Publications by authors named "Kate Tatham"

14 Publications

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Evolution of practice patterns in the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome: A secondary analysis of two successive randomized controlled trials.

J Crit Care 2021 Jul 5;65:274-281. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact (HEI), McMaster University Health Sciences Centre, Hamilton, Canada; Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care, Hamilton Health Sciences, Critical Care, Hamilton, Canada.

Purpose: We sought to examine changes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) management over a 12-year period of two successive randomized trials.

Methods: Analyses included baseline data, from eligible patients, prior to influence of trial protocols, and daily study data, from randomized patients, of variables not determined by trial protocols. Mixed linear regressions examined changes in practice year-on-year.

Results: A total of 2376 patients met the inclusion criteria. Over the 12-year period, baseline tidal volume index decreased (9.0 to 7.0 ml/kg, p < 0.001), plateau pressures decreased (30.8 to 29.0 cmHO, p < 0.05), and baseline positive end-expiratory pressures increased (10.8 to 13.2 cmHO, p < 0.001). Volume-controlled ventilation declined from 29.4 to 14.0% (p < 0.01). Use of corticosteroids increased (baseline: 7.7 to 30.3%; on study: 32.6 to 61.2%; both p < 0.001), as did neuromuscular blockade (baseline: 12.3 to 24.5%; on study: 55.5 to 70.0%; both p < 0.01). Inhaled nitric oxide use increased (24.9 to 65.8%, p < 0.05). We observed no significant change in prone positioning (16.2 to 18.9%, p = 0.70).

Conclusions: Clear trends were apparent in tidal volume, airway pressures, ventilator modes, adjuncts and rescue therapies. With the exception of prone positioning, and outside the context of rescue therapy, these trends appear consistent with the evolving literature on ARDS management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2021.06.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255112PMC
July 2021

Natural history, trajectory, and management of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients in the United Kingdom.

Intensive Care Med 2021 05 11;47(5):549-565. Epub 2021 May 11.

Brain & Behaviour Lab, Dept. Of Computing, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Purpose: The trajectory of mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is essential for clinical decisions, yet the focus so far has been on admission characteristics without consideration of the dynamic course of the disease in the context of applied therapeutic interventions.

Methods: We included adult patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) within 48 h of intensive care unit (ICU) admission with complete clinical data until ICU death or discharge. We examined the importance of factors associated with disease progression over the first week, implementation and responsiveness to interventions used in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and ICU outcome. We used machine learning (ML) and Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) methods to characterise the evolution of clinical parameters and our ICU data visualisation tool is available as a web-based widget ( https://www.CovidUK.ICU ).

Results: Data for 633 adults with COVID-19 who underwent IMV between 01 March 2020 and 31 August 2020 were analysed. Overall mortality was 43.3% and highest with non-resolution of hypoxaemia [60.4% vs17.6%; P < 0.001; median PaO/FiO on the day of death was 12.3(8.9-18.4) kPa] and non-response to proning (69.5% vs.31.1%; P < 0.001). Two ML models using weeklong data demonstrated an increased predictive accuracy for mortality compared to admission data (74.5% and 76.3% vs 60%, respectively). XAI models highlighted the increasing importance, over the first week, of PaO/FiO in predicting mortality. Prone positioning improved oxygenation only in 45% of patients. A higher peak pressure (OR 1.42[1.06-1.91]; P < 0.05), raised respiratory component (OR 1.71[ 1.17-2.5]; P < 0.01) and cardiovascular component (OR 1.36 [1.04-1.75]; P < 0.05) of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score and raised lactate (OR 1.33 [0.99-1.79]; P = 0.057) immediately prior to application of prone positioning were associated with lack of oxygenation response. Prone positioning was not applied to 76% of patients with moderate hypoxemia and 45% of those with severe hypoxemia and patients who died without receiving proning interventions had more missed opportunities for prone intervention [7 (3-15.5) versus 2 (0-6); P < 0.001]. Despite the severity of gas exchange deficit, most patients received lung-protective ventilation with tidal volumes less than 8 mL/kg and plateau pressures less than 30cmHO. This was despite systematic errors in measurement of height and derived ideal body weight.

Conclusions: Refractory hypoxaemia remains a major association with mortality, yet evidence based ARDS interventions, in particular prone positioning, were not implemented and had delayed application with an associated reduced responsiveness. Real-time service evaluation techniques offer opportunities to assess the delivery of care and improve protocolised implementation of evidence-based ARDS interventions, which might be associated with improvements in survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-021-06389-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111053PMC
May 2021

Effect of Hydrocortisone on Mortality and Organ Support in Patients With Severe COVID-19: The REMAP-CAP COVID-19 Corticosteroid Domain Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2020 10;324(13):1317-1329

School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.

Importance: Evidence regarding corticosteroid use for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited.

Objective: To determine whether hydrocortisone improves outcome for patients with severe COVID-19.

Design, Setting, And Participants: An ongoing adaptive platform trial testing multiple interventions within multiple therapeutic domains, for example, antiviral agents, corticosteroids, or immunoglobulin. Between March 9 and June 17, 2020, 614 adult patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled and randomized within at least 1 domain following admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) for respiratory or cardiovascular organ support at 121 sites in 8 countries. Of these, 403 were randomized to open-label interventions within the corticosteroid domain. The domain was halted after results from another trial were released. Follow-up ended August 12, 2020.

Interventions: The corticosteroid domain randomized participants to a fixed 7-day course of intravenous hydrocortisone (50 mg or 100 mg every 6 hours) (n = 143), a shock-dependent course (50 mg every 6 hours when shock was clinically evident) (n = 152), or no hydrocortisone (n = 108).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was organ support-free days (days alive and free of ICU-based respiratory or cardiovascular support) within 21 days, where patients who died were assigned -1 day. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model that included all patients enrolled with severe COVID-19, adjusting for age, sex, site, region, time, assignment to interventions within other domains, and domain and intervention eligibility. Superiority was defined as the posterior probability of an odds ratio greater than 1 (threshold for trial conclusion of superiority >99%).

Results: After excluding 19 participants who withdrew consent, there were 384 patients (mean age, 60 years; 29% female) randomized to the fixed-dose (n = 137), shock-dependent (n = 146), and no (n = 101) hydrocortisone groups; 379 (99%) completed the study and were included in the analysis. The mean age for the 3 groups ranged between 59.5 and 60.4 years; most patients were male (range, 70.6%-71.5%); mean body mass index ranged between 29.7 and 30.9; and patients receiving mechanical ventilation ranged between 50.0% and 63.5%. For the fixed-dose, shock-dependent, and no hydrocortisone groups, respectively, the median organ support-free days were 0 (IQR, -1 to 15), 0 (IQR, -1 to 13), and 0 (-1 to 11) days (composed of 30%, 26%, and 33% mortality rates and 11.5, 9.5, and 6 median organ support-free days among survivors). The median adjusted odds ratio and bayesian probability of superiority were 1.43 (95% credible interval, 0.91-2.27) and 93% for fixed-dose hydrocortisone, respectively, and were 1.22 (95% credible interval, 0.76-1.94) and 80% for shock-dependent hydrocortisone compared with no hydrocortisone. Serious adverse events were reported in 4 (3%), 5 (3%), and 1 (1%) patients in the fixed-dose, shock-dependent, and no hydrocortisone groups, respectively.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients with severe COVID-19, treatment with a 7-day fixed-dose course of hydrocortisone or shock-dependent dosing of hydrocortisone, compared with no hydrocortisone, resulted in 93% and 80% probabilities of superiority with regard to the odds of improvement in organ support-free days within 21 days. However, the trial was stopped early and no treatment strategy met prespecified criteria for statistical superiority, precluding definitive conclusions.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02735707.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.17022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489418PMC
October 2020

The National Institute for Health Research Critical Care Research Priority Setting Survey 2018.

J Intensive Care Soc 2020 Aug 8;21(3):198-201. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Introduction: Defining research priorities in intensive care is key to determining appropriate allocation of funding. Several topics were identified from the 2014 James Lind Alliance priority setting exercise conducted with the Intensive Care Society. The James Lind Alliance process included significant (and vital) patient/public contribution, but excluded professionals without a bedside role. As a result it may have failed to identify potential early-stage translational research topics, which are more likely identified by medical and/or academic members of relevant specialist basic science groups. The objective of the present project was to complement the James Lind Alliance project by generating an updated list of research priorities by facilitating academic research input.

Method: A survey was conducted by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) to identify the key research priorities from intensive care clinicians, including allied health professionals and academics, along with any evolving themes arising from translational research. Feasibility of all identified topics were then discussed and allocated to themes by a joint clinical academics/NIHR focus group.

Results: The survey was completed by 94 intensive care clinicians (including subspecialists), academics and allied health professions. In total, 203 research questions were identified, with the top five themes focusing on: appropriate case selection (e.g. who and when to treat; 24%), ventilation (7%), sepsis (6%), delirium (5%) and rehabilitation (5%).

Discussion: Utilising a methodology distinct from that employed by the James Lind Alliance process, from a broad spectrum of intensive care clinicians/scientists, enabled identification of a variety of priority research areas. These topics can now inform not only the investigator-led research agenda, but will also be considered in due course by the NIHR for potential future funding calls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1751143719862244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7401440PMC
August 2020

The Coagulation and Immune Systems Are Directly Linked through the Activation of Interleukin-1α by Thrombin.

Immunity 2019 04 26;50(4):1033-1042.e6. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK. Electronic address:

Ancient organisms have a combined coagulation and immune system, and although links between inflammation and hemostasis exist in mammals, they are indirect and slower to act. Here we investigated direct links between mammalian immune and coagulation systems by examining cytokine proproteins for potential thrombin protease consensus sites. We found that interleukin (IL)-1α is directly activated by thrombin. Thrombin cleaved pro-IL-1α at a site perfectly conserved across disparate species, indicating functional importance. Surface pro-IL-1α on macrophages and activated platelets was cleaved and activated by thrombin, while tissue factor, a potent thrombin activator, colocalized with pro-IL-1α in the epidermis. Mice bearing a mutation in the IL-1α thrombin cleavage site (R114Q) exhibited defects in efficient wound healing and rapid thrombopoiesis after acute platelet loss. Thrombin-cleaved IL-1α was detected in humans during sepsis, pointing to the relevance of this pathway for normal physiology and the pathogenesis of inflammatory and thrombotic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2019.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6476404PMC
April 2019

Mesenchymal stem cells enhance NOX2-dependent reactive oxygen species production and bacterial killing in macrophages during sepsis.

Eur Respir J 2018 04 26;51(4). Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Critical Illness and Injury Research Centre, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science of St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been reported to produce an M2-like, alternatively activated phenotype in macrophages. In addition, MSCs mediate effective bacterial clearance in pre-clinical sepsis models. Thus, MSCs have a paradoxical antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory response that is not understood.Here, we studied the phenotypic and functional response of monocyte-derived human macrophages to MSC exposure MSCs induced two distinct, coexistent phenotypes: M2-like macrophages (generally elongated morphology, CD163, acute phagosomal acidification, low NOX2 expression and limited phagosomal superoxide production) and M1-like macrophages characterised by high levels of phagosomal superoxide production. Enhanced phagosomal reactive oxygen species production was also observed in alveolar macrophages from a rodent model of pneumonia-induced sepsis. The production of M1-like macrophages was dependent on prostaglandin E and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. MSCs enhanced human macrophage phagocytosis of unopsonised bacteria and enhanced bacterial killing compared with untreated macrophages. Bacterial killing was significantly reduced by blockade of NOX2 using diphenyleneiodonium, suggesting that M1-like cells are primarily responsible for this effect. MSCs also enhanced phagocytosis and polarisation of M1-like macrophages derived from patients with severe sepsis.The enhanced antimicrobial capacity (M1-like) and inflammation resolving phenotype (M2-like) may account for the paradoxical effect of these cells in sepsis .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02021-2017DOI Listing
April 2018

Intravascular donor monocytes play a central role in lung transplant ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

Thorax 2018 04 7;73(4):350-360. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

Section of Anaesthetics, Pain Medicine and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK.

Rationale: Primary graft dysfunction in lung transplant recipients derives from the initial, largely leukocyte-dependent, ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Intravascular lung-marginated monocytes have been shown to play key roles in experimental acute lung injury, but their contribution to lung ischaemia-reperfusion injury post transplantation is unknown.

Objective: To define the role of donor intravascular monocytes in lung transplant-related acute lung injury and primary graft dysfunction.

Methods: Isolated perfused C57BL/6 murine lungs were subjected to warm ischaemia (2 hours) and reperfusion (2 hours) under normoxic conditions. Monocyte retention, activation phenotype and the effects of their depletion by intravenous clodronate-liposome treatment on lung inflammation and injury were determined. In human donor lung transplant samples, the presence and activation phenotype of monocytic cells (low side scatter, 27E10+, CD14+, HLA-DR+, CCR2+) were evaluated by flow cytometry and compared with post-implantation lung function.

Results: In mouse lungs following ischaemia-reperfusion, substantial numbers of lung-marginated monocytes remained within the pulmonary microvasculature, with reduced L-selectin and increased CD86 expression indicating their activation. Monocyte depletion resulted in reductions in lung wet:dry ratios, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein, and perfusate levels of RAGE, MIP-2 and KC, while monocyte repletion resulted in a partial restoration of the injury. In human lungs, correlations were observed between pre-implantation donor monocyte numbers/their CD86 and TREM-1 expression and post-implantation lung dysfunction at 48 and 72 hours.

Conclusions: These results indicate that lung-marginated intravascular monocytes are retained as a 'passenger' leukocyte population during lung transplantation, and play a key role in the development of transplant-associated ischaemia-reperfusion injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-208977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5870457PMC
April 2018

In vivo compartmental analysis of leukocytes in mouse lungs.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2015 Oct 7;309(7):L639-52. Epub 2015 Aug 7.

Section of Anaesthetics, Pain Medicine and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom

The lung has a unique structure consisting of three functionally different compartments (alveolar, interstitial, and vascular) situated in an extreme proximity. Current methods to localize lung leukocytes using bronchoalveolar lavage and/or lung perfusion have significant limitations for determination of location and phenotype of leukocytes. Here we present a novel method using in vivo antibody labeling to enable accurate compartmental localization/quantification and phenotyping of mouse lung leukocytes. Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice received combined in vivo intravenous and intratracheal labeling with fluorophore-conjugated anti-CD45 antibodies, and lung single-cell suspensions were analyzed by flow cytometry. The combined in vivo intravenous and intratracheal CD45 labeling enabled robust separation of the alveolar, interstitial, and vascular compartments of the lung. In naive mice, the alveolar compartment consisted predominantly of resident alveolar macrophages. The interstitial compartment, gated by events negative for both intratracheal and intravenous CD45 staining, showed two conventional dendritic cell populations, as well as a Ly6C(lo) monocyte population. Expression levels of MHCII on these interstitial monocytes were much higher than on the vascular Ly6C(lo) monocyte populations. In mice exposed to acid aspiration-induced lung injury, this protocol also clearly distinguished the three lung compartments showing the dynamic trafficking of neutrophils and exudative monocytes across the lung compartments during inflammation and resolution. This simple in vivo dual-labeling technique substantially increases the accuracy and depth of lung flow cytometric analysis, facilitates a more comprehensive examination of lung leukocyte pools, and enables the investigation of previously poorly defined "interstitial" leukocyte populations during models of inflammatory lung diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00140.2015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4593833PMC
October 2015

The role of ex vivo lung perfusion in lung transplantation.

J Intensive Care Soc 2015 Feb 9;16(1):58-63. Epub 2014 Dec 9.

Section of Anaesthetics, Pain Medicine and Intensive Care, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Imperial College, London, UK.

Whilst lung transplantation is a viable solution for end-stage lung disease, donor shortages, donor lung inflammation and perioperative lung injury remain major limitations. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as the next frontier in lung transplantation to address and overcome these limitations, with multicentre clinical trials ongoing in the UK, rest of Europe and North America. Our research seeks to identify the poorly understood cellular and molecular mechanisms of primary graft dysfunction through the development of an isolated perfused lung model of transplantation and investigation of the role of pulmonary inflammation in this paradigm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1751143714554062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5593288PMC
February 2015

Suitability of common drugs for patients who avoid animal products.

BMJ 2014 Feb 4;348:g401. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

Section of Anaesthetics, Pain Medicine and Intensive Care, Imperial College, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g401DOI Listing
February 2014

Volutrauma, but not atelectrauma, induces systemic cytokine production by lung-marginated monocytes.

Crit Care Med 2014 Jan;42(1):e49-57

All authors: Section of Anaesthetics, Pain Medicine and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Ventilator-induced lung injury has substantive impact on mortality of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although low tidal volume ventilation has been shown to reduce mortality, clinical benefits of open-lung strategy are controversial. In this study, we investigated the impact of two distinct forms of ventilator-induced lung injury, i.e., volutrauma and atelectrauma, on the progression of lung injury and inflammation, in particular alveolar and systemic cytokine production.

Design: Ex vivo study.

Setting: University research laboratory.

Subjects: C57BL/6 mice.

Interventions: Isolated, buffer-perfused lungs were allocated to one of three ventilatory protocols for 3 hours: control group received low tidal volume (7 mL/kg) with positive end-expiratory pressure (5 cm H2O) and regular sustained inflation; high-stretch group received high tidal volume (30-32 mL/kg) with positive end-expiratory pressure (3 cm H2O) and sustained inflation; and atelectasis group received the same tidal volume as control but neither positive end-expiratory pressure nor sustained inflation.

Measurements And Main Results: Both injurious ventilatory protocols developed comparable levels of physiological injury and pulmonary edema, measured by respiratory system mechanics and lavage fluid protein. High-stretch induced marked increases in proinflammatory cytokines in perfusate and lung lavage fluid, compared to control. In contrast, atelectasis had no effect on perfusate cytokines compared to control but did induce some up-regulation of lavage cytokines. Depletion of monocytes marginated within the lung microvasculature, achieved by pretreating mice with i.v. liposome-encapsulated clodronate, significantly attenuated perfusate cytokine levels, especially tumor necrosis factor, in the high-stretch, but not atelectasis group.

Conclusions: Volutrauma (high-stretch), but not atelectrauma (atelectasis), directly activates monocytes within the pulmonary vasculature, leading to cytokine release into systemic circulation. We postulate this as a potential explanation why open-lung strategy has limited mortality benefits in ventilated critically ill patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e31829a822aDOI Listing
January 2014

Regulation of monocyte subset proinflammatory responses within the lung microvasculature by the p38 MAPK/MK2 pathway.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2011 Nov 26;301(5):L812-21. Epub 2011 Aug 26.

Section of Anaesthetics, Pain Medicine and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Margination and activation of monocytes within the pulmonary microcirculation contribute substantially to the development of acute lung injury in mice. The enhanced LPS-induced TNF expression exhibited by Gr-1(high) compared with Gr-1(low) monocytes within the lung microvasculature suggests differential roles for these subsets. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for such heterogeneity of lung-marginated monocyte proinflammatory response using a combined in vitro and in vivo approach. The monocyte subset inflammatory response was studied in vitro in mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cell-lung endothelial cell coculture and in vivo in a two-hit model of intravenous LPS-induced monocyte margination and lung inflammation in mice, by flow cytometry-based quantification of proinflammatory genes and intracellular phospho-kinases. With LPS stimulation in vitro, TNF expression was consistently higher in Gr-1(high) than Gr-1(low) monocytes, markedly enhanced by coculture with endothelial cells, and abrogated by p38 MAPK inhibitors. Expression of IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was only detectable under coculture conditions, was substantially higher in Gr-1(high) monocytes, and was attenuated by p38 inhibition. Consistent with these differential responses, phosphorylation of p38 and its substrate MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) was significantly higher in the Gr-1(high) subset. In vivo, p38 inhibitor treatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced TNF expression in "lung-marginated" Gr-1(high) monocytes. LPS-induced p38/MK2 phosphorylation was higher in lung-marginated Gr-1(high) than Gr-1(low) monocytes and neutrophils, mirroring TNF expression. These results indicate that the p38/MK2 pathway is a critical determinant of elevated Gr-1(high) subset responsiveness within the lung microvasculature, producing a coordinated proinflammatory response that places Gr-1(high) monocytes as key orchestrators of pulmonary microvascular inflammation and injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00092.2011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3213987PMC
November 2011

Reduce morbidity by balancing your fluids.

Authors:
Kate C Tatham

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2006 Apr;67(4):214

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April 2006
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