Publications by authors named "Katherine C Brooks"

11 Publications

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Caring for Hospitalized Incarcerated Patients: Physician and Nurse Experience.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Division of Hospital Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-06510-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787594PMC
January 2021

The Climate Crisis and the Exam Room.

J Gen Intern Med 2020 10 27;35(10):3069-3070. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-06050-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7573007PMC
October 2020

A Silent Curriculum.

JAMA 2020 May;323(17):1690-1691

Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.2879DOI Listing
May 2020

Identification of Racial Inequities in Access to Specialized Inpatient Heart Failure Care at an Academic Medical Center.

Circ Heart Fail 2019 11 29;12(11):e006214. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, and Department of Medicine (E.F..L.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Background: Racial inequities for patients with heart failure (HF) have been widely documented. HF patients who receive cardiology care during a hospital admission have better outcomes. It is unknown whether there are differences in admission to a cardiology or general medicine service by race. This study examined the relationship between race and admission service, and its effect on 30-day readmission and mortality Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study from September 2008 to November 2017 at a single large urban academic referral center of all patients self-referred to the emergency department and admitted to either the cardiology or general medicine service with a principal diagnosis of HF, who self-identified as white, black, or Latinx. We used multivariable generalized estimating equation models to assess the relationship between race and admission to the cardiology service. We used Cox regression to assess the association between race, admission service, and 30-day readmission and mortality.

Results: Among 1967 unique patients (66.7% white, 23.6% black, and 9.7% Latinx), black and Latinx patients had lower rates of admission to the cardiology service than white patients (adjusted rate ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.98, for black; adjusted rate ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.97 for Latinx). Female sex and age >75 years were also independently associated with lower rates of admission to the cardiology service. Admission to the cardiology service was independently associated with decreased readmission within 30 days, independent of race.

Conclusions: Black and Latinx patients were less likely to be admitted to cardiology for HF care. This inequity may, in part, drive racial inequities in HF outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183732PMC
November 2019

The Purple Heart.

J Palliat Med 2019 Jan;22(1):106-107

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2018.0239DOI Listing
January 2019

Ecological generalism facilitates the evolution of sociality in snapping shrimps.

Ecol Lett 2017 Dec 4;20(12):1516-1525. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10027, USA.

Evidence from insects and vertebrates suggests that cooperation may have enabled species to expand their niches, becoming ecological generalists and dominating the ecosystems in which they occur. Consistent with this idea, eusocial species of sponge-dwelling Synalpheus shrimps from Belize are ecological generalists with a broader host breadth and higher abundance than non-eusocial species. We evaluate whether sociality promotes ecological generalism (social conquest hypothesis) or whether ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality (social transition hypothesis) in 38 Synalpheus shrimp species. We find that sociality evolves primarily from host generalists, and almost exclusively so for transitions to eusociality. Additionally, sponge volume is more important for explaining social transitions towards communal breeding than to eusociality, suggesting that different ecological factors may influence the independent evolutionary origins of sociality in Synalpheus shrimps. Ultimately, our results are consistent with the social transition hypothesis and the idea that ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.12857DOI Listing
December 2017

When Race Matters on the Wards: Talking About Racial Health Disparities and Racism in the Clinical Setting.

MedEdPORTAL 2016 Dec 28;12:10523. Epub 2016 Dec 28.

Assistant Dean of Medical Education, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University; Associate Professor of Family Medicine and Medical Science, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

Introduction: There is a growing body of literature illustrating the negative impact of racial bias on clinical care. Despite the growing evidence, medical schools have been slow to make necessary curricular changes. Most attempts to educate on racial health disparities focus on transferring knowledge and do not foster the development of skills to understand one's own bias or address bias and racism in the clinical setting. To address this, we developed a small-group, case-based curriculum for rising third-year medical students.

Methods: This session was designed to be delivered in concurrently run, 1-hour small-group sessions, with each small group ideally comprising no more than 10 students and one facilitator. The curriculum was integrated into an existing 3-week clerkship preparation course for 122 students during the 2015-2016 academic year. The session materials include a facilitator's guide and three cases for discussion.

Results: The session was evaluated using a 6-point Likert scale (1 = , 6 = ). Students rated this session overall a 4.28 out of 6 ( = 79). Qualitative feedback varied, with the most common theme focusing on the need for more time to discuss this topic.

Discussion: Though one session before starting clinical clerkships is not enough to maintain the practice of sustained critical thinking regarding bias and racism in clinical medicine, this session is a starting point for curriculum developers looking to use an evidence-based approach to racial bias in clinical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440415PMC
December 2016

A piece of my mind. A silent curriculum.

JAMA 2015 May;313(19):1909-10

Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.1676DOI Listing
May 2015

Within-individual correlations reveal link between a behavioral syndrome, condition and cortisol in free-ranging Belding's ground squirrels.

Ethology 2015 Feb;121(2):125-134

The University of Chicago, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, 940 E. 57 St. Chicago, IL 60637.

Animals often exhibit consistent individual differences in behavior (i.e. animal personality) and correlations between behaviors (i.e. behavioral syndromes), yet the causes of those patterns of behavioral variation remain insufficiently understood. Many authors hypothesize that state-dependent behavior produces animal personality and behavioral syndromes. However, empirical studies assessing patterns of covariation among behavioral traits and state variables have produced mixed results. New statistical methods that partition correlations into between-individual and residual within-individual correlations offer an opportunity to more sufficiently quantify relationships among behaviors and state variables to assess hypotheses of animal personality and behavioral syndromes. In a population of wild Belding's ground squirrels () we repeatedly measured activity, exploration, and response to restraint behaviors alongside glucocorticoids and nutritional condition. We used multivariate mixed models to determine whether between-individual or within-individual correlations drive phenotypic relationships among traits. Squirrels had consistent individual differences for all five traits. At the between-individual level, activity and exploration were positively correlated whereas both traits negatively correlated with response to restraint, demonstrating a behavioral syndrome. At the within-individual level, condition negatively correlated with cortisol, activity and exploration. Importantly, this indicates that although behavior is state-dependent, which may play a role in animal personality and behavioral syndromes, feedback mechanisms between condition and behavior appear not to produce consistent individual differences in behavior and correlations between them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eth.12320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4295653PMC
February 2015

Chronically raised glucocorticoids reduce innate immune function in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) after an immune challenge.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2013 Nov 13;193:149-57. Epub 2013 Aug 13.

Committee on Evolutionary Biology, The University of Chicago, 1025 E. 57th Street, Culver 402, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address:

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis releases glucocorticoids (GCs), or stress hormones, during the vertebrate stress response. GCs can both enhance and suppress the immune system depending on whether the experienced stressor is acute or chronic and what aspect of immune function is measured. More research is needed to fully understand how the immune system reacts to stressors. In this study, we examined the effects of chronically raised GCs on innate immune function in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi). We measured immune function with a bacteria killing ability (BKA) assay, an integrative and functional assessment of an animal's ability to clear a bacterial infection. All studies to date have examined how acute stressors or repeated social stressors impact BKA. This study is the first to our knowledge to investigate how chronically raised GCs impact BKA both before and after an immune challenge. We noninvasively raised GCs in treatment squirrels for six days and then gave them, and a group of untreated (control) squirrels, an injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate their innate immune system. Treatment squirrels exhibited lower BKA after, but not before, being challenged with LPS. These results suggest that experiencing chronic stress may not be detrimental to immune functioning until an individual is challenged with an infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2013.07.019DOI Listing
November 2013