar joint in the arthrodesis construct is not consistently performed among different surgeons. The aim of this study was to describe midfoot beaming constructs and postoperative complications after midfoot reconstruction with and without subtalar arthrodesis. We reviewed medical records of patients who underwent midfoot Charcot reconstruction with an intramedullary beaming superconstruct. Patients included in the study had at least 3 months of follow-up and had Sanders-Frykberg II/III classification of Charcot neuroarthropathy. Postoperative radiographs were evaluated for evidence of hardware failure at the latest follow-up evaluation. The main variables of interest were: hardware failure or nonunion requiring revision operation, deep infection, and unplanned reoperation. Thirty patients who underwent midfoot reconstruction were included. The mean follow-up was 67.4 ± 25.9 weeks. Twenty-two (73.3%) patients had concomitant subtalar arthrodesis and midfoot beaming. Overall complications were lower in patients with subtalar arthrodesis (40.9%) than those without subtalar arthrodesis (75%) resulting in an odds ratio of 0.271 (0.042-1.338, p = .146). Furthermore, increased number of screws used in the midfoot construct was negatively correlated with complications (r = -0.44, p = .01). An intramedullary midfoot beaming superconstruct with subtalar arthrodesis has previously been proposed to provide better fixation after midfoot beaming Charcot neuroarthropathy reconstruction. Our results suggest including the subtalar joint as part of a superconstruct for the reconstruction of Sanders-Frykberg II/III Charcot results in an 80% lower complication rate than intramedullary beaming alone. We also found an increased number of screws used in the midfoot results in a lower complication rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2020.07.001DOI Listing
July 2020

Lyopreserved amniotic membrane is cellularly and clinically similar to cryopreserved construct for treating foot ulcers.

Int Wound J 2020 Dec 21;17(6):1893-1901. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

We compared cellular viability between cryopreserved and lyopreserved amniotic membranes and clinical outcomes of the lyopreserved construct in a prospective cohort study of 40 patients with neuropathic foot ulcers. Patients received weekly application of lyopreserved membrane for 12 weeks with standard weekly debridement and offloading. We evaluated the proportion of foot ulcers that closed, time to closure, closure trajectories, and infection during therapy. We used chi-square tests for dichotomous variables and independent t-tests for continuous variables with an alpha of α = .10. Cellular viability was equivalent between cryo- and lyopreserved amniotic tissues. Clinically, 48% of subjects' wounds closed in an average of 40.0 days. Those that did not close were older (63 vs 59 years, P = .011) and larger ulcers at baseline (7.8 vs 1.6 cm , P = .012). Significantly more patients who achieved closure reached a 50% wound area reduction in 4 weeks compared with non-closed wounds (73.7% vs 47.6%, P = .093). There was no difference in the slope of the wound closure trajectories between closed and non-closed wounds (0.124 and 0.159, P = .85), indicating the rate of closure was similar. The rate of closure was 0.60 mm/day (SD = 0.47) for wounds that closed and 0.50 mm/day (SD = 0.58) for wounds that did not close (P = .89).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iwj.13479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754413PMC
December 2020

Evaluation of Peripheral Perfusion in the Presence of Plantar Heel Ulcerations Status After Transmetatarsal Amputation With Achilles Tendon Lengthening.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Sep - Oct;59(5):892-897. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Attending Physician, Department of Plastic Surgery, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington DC.

The objective of this study is to evaluate peripheral perfusion in patients who developed plantar heel ulcerations status after transmetatarsal amputation and Achilles tendon lengthening. Peripheral perfusion was assessed via contrast angiography of the 3 crural vessels (anterior tibial, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries), as well as intact heel blush and plantar arch. The secondary objective is to correlate the arterial flow to time to develop heel ulceration and incidence of minor and major lower-extremity amputation. Diagnostic angiography without intervention was performed on 40% of patients (4/10), and interventional angiography was performed on 60% of patients (6/10). In-line flow was present in 0% (0/10) of the peroneal arteries, 60% (6/10) of the anterior tibial arteries, and 70% (7/10) of the posterior tibial arteries. Heel angiographic contrast blush was present in 60% (6/10), and intact plantar arch was present in 60% (6/10). Patients developed heel ulcerations at a mean time of 7.6 months (range 0.7 to 41.2) postoperatively. The incidence of major lower-extremity amputation was 30% (3/10), with a mean time of 5.2 months (range 3.5 to 8.3) from time of heel wound development. No amputation occurred in 6 patients (60%). Among them, intact anterior tibial inline arterial flow was present in 3, intact posterior tibial inline arterial flow was present in 6, and heel blush was present in 5. Our results demonstrate that an open calcaneal branch of the posterior tibial artery is sufficient to heal plantar heel ulcerations to potentially increase rates of limb salvage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2019.11.002DOI Listing
June 2020

Flexible Fixation in Foot and Ankle Surgery.

Clin Podiatr Med Surg 2019 Oct 23;36(4):553-562. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 1801 Inwood Road, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

Flexible fixation has been described and utilized in various aspects of foot and ankle surgery over the past several decades. In regards to ankle surgery, flexible fixation devices have been used for stabilization of the ankle syndesmosis and augmentation of lateral collateral ankle ligament repair. In the foot, flexible fixation devices have been incorporated into hallux valgus or varus correction, Lisfranc injury repair, and more recently spring ligament repair augmentation. This article reviews the various applications for flexible fixation in foot and ankle surgery, as well as evidence-based literature on surgical applications and clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpm.2019.06.003DOI Listing
October 2019

Trauma in the Diabetic Limb.

Clin Podiatr Med Surg 2019 Jul 8;36(3):499-523. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 1801 Inwood Road, Dallas, TX 75390-8883, USA; Foot and Ankle Service, Orthopaedic Surgery, Parkland Memorial Hospital, Level 1 Trauma Center, 5200 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75235, USA.

Poorly controlled diabetes with comorbid manifestations negatively affects outcomes in lower extremity trauma, increasing the risk of short-term and long-term complications. Management strategies of patients with diabetes that experience lower extremity trauma should also include perioperative management of hyperglycemia to reduce adverse and serious adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpm.2019.02.012DOI Listing
July 2019

Optimizing Results in Diabetic Charcot Reconstruction.

Clin Podiatr Med Surg 2019 Jul 11;36(3):469-481. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 1801 Inwood Road, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Reconstruction of the diabetic Charcot foot can be a challenge even for the most experienced foot and ankle surgeon. The first portion of this article discusses the preoperative evaluation with an emphasis on factors that can be modified before surgical reconstruction to help optimize surgical results. The second portion of the article focuses on intraoperative methods and techniques to help improve postoperative outcomes. Surgeons should strive to provide high-quality, cost-effective care by optimizing patient selection and perioperative care. Objective measures of patient outcomes will become increasingly important with the transition from volume-based to value-based care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpm.2019.02.010DOI Listing
July 2019

Lower Extremity Necrotizing Fasciitis in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients: Mortality and Amputation.

Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2019 Jun 1;18(2):114-121. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

1 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Lower extremity necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a severe infection requiring immediate surgery. The aim of this study was to assess patient factors predictive of amputation and mortality in diabetes mellitus (DM) and non-DM patients with lower extremity NF. The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database was reviewed retrospectively. Out of 674 patients with lower extremity NF, 387 had DM (57.4%). Patients with DM had lower mortality ( = .004). Increased mortality was independently associated with age >60 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-9.77), partial thromboplastin time >38 seconds (aOR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.09-6.62), albumin <2.0 mg/dL (aOR = 2.84, 95% CI = 1.13-7.37), coagulopathy (aOR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.24-9.19), higher anesthesia risk category (aOR = 3.08, 95% CI = 1.18, 8.59), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aOR = 3.46, 95% CI = 1.13-10.9), postoperative acute respiratory distress syndrome (aOR = 5.24, 95% CI = 2.04-14.4), and postoperative septic shock (aOR = 5.14, 95% CI = 1.94-14.1). Amputation was independently associated with DM (aOR = 4.35, 95% CI = 2.63-7.35) but not mortality. Although DM was associated with more amputations for lower extremity NF, patients with DM had lower mortality than non-DM patients in the bivariate analysis. Further research is needed to investigate outcomes among DM and non-DM patients in the context of lower extremity NF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534734619836464DOI Listing
June 2019

Surgical Management of Displaced Intra-Articular Calcaneal Fractures: What Matters Most?

Clin Podiatr Med Surg 2019 Apr 24;36(2):173-184. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 1801 Inwood Road, Dallas, TX 75390-8883, USA.

Displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures are severe, complex injuries that can cause significant long-term functional impairment. Despite the controversies of whether these fractures should be treated operatively or nonoperatively, functional improvement can be seen with confounding variables that can be controlled by the surgeon. This article reviews prognostic factors that are associated with good functional outcomes following operatively treated displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpm.2018.10.002DOI Listing
April 2019

Increased Rates of Readmission, Reoperation, and Mortality Following Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Ankle Fractures Are Associated With Diabetes Mellitus.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2019 May 11;58(3):470-474. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of readmission, reoperation, and mortality in patients with and without diabetes mellitus during the 30-day postoperative period after ankle fracture surgery. Patients who underwent operative management for ankle fractures between 2006 and 2015 were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database by using Current Procedural Terminology codes for ankle fracture surgery. A total of 17,464 patients undergoing ankle fracture surgery were identified. Of these patients, 2044 (11.7%) had diabetes and 15,420 (88.3%) did not have diabetes. We excluded patients older than 90 years or with inadequate perioperative data. Patients with diabetes had significantly higher rates of readmission (2.84% vs 1.05%, p < .0001), significantly higher rates of unplanned reoperation (2.3% vs 0.74%, p < .0001), and significantly higher rates of mortality (0.7% vs 0.2%, p < .0001) compared with patients without diabetes. Additionally, patients with diabetes had significantly greater age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of unplanned readmission (OR 2.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74 to 3.31, p < .0001), unplanned reoperation (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.27, p < .0001), and mortality (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.62, p = .0432) than did patients without diabetes after ankle surgery. In this large-scale retrospective study, we demonstrated that the presence of diabetes significantly increases the risk of unplanned readmission, unplanned reoperation, and mortality during the 30-day postoperative period after ankle fracture surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2018.09.023DOI Listing
May 2019

Renal Function as a Predictor of Early Transmetatarsal Amputation Failure.

Foot Ankle Spec 2019 Oct 12;12(5):439-451. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (JA, KMR, GTL, DKW), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major concern in patients with foot disease because it is associated with high rates of neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, and poor wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate renal dysfunction as a risk factor for reamputation after initial transmetatarsal amputation (TMA). Patients who underwent a TMA were retrospectively identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Of 2018 patients, reamputation after TMA occurred in 4.4%. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) was associated with 100% increased odds of TMA failure (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.10, 3.52), 128% increased odds of major amputation (adjusted OR = 2.28; 95% CI = 1.27, 3.96), and 182% increased odds of 30-day mortality (adjusted OR = 2.82; 95% CI = 1.69, 4.64). In addition, white blood cell count >10 000/mm and deep infection at the time of surgery were independently associated with TMA failure. In conclusion, severe renal dysfunction is associated with TMA failure in the short-term, perioperative period. There was no incremental increase in risk of TMA failure with worsening level of renal function before ESRD. A multidisciplinary approach should be implemented in patients with CKD to prevent foot-related pathologies that may necessitate lower-extremity amputation. : .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1938640018816371DOI Listing
October 2019

Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Characterization of Normal Anatomic Morphology and Variations of the Distal Tibiofibular Syndesmosis.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2018 Nov - Dec;57(6):1130-1136. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Associate Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; Assistant Professor, Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Malreduction of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (DTFS) leads to poor functional outcomes after ankle fracture surgery. Difficulty achieving anatomic alignment of the syndesmosis is due to variable morphology of the fibular incisura of the tibia and a paucity of literature regarding its morphologic characteristics. We surveyed 775 consecutive ankle computed tomography (CT) scans performed from June 2008 to December 2011, and 203 (26.2%) were included for evaluation. Two observers performed quantitative measurements and qualitative evaluated fibular incisura morphology. Tang ratios for fibular rotation, anterior and posterior tibiofibular distances, fibular incisura depth, and subjective morphologies on CT were assessed using conventional multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projections (MIPs). On conventional CT, the mean Tang ratio was 0.97 ± 0.06; the mean anterior tibiofibular distance was 2.17 ± 0.87 mm; the mean posterior tibiofibular distance was 3.52 ± 0.94 mm; and the mean depth of fibular incisura was 3.29 ± 1.19 mm. Five morphologic variations of the fibular incisura were identified: crescentic, trapezoid, flat, chevron, and widow's peak. The most common fibular incisura morphology was crescentic (61.3%), followed by trapezoid shape (25.1%); the least common morphology was flat (3.1%). Interobserver variability with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was slightly higher for all quantitative measures on MPR (ICC = 0.72 to .81) versus MIP (ICC = 0.64 to 0.75). ICC for incisura shape and depth assessments was poor on both modalities (0.13 to 0.38). This comprehensive CT study reports on quantitative and qualitative descriptive measures to evaluate fibular incisura morphologies and fibular orientation. It also defines the frequency of DTFS measures and the interobserver performance on 2 CT evaluation methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2018.05.013DOI Listing
February 2019

Gender Differences on SF-36 Patient-Reported Outcomes of Diabetic Foot Disease.

Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2018 Jun 21;17(2):87-93. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of gender on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using a generic (Short Form-36 [SF-36]) and region-specific (Foot and Ankle Ability Measure [FAAM]) health measurement tool among a matched cohort of male and female patients with diabetes-related foot complications. The HRQOL of 240 patients with diabetic foot disease was measured using the SF-36 and the FAAM surveys. A total of 120 male patients were matched with 120 female patients with the same primary diagnosis, age, type, and duration of diabetes and insulin use. The SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores were calculated using orthogonal and oblique rotation methods. The median age of the respondents was 54 years (interquartile range = 46-61). No differences in patient characteristics were found between genders. Among the SF-36 subscales, women reported significantly worse physical function ( P = .014) and bodily pain ( P = .021) scores with a trending decrease in general health score ( P = .067). Subsequently, women had worse orthogonal ( P = .009) and oblique PCS scores ( P = .036) than men. However, orthogonal ( P = .427) or oblique ( P = .140) MCS scores did not differ between groups. No significant differences in FAAM scores with respect to gender were appreciated. Our findings suggest that in patients with diabetic foot disease, women tend to report lower physical HRQOL compared with men. In efforts to increase compliance, providers should recognize the impact of gender on patients' perceptions of foot-related complications of diabetes. This knowledge may improve outcomes by adapting more individualized and gender-specific approaches to patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534734618774664DOI Listing
June 2018

Effectiveness of viable cryopreserved placental membranes for management of diabetic foot ulcers in a real world setting.

Wound Repair Regen 2018 03 23;26(2):213-220. Epub 2018 May 23.

Osiris Therapeutics, Inc., Columbia, Maryland.

In a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT), the use of viable cryopreserved placental membrane (vCPM) for chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) resulted in a higher proportion of wound closure in comparison to good wound care: 62% versus 21% (p < 0.01). However, patients in RCTs are not representative of daily physician practice. Healthcare databases serve as a valuable tool to evaluate therapy effectiveness and to supplement evidence from RCTs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vCPM for DFU management using Net Health's WoundExpert® electronic health records (EHR). The primary endpoint was the proportion of DFUs that achieved complete closure. Other endpoints included time and number of grafts to closure, probability of wound closure by week 12, and the number of wound-related infections and amputations. De-identified EHR data for 360 patients with 441 wounds treated with vCPM were extracted from the database. Average patient age was 63.7 years with a mean wound size of 5.1 cm and an average wound duration of 102 days prior to vCPM treatment. For evaluation of clinical outcomes, 350 DFUs larger than 0.25 cm at baseline were analyzed. Closure at the end of treatment was achieved in 59.4% of wounds with a median treatment duration of 42.0 days and 4 applications of vCPM. The probability of wound closure at week 12 was 71%, and the number of amputations and wound-related infections was 13 (3.0%) and 9 (2.0%), respectively. Data also demonstrated a correlation between wound size and closure rate as well as a correlation between > 50% wound area reduction by week 4 and wound closure by week 12. The results of this study mirror previous RCT efficacy data, supporting the benefits of vCPM for DFU management. These results can also influence policy and treatment decisions regarding advanced vCPM technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/wrr.12635DOI Listing
March 2018

Scoring Mental Health Quality of Life With the SF-36 in Patients With and Without Diabetes Foot Complications.

Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2018 Mar 16;17(1):30-35. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

1 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

The aim of this study was to examine if using orthogonal and oblique factor analysis detect changes in health-related quality of life differently in diabetic patients on the Short Form-36 (SF-36) survey. A total of 155 patients had diabetic foot complications (DFC), and 145 patients had no DFCs. The SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores were calculated using scoring coefficients determined by orthogonal and oblique rotation principle component analyses of the subscales. The DFC group had lower orthogonal ( P < .00001) and oblique PCS scores ( P < .00001). However, despite lower Mental Health subscale scores in the patients with DFCs, orthogonal MCS scores ( P = .156) did not differ. In contrast, the oblique MCS scores reflected the difference in the Mental Health subscale ( P = .0005). Orthogonal and oblique PCS scores did not differ significantly. However, orthogonal MCS scores were significantly higher than oblique MCS scores in those with DFCs ( P = .0004) and without DFCs ( P = .005). The shorter, 12-item SF-12 survey demonstrated similar results. Poorer physical function leads to higher orthogonal MCS scores than if determined by oblique scoring coefficients since Physical Function, Bodily Pain, and General Health are weighted more negatively in orthogonal coefficients when calculating the MCS score. Oblique scoring coefficients may address this issue, but further study is necessary to confirm whether oblique MCS scores accurately represent the mental health of patients with diabetic foot disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534734618762226DOI Listing
March 2018

Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Diabetic Foot Disease: Why Is It Important and How Can We Improve? The 2017 Roger E. Pecoraro Award Lecture.

Diabetes Care 2018 03;41(3):391-397

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have become an important subject in the area of diabetes-related foot complications. Self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) surveys can provide a generic measure of overall health (global) and can be disease specific (i.e., diabetes) or even region specific (i.e., lower-extremity function). Analysis of PRO measures utilizing validated instruments allows health care providers to determine whether medical and surgical treatments are providing patients with the highest level of outcome possible and are actually improving HRQOL. The 36-item Short Form (SF-36), EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L), and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) are examples of commonly used HRQOL surveys. Low HRQOL has been associated with higher rates of hospital admission and mortality in patients with diabetes. Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with diabetes-related foot disease have low self-reported physical quality of life but do not typically report low mental quality of life. The impact of mental quality of life may be underestimated in these patients using the SF-36. In this article, we will discuss several widely used outcome instruments used to measure patient HRQOL and the impact of diabetic foot disease on HRQOL. As health care providers, we must continue to adjust and modify our treatments to achieve the best patient outcomes and associated high quality of life. Assessing PROs will become increasingly important as health care systems transition from a volume-based reimbursement model to a value-based model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dci17-0029DOI Listing
March 2018

Patients With Diabetic Foot Disease Fear Major Lower-Extremity Amputation More Than Death.

Foot Ankle Spec 2018 Feb 1;11(1):17-21. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (DKW).

Background: The aim of this study was to identify the most-feared complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), comparing those with diabetic foot pathology with those without diabetic foot pathology.

Methods: We determined the frequency of patients ranking major lower-extremity amputation (LEA) as their greatest fear in comparison to blindness, death, diabetic foot infection (DFI), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis. We further categorized the study group patients (N = 207) by their pathology such as diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), Charcot neuroarthropathy, foot infection, or acute neuropathic fractures and dislocations. The control group (N = 254) was comprised of patients with diabetes who presented with common non-diabetes-related foot pathology.

Results: A total of 461 patients were enrolled in this study and included 254 patients without diabetic foot complications and 207 patients with diabetic foot problems. When comparing patients with and without diabetic disease, no significant differences were observed with regard to their fear of blindness, DFI, or ESRD requiring dialysis. Patients with diabetic foot disease (61 of 207, 31.9%) were 136% more likely (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.51-3.70; P = .002] to rank major LEA as their greatest fear when compared with diabetic patients without foot disease (42 of 254, 16.5%) and were 49% less likely (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.34-0.79; P = .002) to rank death as their greatest fear compared with patients without diabetic foot disease.

Conclusion: Patients with diabetic foot pathology fear major LEA more than death, foot infection, or ESRD. Variables that were associated with ranking LEA as the greatest fear were the presence of a diabetic-related foot complication, duration of DM ≥10 years, insulin use, and the presence of peripheral neuropathy.

Levels Of Evidence: Level II: Prospective, Case controlled study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1938640017694722DOI Listing
February 2018

End-Stage Renal Disease Negatively Affects Physical Quality of Life in Patients With Diabetic Foot Complications.

Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2017 Jun 4;16(2):135-142. Epub 2017 May 4.

2 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on health-related quality of life (QOL) in patients with diabetic foot disease. We compared a group of 30 diabetic patients with ESRD requiring dialysis to a group of 60 diabetic patients without ESRD. Both groups consisted of patients with active diabetic foot disease (ulcer, Charcot, infection) and were matched with regard to age and gender. Self-reported QOL was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores and the region-specific Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM). Diabetic foot patients with ESRD requiring dialysis were found to have significantly higher creatinine levels, lower hemoglobin levels, lower albumin levels, higher rates of peripheral arterial disease, and lower rates of Charcot neuroarthropathy than patients without ESRD. The median PCS was significantly lower in the ESRD group; however, no significant difference was found when comparing the median MCS and FAAM. Patients who ultimately died had a tendency to report lower PCS scores at baseline compared with those patients who did not die ( P = .07). Patients who ultimately required major amputation also reported lower PCS scores at baseline. ESRD negatively affects physical QOL to a greater degree than mental QOL in patients with diabetic foot disease. The SF-36 may not be sensitive enough to capture impaired mental QOL because both groups had relatively high MCS scores. Low physical QOL may be associated with mortality and the eventual need for major amputation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534734617707081DOI Listing
June 2017

Improved Quality of Life After Transtibial Amputation in Patients With Diabetes-Related Foot Complications.

Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2017 Jun 21;16(2):114-121. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

1 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life after major lower-extremity amputation in a cohort of patients with diabetes mellitus. We evaluated 81 patients with diabetes and transtibial amputation (TTA) who had a minimum of 1 year of follow-up. Of these 81 patients, 50.6% completed the Short Form Survey (SF-36) and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) preoperatively and postoperatively. Outcome measures before and after TTA were compared using Welch's ANOVA for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. There was significant improvement in all 8 subscales of the SF-36, physical component summary (PCS) score, mental component summary (MCS) score, and the FAAM. The median SF-36 PCS score improved from 26.2 to 36.6 preoperatively versus postoperatively ( P < .0005). The postoperative PCS score improved in 75.6% of patients and worsened in 24.4%. The median SF-36 MCS score improved from 43.7 to 56.1 preoperatively versus postoperatively ( P < .0005). Both the FAAM activities of daily living (ADL; P < .005) and FAAM sports scores ( P < .05) improved significantly. The postoperative FAAM general/ADL score improved in 75.6% of patients and worsened in 24.4%. Patients who were nonambulatory postoperatively had significantly lower SF-36 general health subscale scores and lower FAAM scores than patients who were ambulatory postoperatively. In select patients with nonfunctional lower extremities resulting from instability and/or chronic infection, TTA can result in significant improvement in quality of life and lower-extremity function. We acknowledge that 25% of patients had a reduction in self-reported quality of life; however, 75% of patients improved their quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534734617704083DOI Listing
June 2017

A Wound Complication After Percutaneous Achilles Tendon Lengthening Requiring Surgical Excision: A Case Report.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2017 May - Jun;56(3):680-682

Assistant Professor, Department of Plastic Surgery, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC.

A percutaneous tendo-Achilles lengthening procedure corrects limited ankle joint equinus by decreasing the pull of the triceps surae complex. The standard technique using 3-incision hemisection described by Hoke is often used in patients with diabetes because of the minimal number of incisions and low risk of wound complications. We describe a patient who underwent percutaneous tendo-Achilles lengthening with a resultant open wound complication requiring staged surgical debridement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2017.01.040DOI Listing
November 2017

Comparison of Transtibial Amputations in Diabetic Patients With and Without End-Stage Renal Disease.

Foot Ankle Int 2017 Apr 19;38(4):388-396. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

3 Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Background: The primary purpose of this retrospective study was to report on a consecutive series of 102 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) who underwent transtibial amputation (TTA) for chronic infections and nonreconstructable lower extremity deformities. A secondary aim was to compare the outcomes of TTA patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis (ESRD) to patients without ESRD, and to identify risk factors for mortality after TTA.

Methods: This cohort involved a consecutive series of patients who were treated by a single surgeon. The TTA patients were divided into 2 groups for analysis. The study group included those patients with ESRD who underwent TTA, and the control group included those patients who did not have ESRD.

Results: At the time of final follow-up, 64 of 102 patients were ambulatory with a prosthesis. There was a significant improvement in ambulatory status after amputation (preoperatively 45.1%, postoperatively 62.7%, P = .02). Wound healing complications (infection and/or dehiscence) occurred in 31 of 102 patients and led to a transfemoral amputation in 4 patients. After TTA patients with ESRD were significantly more likely to die (52.4% vs. 23.5%, p <0.05) and significantly less like to ambulate (42.9% vs. 67.9%, p <0.05) than patients without ESRD. Contralateral foot problems after the TTA occurred in 33 of 97 patients and resulted in 10 patients undergoing a contralateral transtibial amputation. Excluding patients with bilateral amputations (5 prior to and 10 after the index amputation), 64 of 87 patients with successful unilateral transtibial amputations were able to ambulate with a prosthesis. Thirty of 102 patients (29.4%) died during the follow-up period, and 6 of these deaths occurred during the perioperative period (within 30 days of surgery). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to the use of staged TTA, need for transfemoral amputation, or wound healing problems at the amputation site. Patients who were unable to walk postoperatively had a calculated 5-year survival rate of 30.1%, whereas those who were ambulatory had a 5-year survival rate of 68.8%. Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated a 62% reduced risk of mortality in patients who were able to ambulate after LEA compared with those patients who were not able to ambulate.

Conclusion: TTA in patients with diabetes was associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Risk factors that were significantly associated with an increased rate of mortality were the presence of ESRD, age ≥56 years, and inability to ambulate postoperatively.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective case controlled study.
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April 2017

What Role Does Function Play in Deciding on Limb Salvage versus Amputation in Patients With Diabetes?

Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Sep;138(3 Suppl):188S-195S

Dallas, Texas; and Washington, D.C.

Background: Patients with diabetic foot disease are at an increased risk for lower extremity amputation (LEA), premature mortality, and reduced health-related quality of life. In the setting of chronic infection, significant tissue loss, and/or an unstable deformity, limb salvage may not be possible, and major amputation is necessary.

Methods: The primary goal of this study was to review the literature with an emphasis on the functional aspects associated with successful limb salvage versus major LEA. A secondary goal was to review the epidemiology, quality of life, mortality, and energy expenditure associated with diabetic foot disease.

Results: After major LEA, patients with diabetes are 3 times more likely to die within 1 year of surgery compared with patients who have not undergone LEA. Only two thirds of diabetic patients who undergo major LEA will ambulate with a prosthesis. This increased risk of death is not fully explained by complications of diabetes mellitus such as heart attack, stroke, or kidney failure. Preservation of lower extremity function is the primary goal of treatment, and reconstructive surgery should strive to achieve a plantigrade foot that is ulcer free and stable. Patients who have undergone successful limb salvage fear major amputation more than death. The energy costs of ambulation after LEA increase as the site of LEA becomes more proximal.

Conclusions: Major LEA is a devastating complication in patients with diabetes. Once amputation becomes medically necessary, preoperative evaluation with a clinic specializing in amputations is very beneficial for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000002713DOI Listing
September 2016

Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients With Diabetic Charcot Neuroarthropathy.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2016 Jul-Aug;55(4):727-31. Epub 2016 Mar 25.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA.

Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that can lead to pedal ulceration, infection, hospitalization, and amputation. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is also found in patients with diabetic foot disease; however, its prevalence in patients with CN has not been extensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of PAD in a group of patients with CN (with and without ulceration) and compare this to a group of patients with diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) and no CN. We compared the lower extremity noninvasive arterial testing results of 85 patients with DM and CN with those from a group of 126 patients with DFU and no CN. No statistically significant differences were found in age, gender, type of DM (1 versus 2), insulin use, duration of DM, or history of dialysis between our study and control groups. The prevalence of PAD in the patients with CN was 40%. Compared with patients with DFUs, the patients with CN were less likely to have PAD (odds ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.85; p = .0111), ischemia (odds ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.69; p = .0033), or the need for revascularization (odds ratio 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.73; p = .0097). Critical limb ischemia (great toe pressure <30 mm Hg) was 82% less likely in patients with CN than in patients with DFU. PAD in patients with CN is not uncommon; however, ischemia and the need for revascularization were significantly less likely than in patients with DFU without CN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2016.01.051DOI Listing
July 2017

Surgical management of Charcot neuroarthropathy of the ankle and hindfoot in patients with diabetes.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2016 Jan;32 Suppl 1:292-6

Fellow Reconstruction and Limb Salvage Surgery UPMC Mercy Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) of the ankle and hindfoot (Sanders/Frykberg Type IV) is challenging to treat surgically or nonsurgically. The deformities associated with ankle/hindfoot CN are often multiplanar, resulting in sagittal, frontal and rotational malalignment. In addition, shortening of the limb often occurs from collapse of the distal tibia, talus and calcaneus. These deformities also result in significant alterations in the biomechanics of the foot. For example, a varus ankle/hindfoot results in increased lateral column plantar pressure of the foot, predisposing the patient to lateral foot ulceration. Collapse of the talus, secondary to avascular necrosis or neuropathic fracture, further accentuates these deformities and contributes to a limb-length inequality.

Surgical Management: The primary indication for surgical reconstruction is a nonbraceable deformity associated with instability. Other indications include impending ulceration, inability to heal an ulcer, recurrent ulcers, presence of osteomyelitis and/or significant pain. Arthrodesis of the ankle and/or hindfoot is the method of choice when surgically correcting CN deformities in this region. The choice of fixation (i.e. internal or external fixation) depends on largely on the presence or absence of active infection and bone quality.

Conclusion: Surgical reconstruction of ankle and hindfoot CN is associated with a high rate of infectious and noninfectious complications. Despite this high complication rate, surgeons embarking on surgical reconstruction of ankle and hindfoot CN should strive for limb salvage rates approximating 90%. Preoperative measures that can improve outcomes include assessment of vascular status, optimization of glycemic control, correction of vitamin D deficiency and cessation of tobacco use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.2748DOI Listing
January 2016

Noninvasive Arterial Testing in Patients With Diabetes: A Guide for Foot and Ankle Surgeons.

Foot Ankle Int 2015 Dec 20;36(12):1391-9. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: This study was designed to compare the findings of noninvasive arterial testing in patients with and without diabetic foot pathology.

Methods: The ABI (ankle brachial index), TBI (toe brachial index), and great toe pressures were measured in 207 patients. PAD (peripheral artery disease) was defined as an ABI < 0.91 on either extremity or a TBI < 0.7.

Results: PAD was identified in 103 of the 207 patients (49.8%), 80 patients with diabetic foot pathology and 23 patients with nondiabetic foot pathology. Although patients with diabetic foot pathology were 1.4 times more likely to have PAD compared to patients without diabetic pathology, this increased risk was not statistically significant (OR 1.41 [95% CI 0.75-2.64], P = .28). Patients with PAD and diabetic foot pathology were 4.9 times more likely to have ischemia (toe pressure < 60 mm Hg) than patients with PAD and nondiabetic foot pathology (OR 4.93 [95% CI 1.35-17.94], P < .05). Patients on dialysis had a 7.3 times increased likelihood of having PAD compared to patients not on dialysis (OR 7.3 [95% CI 1.6-33.6], P < .01). Patients with absent pedal pulses were 4.9 more likely to have PAD than patients with normal pulses (OR 4.9 [95% CI 2.6-9.4], P < .0001). PAD was identified in 97 of 188 patients (51.6%) with peripheral neuropathy compared to 6 of 19 patients (31.5%) without peripheral neuropathy (OR 2.31 [95% CI 0.84-6.33], P = .10).

Conclusions: Combining the ABI with TBI improved the ability to diagnose PAD in diabetic patients because the ABI has high specificity (low false positives) and the TBI has high sensitivity (low false negatives). The TBI was more reliable in patients with noncompressible arteries, medial artery calcinosis and/or neuropathy. Due to the relative incompressibility of calcified distal arteries in patients with DM, the ABI may be within normal limits in patients with PAD. This false negative result may lead surgeons to assume that normal perfusion is present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100715593888DOI Listing
December 2015

Midfoot Charcot Neuroarthropathy in Patients With Diabetes: The Impact of Foot Ulceration on Self-Reported Quality of Life.

Foot Ankle Spec 2015 Aug 8;8(4):255-9. Epub 2015 May 8.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Georgetown University School of Medicine, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC (KMR)Heritage Valley Beaver Hospital, Beaver, Pennsylvania (KBH)Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (BLR)Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (DKW)

Introduction: Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) and diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) are serious complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) that can result in infection, hospitalization, amputation, and have been shown to negatively affect quality of life (QOL). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies in the literature that have specifically compared QOL in patients with diabetic CN without DFU to a group of patients with diabetic CN and concurrent DFU. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported assessments of QOL in patients with CN to a group of patients with CN and concomitant midfoot ulceration.

Materials And Methods: We compared a group of 35 diabetic patients with midfoot CN and no ulcer to a group of 22 diabetic patients with midfoot CN and concurrent DFU. Self-reported outcome was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) health survey and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM).

Results: No significant differences were found when comparing the 2 groups utilizing the SF-36 and FAAM with the exception that CN patients without foot ulcers had lower mean scores on the Bodily Pain Subscale. Both groups demonstrated negative impact on physical QOL and lower extremity function to a greater degree than mental QOL.

Conclusion: The presence of ulceration does not appear to significantly impact QOL in patients with CN when compared to patients with CN without ulceration.

Levels Of Evidence: Prognostic, Level III: Case control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1938640015585957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5663468PMC
August 2015

Radiographic analysis of diabetic midfoot charcot neuroarthropathy with and without midfoot ulceration.

Foot Ankle Int 2014 Nov 24;35(11):1108-15. Epub 2014 Sep 24.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate weight-bearing radiographs in patients with and without foot ulcers diagnosed with midfoot Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) secondary to diabetes mellitus.

Methods: One hundred fourteen patients with midfoot CN (50 with foot ulcers and 64 without ulcers) were identified and included in this study. Nine radiographic measurements were made (7 in the sagittal plane and 2 in the transverse plane).

Results: CN patients with foot ulcers had significantly greater deformity when assessing the lateral-talar first metatarsal angle, calcaneal pitch, cuboid height, medial column height, calcaneal-fifth metatarsal angle, talar declination, and lateral tibiotalar angle. Two measurements in the transverse plane (hindfoot-forefoot angle and AP talar first metatarsal angle) were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Of patients with foot ulcers, 24% had a lateral talar first metatarsal angle of less than -27 degrees and 80% had a negative cuboid height.

Conclusion: Sagittal plane deformities were more likely to be associated with foot ulceration in patients with CN than transverse plane deformities. Lateral column involvement was associated with a worse prognosis than medial column involvement, thus we believe progressive deformity of the lateral column should be monitored closely to prevent foot ulceration. Lateral column involvement could be identified by a decrease in the cuboid height, decreased calcaneal pitch, and decreased lateral calcaneal fifth metatarsal angle. This study can assist physicians in stratifying the risk for both ulceration and need for surgery in patients with CN based on reproducible radiographic measurements.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, comparative series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100714547218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664151PMC
November 2014

Self-reported quality of life and diabetic foot infections.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2014 Nov-Dec;53(6):716-9. Epub 2014 Aug 13.

Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Medical Director, UPMC Mercy Center for Healing and Amputation Prevention, Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address:

Foot infections in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are serious complications that can result in hospitalization, the need for amputation, and premature mortality. To the best of our knowledge, no published studies have specifically investigated the effect of diabetic foot infection (DFI) on patient quality of life. The aim of the present study was to compare the self-reported assessments of quality of life in patients hospitalized with DFIs with those from a group of patients without foot infections. We evaluated a study group of 47 patients who had been hospitalized with DFIs and a control group of 47 patients with DM who did not have any complaints referable to their foot or ankle. The self-reported outcomes were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study short form 36-item health survey (SF-36) and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measurement. Patients hospitalized with DFIs had significantly reduced self-reported SF-36 scores in all 8 subscales compared with the cohort of patients with DM without foot complaints. The SF-36 physical component and mental component scores were significantly reduced in patients with DFIs, indicating a negative effect on overall health. Self-reported lower extremity function was also negatively affected with significantly lower Foot and Ankle Measurement activity of daily living and sports scores for patients with DFI. The present study has demonstrated the profoundly negative affect that moderate and severe DFIs have on self-reported quality of life, affecting both physical and mental well-being and lower extremity function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2014.06.011DOI Listing
August 2015

Self-reported quality of life in patients with diabetes: a comparison of patients with and without Charcot neuroarthropathy.

Foot Ankle Int 2014 Mar 18;35(3):195-200. Epub 2013 Dec 18.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Mercy Center For Healing and Amputation Prevention, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Previous reports using the Short Form-36 as a generic measure of quality of life have demonstrated reduced quality of life in patients with Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN). The aim of this study was to assess self-reported quality of life using the SF-36 and a region-specific assessment (the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure [FAAM]), hypothesizing that patients with diabetes and CN would have lower self-reported scores than patients with diabetes and no foot disease.

Methods: Fifty patients with diabetes and CN were included in the study group. Fifty-six patients with diabetes and no pedal complaints comprised the control group. Quality of life was assessed with the SF-36 and the FAAM.

Results: Patients with CN were more likely to have type 1 diabetes mellitus, were more likely to use insulin, had greater duration of diabetes, and were more likely to be neuropathic than patients in the control group. Patients with CN reported mean FAAM activities of daily living (ADL) scores that were 2 standard deviations below the control group and sports scores that were 1 standard deviation lower. There was no notable difference between the SF-36 mental component summary scores between the CN and control groups. SF-36 physical component summary scores in patients with CN were notably lower than scores in the control group.

Conclusion: CN is associated with reduced quality of life as measured with the SF-36 and FAAM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study directly comparing self-reported outcome assessments in patients with both diabetes and CN and patients with diabetes without foot complaints.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, comparative series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100713517097DOI Listing
March 2014

Lawn mower injuries to the lower extremity: a 10-year retrospective review.

Foot Ankle Spec 2013 Apr 24;6(2):119-24. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Foot and Ankle Center of Nebraska, Omaha, NE 68114, USA.

Introduction: Lawn mower injuries occur frequently in the United States and oftentimes result in extensive trauma to the lower extremities. These injuries can be quite devastating and cause there to be loss of function and amputation. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are specific factors that would help determine the best treatment protocol, patient outcomes, and prognosis after lawn mower injury to the foot and ankle.

Material And Methods: A retrospective review of medical records was performed on all patients treated at a university level 1 trauma center from 2000 to 2010. Only subjects 18 years or older who sustained an injury below the level of the knee were included for review.

Results: Seventy-three patients were included in this review. The results revealed that patients who developed a complication were significantly older than the group of patients without complications (P = .03). Digits were found to be injured most often but the odds of developing a complication were much higher if these injuries involved the plantar foot, dorsal foot, or ankle. Interestingly, patients on prolonged antibiotic therapy had a significantly higher risk of developing complications. The presence of comorbidities significantly increased the risk of complication (P = .008); the greatest risk factors were cardiovascular disease (P = .001) and diabetes (P = .06).

Discussion: The authors present the largest cohort of lawn mower injuries in the medical literature, which demonstrates that factors such as age, location of injury, and the presence of comorbidities influence the outcome and increase the risk of injury to the foot and ankle. These results may be useful in determining the best treatment plan possible for patients with these severe injuries.

Levels Of Evidence: Therapeutic, Level IV, Retrospective case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1938640012473149DOI Listing
April 2013