Publications by authors named "Katharine Patrick"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Excellent overall and chronic graft-versus-host-disease-free event-free survival in Fanconi anaemia patients undergoing matched related- and unrelated-donor bone marrow transplantation using alemtuzumab-Flu-Cy: the UK experience.

Br J Haematol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Bone Marrow Transplant and Haematology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK.

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative option in Fanconi anaemia (FA). We analysed the outcome of children transplanted for FA between 1999 and 2018 in the UK. A total of 94 transplants were performed in 82 patients. Among the donors, 51·2% were matched related donors (MRD) while the remainder were alternative donors. Most patients received a fludarabine-cyclophosphamide (Flu-Cy)-based conditioning regimen (86·6%) and in vivo T-cell depletion with alemtuzumab (69·5%). Five-year overall survival (OS) was 85·4% [70·4-93.2] with MRD, 95·7% [72·9-99.4] with matched unrelated donors (MUD), 44·4% [6·6-78.5] with mismatched unrelated donors (MMUD) and 44·4% [13·6-71.9] with mismatched related donors (MMRD) (P < 0·001). Other factors significantly impacting OS were pre-transplant bone marrow status, source of stem cells, cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus, preparation with Flu-Cy, use of total body irradiation (TBI) and alemtuzumab as serotherapy. In multivariate analysis, absence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or leukaemia, bone marrow as source of stem cells, cytomegalovirus (CMV) other than +/- (Recipient/Donor) and Flu-Cy were protective factors for five-year OS. Five-year chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD)-free event-free survival was 75·4% with the same risk factors except for CMV serostatus. Five-year non-relapse mortality was 13·8% [7·3-22.3]. Only five patients (6·1%) developed grade II-IV acute GVHD and two patients chronic GVHD. These data confirm the excellent outcome of matched related or unrelated HSCT in children with FA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17418DOI Listing
April 2021

Diagnostic approach to the evaluation of myeloid malignancies following CAR T-cell therapy in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 11;8(2)

Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Immunotherapeutic strategies targeting B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) effectively induce remission; however, disease recurrence remains a challenge. Due to the potential for antigen loss, antigen diminution, lineage switch or development of a secondary or treatment-related malignancy, the phenotype and manifestation of subsequent leukemia may be elusive. We report on two patients with multiply relapsed/refractory B-ALL who, following chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, developed myeloid malignancies. In the first case, a myeloid sarcoma developed in a patient with a history of myelodysplastic syndrome. In the second case, two distinct events occurred. The first event represented a donor-derived myelodysplastic syndrome with monosomy 7 in a patient with a prior hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This patient went on to present with lineage switch of her original B-ALL to ambiguous lineage T/myeloid acute leukemia. With the rapidly evolving field of novel immunotherapeutic strategies, evaluation of relapse and/or subsequent neoplasms is becoming increasingly more complex. By virtue of these uniquely complex cases, we provide a framework for the evaluation of relapse or evolution of a subsequent malignancy following antigen-targeted immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703409PMC
November 2020

Adjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy improves outcome for children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who have an ABL-class fusion.

Br J Haematol 2020 12 14;191(5):844-851. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Haematology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

Patients with an ABL-class fusion have a high risk of relapse on standard chemotherapy but are sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). In UKALL2011, we screened patients with post-induction MRD ≥1% and positive patients (12%) received adjuvant TKI. As the intervention started during UKALL2011, not all eligible patients were screened prospectively. Retrospective screening of eligible patients allowed the outcome of equivalent ABL-class patients who did and did not receive a TKI in first remission to be compared. ABL-class patients who received a TKI in first remission had a reduced risk of relapse/refractory disease: 0% vs. 63% at four years (P = 0·009).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17093DOI Listing
December 2020

Outcome of patients with Fanconi anemia developing myelodysplasia and acute leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A retrospective analysis on behalf of EBMT group.

Am J Hematol 2020 07 21;95(7):809-816. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Unit, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is curative for bone marrow failure in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), but the presence of a malignant transformation is associated with a poor prognosis and the management of these patients is still challenging. We analyzed outcome of 74 FA patients with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 35), acute leukemia (n = 35) or with cytogenetic abnormalities (n = 4), who underwent allo-HSCT from 1999 to 2016 in EBMT network. Type of diagnosis, pre-HSCT cytoreductive therapies and related toxicities, disease status pre-HSCT, donor type, and conditioning regimen were considered as main variables potentially influencing outcome. The 5-year OS and EFS were 42% (30-53%) and 39% (27-51%), respectively. Patients transplanted in CR showed better OS compared with those transplanted in presence of an active malignant disease (OS:71%[48-95] vs 37% [24-50],P = .04), while none of the other variables considered had an impact. Twenty-two patients received pre-HSCT cytoreduction and 9/22 showed a grade 3-4 toxicity, without any lethal event or negative influence on survival after HSCT(OS:toxicity pre-HSCT 48% [20-75%] vs no-toxicity 51% [25-78%],P = .98). The cumulative incidence of day-100 grade II-IV a-GvHD and of 5-year c-GvHD were 38% (26-50%) and 40% (28-52%). Non-relapse-related mortality and incidence of relapse at 5-years were 40% (29-52%) and 21% (11-30%) respectively, without any significant impact of the tested variables. Causes of death were transplant-related events in most patients (34 out of the 42 deaths, 81%). This analysis confirms the poor outcome of transformed FA patients and identifies the importance of achieving CR pre-HSCT, suggesting that, in a newly diagnosed transformed FA patient, a cytoreductive approach pre-HSCT should be considered if a donor have been secured.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25810DOI Listing
July 2020

Treosulfan-fludarabine-thiotepa-based conditioning treatment before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric patients with hematological malignancies.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 10 20;55(10):1996-2007. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

Treosulfan-based conditioning prior to allogeneic transplantation has been shown to have myeloablative, immunosuppressive, and antineoplastic effects associated with reduced non-relapse mortality (NRM) in adults. Therefore, we prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of treosulfan-based conditioning in children with hematological malignancies in this phase II trial. Overall, 65 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (35.4%), acute myeloid leukemia (44.6%), myelodysplastic syndrome (15.4%), or juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (4.6%) received treosulfan intravenously at a dose of 10 mg/m/day (7.7%), 12 g/m/day (35.4%), or 14 g/m/day (56.9%) according to their individual body surface area in combination with fludarabine and thiotepa. The incidence of complete donor chimerism at day +28 was 98.4% with no primary and only one secondary graft failure. At 36 months, NRM was only 3.1%, while relapse incidence was 21.7%, and overall survival was 83.0%. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-vs.-host disease was 45.3% for grades I-IV and 26.6% for grades II-IV. At 36 months, 25.8% overall and 19.4% moderate/severe chronic graft-vs.-host disease were reported. These data confirm the safe and effective use of treosulfan-based conditioning in pediatric patients with hematological malignancies. Therefore, treosulfan/fludarabine/thiotepa can be recommended for myeloablative conditioning in children with hematological malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0869-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7515850PMC
October 2020

Gonadal Function after Busulfan Compared with Treosulfan in Children and Adolescents Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 09 11;25(9):1786-1791. Epub 2019 May 11.

St. Anna Children's Hospital, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Gonadal impairment is an important late effect with a significant impact on quality of life of transplanted patients. The aim of this study was to compare gonadal function after busulfan (Bu) or treosulfan (Treo) conditioning regimens in pre- and postpubertal children. This retrospective, multicenter study included children transplanted in pediatric European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) centers between 1992 and 2012 who did not receive gonadotoxic chemoradiotherapy before the transplant. We evaluated 137 patients transplanted in 25 pediatric EBMT centers. Median age at transplant was 11.04 years (range, 5 to 18); 89 patients were boys and 48 girls. Eighty-nine patients were prepubertal at transplant and 48 postpubertal. One hundred eighteen children received Bu and 19 Treo. A higher proportion of girls treated with Treo in the prepubertal stage reached spontaneous puberty compared with those treated with Bu (P = .02). Spontaneous menarche was more frequent after Treo than after Bu (P < .001). Postpubertal boys and girls treated with Treo had significantly lower luteinizing hormone levels (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively) compared with the Bu group. Frequency of gonadal damage associated with Treo was significantly lower than that observed after Bu. These results need to be confirmed in a larger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.005DOI Listing
September 2019

High transplant-related mortality associated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for paediatric therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML). A study on behalf of the United Kingdom Paediatric Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Group.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 09 15;53(9):1165-1169. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Department of Haematology and Oncology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK.

Paediatric therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML) is rare and the outcome is poor. While allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is generally the accepted modality of treatment, data regarding salvage chemotherapy, remission induction, conditioning regimens, transplant-related mortality and outcome is scarce. Between 2000 and2016, 36 children with t-AML were treated in seven UK paediatric HSCT centres. The most common salvage protocol for remission induction was FLAG with or without idarubicin and 28 patients were in complete morphological remission prior to BMT. Only 12 patients survived (33%). Transplant-related mortality (TRM) was the leading cause of death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0157-xDOI Listing
September 2018

Brincidofovir is highly efficacious in controlling adenoviremia in pediatric recipients of hematopoietic cell transplant.

Blood 2017 04 2;129(14):2033-2037. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Cidofovir is preemptively used for controlling adenoviremia and preventing disseminated viral disease in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients but does not lead to resolution of viremia without T-cell immune-reconstitution. The lipid-conjugated prodrug of cidofovir, brincidofovir, has improved oral bioavailability and achieves higher intracellular concentrations of active drug. We present retrospective multicenter data comparing the kinetics of viremia and toxicities following preemptive treatment with and brincidofovir in children and adolescents diagnosed with HCT-related adenoviremia. Forty-one episodes (18 = brincidofovir; 23 = cidofovir) of antiviral therapy were observed in 27 patients. The 2 groups had comparable immune-reconstitution and viral burden. Major (≥2 log-reduction in 2 weeks; n = 13) and minor (≥1 to ≤2 log-reduction in 2 weeks; n = 2) virological responses were observed in 15 (83%) brincidofovir episodes compared to only 2 (9%) major virological responses with cidofovir ( < .0001). Brincidofovir mediated major responses in 9 of 11 cidofovir-unresponsive patients and resulted in complete responses (CR) despite significant lymphopenia (Brincidofovir vs cidofovir; CR = 13 (80%) vs 8 (35%); median lymphocyte count = 320/μl vs 910/μl; < .05). One patient experienced abdominal cramps and diarrhea necessitating interruption of brincidofovir and none developed nephrotoxicity with brincidofovir. Thus, brincidofovir is well-tolerated and highly efficacious in controlling adenoviremia during the lymphopenic phase of HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-11-749721DOI Listing
April 2017

Use of Minimal Residual Disease Assessment to Redefine Induction Failure in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Feb 3;35(6):660-667. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

David O'Connor, Ronald M.R. Tan, Jack Bartram, and Sujith Samarasinghe, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust; Rachael Hough, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London; Anthony V. Moorman, Claire Schwab, and Christine J. Harrison, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne; Rachel Wade, University of Oxford, Oxford; Jeremy Hancock, North Bristol NHS Trust; John Moppett, Royal Hospital for Children, Bristol; Ajay Vora and Katharine Patrick, Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, United Kingdom; and Nick Goulden, Trapehade, Monferran Plaves, France.

Purpose Our aim was to determine the role of end-of-induction (EOI) minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in the identification and stratification of induction failure in patients with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to identify genetic abnormalities that drive disease in these patients. Patients and Methods Analysis included 3,113 patients who were treated in the Medical Research Council UKALL2003 multicenter randomized trial (NCT00222612) between 2003 and 2011. MRD was measured by using standardized real-time quantitative PCR. Median follow-up was 5 years 9 months. Results Fifty-nine patients (1.9%) had morphologic induction failure with 5-year event-free survival (EFS) of 50.7% (95% CI, 37.4 to 64.0) and 5-year overall survival of 57.7% (95% CI, 44.2 to 71.2). Of these, a small proportion of patients with M2 marrow (6 of 44) and a low EOI MRD level (< 0.01%) had 5-year EFS of 100%. Conversely, among patients with morphologic remission 2.3% (61 of 2,633) had high MRD (≥ 5%) and 5-year EFS of 47.0% (95% CI, 32.9 to 61.1), which was similar to those with morphologic induction failure. Redefining induction failure to include morphologic induction failure and/or MRD ≥ 5% identified 3.9% (120 of 3,133 patients) of the trial cohort with 5-year EFS of 48.0% (95% CI, 39.3 to 58.6). Induction failure (morphologic or MRD ≥ 5%) occurred most frequently in T-ALL (10.1%; 39 of 386 T-ALL cases) and B-other ALL, that is, lacking established chromosomal abnormalities (5.6%; 43 of 772 B-other cases). Genetic testing within the B-other group revealed the presence of PDGFRB gene fusions, particularly EBF1-PDGFRB, in almost one third of B-other ALL cases. Conclusion Integration of EOI MRD level with morphology identifies induction failure more precisely than morphology alone. Prevalence of EBF1-PDGFRB fusions in this group highlights the importance of genetic screening to identify abnormalities that may be targets for novel agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.69.6278DOI Listing
February 2017

The yield of monitoring for HSV and VZV viremia in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

Pediatr Transplant 2015 Sep 6;19(6):640-4. Epub 2015 Jul 6.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Reactivation of HSV and VZV is common following HSCT. Consensus guidelines do not support the use of routine screening for viremia following HSCT in adults, but no such clear guidelines exist in pediatrics. In our center, routine practice was to screen patients weekly for HSV and VZV viremia until engraftment in autologous transplant patients and up to day +100 in allogeneic transplant patients. We conducted a retrospective study of over 500 patients to establish whether this screening identified any patients with HSV or VZV viremia who would not have been identified by clinical signs or symptoms. Over a 4.5-yr period, routine screening identified three cases of HSV viremia and one case of VZV viremia. Two patients had persistent, unexplained fever and two patients had skin or mucosal lesions suggestive of HSV/VZV. We conclude that routine screening for HSV and VZV viremia in pediatric HSCT patients has a very low yield and that viremia can be reliably identified by targeted testing in patients with vesicular skin lesions, oral or genital ulceration, unexplained fever, neurological symptoms, or unexplained abnormal liver transaminases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.12551DOI Listing
September 2015

Update on biology and treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2015 Feb;27(1):44-9

Department of Paediatric Haematology, Sheffield Children's Hospital, Sheffield, UK.

Purpose Of Review: In this article, new insights into the clinical and biological features of paediatric T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and their impact on treatment outcome have been described.

Recent Findings: T-lineage ALL has considerable phenotypic and biological heterogeneity. Compared with B-lineage ALL, the prognostic significance of the presenting white cell count is weaker and the rate of decline in minimal residual disease is slower in patients with T-lineage ALL. Contemporary, response stratified, treatment protocols incorporating dexamethasone have been associated with significant improvements in outcomes and demonstrated that cranial radiotherapy is not essential for preventing central nervous system relapse. Relapse risk remains higher than for B-lineage ALL and outcome after relapse is poor. Early T-precursor phenotype and genetic abnormalities such as activating ABL1 fusions, NOTCH1/FBXW7, and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II gene mutations identify patient groups who may benefit from alternative treatment. New agents such as nelarabine, bortezomib, and clofarabine may be effective in preventing unsalvageable relapses identified by slow response to first-line therapy.

Summary: Around 85% of children and young people with T-lineage ALL are cured by current therapy. Further improvements in outcome can be expected from genetic profile and response-targeted therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000171DOI Listing
February 2015

Outcome for children and young people with Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated on a contemporary protocol, UKALL 2003.

Br J Haematol 2014 Aug 8;166(3):421-4. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Sheffield Children's Hospital, Sheffield, UK.

We investigated the outcome for children and young people with Early T-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ETP-ALL), a recently described poor prognosis sub-group of T-ALL, treated on a contemporary protocol, UKALL 2003. After a median follow-up of 4 years and 10 months, the ETP sub-group, representing 16% of T-ALL patients, had non-significantly inferior 5-year event-free survival (76·7% vs. 84·6%, P = 0·2) and overall survival (82·4% vs. 90·9%, P = 0·1), and a higher relapse rate (18·6% vs. 9·6%, P = 0·1) compared to typical T-ALL. ETP-ALL has an intermediate risk outcome, which does not warrant experimental treatment or first remission allogeneic transplant for the group universally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.12882DOI Listing
August 2014

Outcome of Down syndrome associated acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated on a contemporary protocol.

Br J Haematol 2014 May 15;165(4):552-5. Epub 2014 Jan 15.

Sheffield Children's Hospital, Sheffield, UK.

We report the outcome for children and young people with Down syndrome-associated acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (DS-ALL) treated on a contemporary protocol. Compared with non-DS ALL, patients with DS-ALL had an inferior event-free survival (65·6% vs. 87·7% at 5 years; P < 0·00005) and overall survival (70·0% vs. 92·2%; P < 0·00005). Excess treatment-related mortality - was primarily responsible for the worse outcomes for DS-ALL (21·6% at 5 years, vs. 3·3%, P < 0·00005). Minimal residual disease (MRD) risk status was highly discriminant for relapse in DS patients with 0/28 relapses in the MRD low risk group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.12739DOI Listing
May 2014

Images in haematology. Noonan syndrome associated with bleeding disorders.

Br J Haematol 2010 Oct;151(2):117

Sheffield Haemophilia and Thrombosis Centre, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2010.08310.xDOI Listing
October 2010