Publications by authors named "Kate Soldan"

65 Publications

Post-vaccination HPV seroprevalence among female sexual health clinic attenders in England.

Vaccine 2021 Jul 12;39(30):4210-4218. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Blood Safety, Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and HIV Service, Public Health England, London, UK.

Background: The National HPV Immunisation Programme was introduced in England in September 2008 using the HPV16/18 bivalent vaccine. We conducted serological surveillance to explore vaccination coverage levels. We also conducted a case-control study to investigate a hypothesised cross-protective effect of the HPV16/18 vaccine against genital warts.

Methods: Residual serum specimens from 16 to 20 year-old women attending six specialist sexual health services (SSHS) between 2011 and 2015 in England were tested for antibodies against HPV16 and HPV18 using a virus-like particle (VLP)-based multiplex serology assay. Patients were classified as having vaccine-induced seropositivity if they were seropositive for both HPV types and either had high antibody levels for at least one HPV type, or moderately high levels for both HPV types. Differences in vaccine-induced seropositivity by patient characteristics were investigated using logistic regression. Vaccine-induced seropositivity was then compared for patients with genital warts (cases) and matched patients without (controls).

Results: Of 3,973 serum specimens collected, 3,870 (97.4%) had a valid result. The proportion of women with vaccine-induced seropositivity decreased with age (from 78.1% in 16-year-olds to 52.6% in 20-year-olds). Vaccine-induced seropositivity was lower among women born outside the UK, from more deprived areas and with a history of chlamydia diagnosis. A difference in uptake by ethnic group was also seen but this was largely confounded by differences in deprivation and country of birth. Among 537 cases and 1,515 controls, there was little evidence of a protective effect of the bivalent HPV vaccine against genital warts (adjusted odds ratio 0.93; 95% CI: 0.74-1.18).

Discussion: Vaccine-induced seropositivity in this high-risk population was in line with vaccination coverage in the general population although was lower in some at-risk sub-groups. This study does not provide evidence to support a cross-protective effect of the HPV16/18 vaccine against genital warts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.05.018DOI Listing
July 2021

HPV16 and HPV18 seropositivity and DNA detection among men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional study conducted in a sexual health clinic in London.

Sex Transm Infect 2021 Aug 23;97(5):382-386. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK

Objectives: Men who have sex with men (MSM) have an increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related diseases compared with men who have sex exclusively with women. From April 2018, there has been a phased roll-out of HPV vaccination offered to MSM aged up to 45 years old who are attending sexual health clinics and HIV clinics in England. The vaccine is most effective if delivered prior to HPV infection. We estimated the proportion of MSM with no current vaccine-type infection and no serological evidence of prior infection, in a study undertaken prior to vaccine introduction.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 484 MSM aged 18-40 years old who attended a sexual health clinic in London between 2010 and 2012. We estimated the prevalence of current and past infection by testing for HPV DNA in anogenital samples and for serum antibodies to HPV16 and HPV18.

Results: The median age was 30 years (IQR 25-35). The prevalence of HPV16 and HPV18 DNA was 13.2% and 6.2%, respectively. Seropositivity for HPV16 and HPV18 was 28.5% and 17.1%, respectively, with 11.4% seropositive for both types. Seropositivity for the same HPV type was strongly associated with anogenital DNA detection. 279 MSM (57.6%) tested negative for both HPV16 and HPV18 serology and were DNA negative for these two types; only 5 MSM (1.0%) were seropositive and DNA positive for both HPV types.

Conclusions: This is the first study to determine both the prevalence of HPV DNA in anogenital samples and HPV seroprevalence among MSM attending a sexual health clinic in the UK. Over half of MSM in this study had no evidence of a previous or current infection with either of the high-risk HPV types included in the quadrivalent vaccine, which supports the rationale for opportunistic HPV vaccination of MSM attending sexual health clinics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2020-054726DOI Listing
August 2021

Performance of human papillomavirus DNA detection in residual specimens taken for and nucleic acid amplification testing in men who have sex with men.

Sex Transm Infect 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Centre for Clinical Research in Infection and Sexual Health, University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: Rectal swab specimens, either alone or pooled with first-void urine (FVU) and pharyngeal swab specimens, are used to test for (CT) and (NG) infection in men who have sex with men (MSM). Following introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for MSM attending UK sexual health services (SHSs), HPV testing of residual CT/NG test specimens has been proposed to monitor HPV prevalence in this population. Performance of HPV detection in such specimens has not been evaluated previously.

Methods: MSM attending a UK SHS provided three specimens: (1) rectal swab for CT/NG, (2) pooled rectal/pharyngeal/FVU specimen for CT/NG and (3) dedicated anal swab for HPV. Specimen 3 and residual material from specimens 1 and 2 were tested for type-specific HPV DNA. HPV detection was by an in-house multiplex PCR and luminex-based genotyping assay.

Results: A total of 129 MSM were recruited with a mean age of 38.1 years; 24% were HIV-positive. Of the 129 MSM, 92 (71%) had any type-specific HPV DNA in ≥1 specimen; 80 (62%) had high risk (HR) HPV. Of 123 participants with sufficient residual pooled and dedicated specimens, 70 (56.9%) had detectable HPV on both, and 40 (32.5%) were negative on both; overall concordance was 89% (95% CI 83% to 94%), and kappa statistic was 0.78 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.89). Pooled samples had a 4.1% (95% CI -1.9% to 10.0%) higher test positivity rate than dedicated samples.Of 125 participants with sufficient residual rectal and specimens, 74 (59.2%) had detectable HPV on both, and 36 (28.8%) were negative on both; overall concordance was 88% (95% CI 81% to 93%), and kappa statistic was 0.74 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.86). Residual rectal samples had 5.6% (95%CI -0.6% to 11.8%) higher test positivity than dedicated samples.

Conclusions: We observed high concordance between the dedicated and residual STI test specimens. Our data support the strategy of testing residual specimens for HPV prevalence monitoring in MSM to evaluate the impact of the targeted vaccination programme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2020-054702DOI Listing
December 2020

Imiquimod versus podophyllotoxin, with and without human papillomavirus vaccine, for anogenital warts: the HIPvac factorial RCT.

Health Technol Assess 2020 09;24(47):1-86

Comprehensive Clinical Trials Unit, Institute of Clinical Trials and Methodology, University College London, London, UK.

Background: The comparative efficacy, and cost-effectiveness, of imiquimod or podophyllotoxin cream, either alone or in combination with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA) in the treatment and prevention of recurrence of anogenital warts is not known.

Objective: The objective was to compare the efficacy of imiquimod and podophyllotoxin creams to treat anogenital warts and to assess whether or not the addition of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine increases wart clearance or prevention of recurrence.

Design: A randomised, controlled, multicentre, partially blinded factorial trial. Participants were randomised equally to four groups, combining either topical treatment with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine or placebo. Randomisation was stratified by gender, a history of previous warts and human immunodeficiency virus status. There was an accompanying economic evaluation, conducted from the provider perspective over the trial duration.

Setting: The setting was 22 sexual health clinics in England and Wales.

Participants: Participants were patients with a first or repeat episode of anogenital warts who had not been treated in the previous 3 months and had not previously received quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine.

Interventions: Participants were randomised to 5% imiquimod cream (Aldara; Meda Pharmaceuticals, Takeley, UK) for up to 16 weeks or 0.15% podophyllotoxin cream (Warticon; GlaxoSmithKlein plc, Brentford, UK) for 4 weeks, which was extended to up to 16 weeks if warts persisted. Participants were simultaneously randomised to quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (Gardasil) or saline control at 0, 8 and 24 weeks. Cryotherapy was permitted after week 4 at the discretion of the investigator.

Main Outcome Measures: The main outcome measures were a combined primary outcome of wart clearance at week 16 and remaining wart free at week 48. Efficacy analysis was by logistic regression with multiple imputation for missing follow-up values; economic evaluation considered the costs per quality-adjusted life-year.

Results: A total of 503 participants were enrolled and attended at least one follow-up visit. The mean age was 31 years, 66% of participants were male (24% of males were men who have sex with men), 50% had a previous history of warts and 2% were living with human immunodeficiency virus. For the primary outcome, the adjusted odds ratio for imiquimod cream versus podophyllotoxin cream was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.54 to 1.23), and for quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine versus placebo, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.46 (95% confidence interval 0.97 to 2.20). For the components of the primary outcome, the adjusted odds ratio for wart free at week 16 for imiquimod versus podophyllotoxin was 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.52 to 1.14) and for quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine versus placebo was 1.30 (95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.91). The adjusted odds ratio for remaining wart free at 48 weeks (in those who were wart free at week 16) for imiquimod versus podophyllotoxin was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.54 to 1.78) and for quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine versus placebo was 1.39 (95% confidence interval 0.73 to 2.63). Podophyllotoxin plus quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine had inconclusive cost-effectiveness compared with podophyllotoxin alone.

Limitations: Hepatitis A vaccine as control was replaced by a saline placebo in a non-identical syringe, administered by someone outside the research team, for logistical reasons. Sample size was reduced from 1000 to 500 because of slow recruitment and other delays.

Conclusions: A benefit of the vaccine was not demonstrated in this trial. The odds of clearance at week 16 and remaining clear at week 48 were 46% higher with vaccine, and consistent effects were seen for both wart clearance and recurrence separately, but these differences were not statistically significant. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin creams had similar efficacy for wart clearance, but with a wide confidence interval. The trial results do not support earlier evidence of a lower recurrence with use of imiquimod than with use of podophyllotoxin. Podophyllotoxin without quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine is the most cost-effective strategy at the current vaccine list price. A further larger trial is needed to definitively investigate the effect of the vaccine; studies of the immune response in vaccine recipients are needed to investigate the mechanism of action.

Trial Registration: Current Controlled Trials. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN32729817 and EudraCT 2013-002951-14.

Funding: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in ; Vol. 24, No. 47. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3310/hta24470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548868PMC
September 2020

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and oropharyngeal HPV in ethnically diverse, sexually active adolescents: community-based cross-sectional study.

Sex Transm Infect 2020 Sep 3. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Population Health Research Institute, St George's University of London, London, UK

Objectives: Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is the most common human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancer in the UK, but little is known about the prevalence of oropharyngeal HPV in sexually active teenagers. We investigated reported HPV vaccination coverage (in females) and prevalence of oropharyngeal HPV in sexually active students attending six technical colleges in London, UK.

Methods: In 2017, we obtained mouthwash samples and questionnaires from male and female students taking part in the 'Test n Treat' chlamydia screening trial. Samples were subjected to HPV genotyping.

Results: Of 232 participants approached, 202 (87%) provided a mouthwash sample and questionnaire. Participants' median age was 17 years and 47% were male. Most (73%) were from black and minority ethnic groups, 64% gave a history of oral sex, 52% reported having a new sexual partner in the past 6 months, 33% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% had concurrent genitourinary infection and 1.5% and 5.0% were gay or bisexual. Only 47% (50/107) of females reported being vaccinated against HPV 16/18, of whom 74% had received ≥2 injections. HPV genotyping showed three mouthwash samples (1.5%, 95% CI 0.3% to 4.3%) were positive for possible high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), one (0.5%, 0.0% to 2.7%) for low-risk HPV 6/11, but none (0.0%, 0.0% to 1.8%) for HR-HPV. Four samples (2.0%, 0.5% to 5.0%) were positive for HPV16 using a HPV16 type-specific quantitative PCR, but these were at a very low copy number and considered essentially negative.

Conclusions: Despite the high prevalence of oral sex and genitourinary chlamydia and low prevalence of HPV vaccination, the prevalence of oropharyngeal HR-HPV in these adolescents was negligible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2020-054428DOI Listing
September 2020

Response to Berlaimont and Welby.

Sex Transm Infect 2019 11 18;95(7):553. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Blood Safety, Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and HIV Service, Public Health England, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2019-054148DOI Listing
November 2019

HPV vaccination of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in sexual health and HIV clinics in England: vaccination uptake and attendances during the pilot phase.

Sex Transm Infect 2019 12 26;95(8):608-613. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Blood Safety, Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and HIV Service, Public Health England, London, UK.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) aged up to 45 years attending sexual health clinics (SHC) and HIV clinics began in England as a pilot in June 2016, with national roll-out from April 2018. The recommended course is three doses of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine over one to 2 years. We present the methodology and results of monitoring vaccination uptake (initiation and completion), and attendance patterns, during the pilot phase.

Methods: Total numbers of eligible GBMSM receiving HPV vaccine doses were extracted from routine datasets from pilot start to end of March 2018. Numbers of attendances since January 2009 were extracted and tested for trends before and after introduction of HPV vaccination.

Results: Overall, first dose uptake was 49.1 % (23 619/48 095), with clinics with highest data completeness achieving close to 90% uptake during the pilot period. Refusals were very low (3.5%). There was no evidence of increases in the number of GBMSM attendances at pilot SHC.

Conclusions: HPV vaccination has not caused important deviations to expected attendance patterns of GBMSM at SHC throughout the pilot phase. Overall, recorded initiation has been encouraging given known issues with data recording, as is current status of second and third dose completion. Attendances, vaccination initiation and completion will continue to be monitored alongside surveillance of anogenital warts diagnoses and of rectal HPV prevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2018-053923DOI Listing
December 2019

Clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of primary cytology versus human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening in England.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Modelling and Economics Unit, Public Health England, London, UK

Objectives: In England, human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is to replace cytological screening by 2019-2020. We conducted a model-based economic evaluation to project the long-term clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of routine cytology versus HPV testing.

Methods: An individual-based model of HPV acquisition, natural history, and cervical cancer screening was used to compare cytological screening and HPV testing with cytology triage for women aged 25-64 years (with either 3- or 5-year screening intervals for women aged under 50 years). The model was fitted to data from England's National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme. Both clinical and economic outcomes were projected to inform cost-effectiveness analyses.

Results: HPV testing is likely to decrease annual cytology testing (by 2.76 million), cervical cancer incidence (by 290 cases), and health system costs (by £13 million). It may increase the number of colposcopies, although this could be reduced without leading to more cancers compared with primary cytology by increasing the interval between screens to 5 years. The impact in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) depends on the quality of life weight given to colposcopies versus cancer.

Conclusions: England's move from cytology to HPV screening may potentially be life-saving and cost-effective. Cost-effectiveness can be improved further by extending the interval between screens or using alternative triage methods such as partial or full genotyping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2018-000161DOI Listing
April 2019

Implementation and evaluation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination pilot for men who have sex with men (MSM), England, April 2016 to March 2017.

Euro Surveill 2019 Feb;24(8)

Immunisation and countermeasures division, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Opportunistic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for men who have sex with men (MSM) was piloted in sexual health clinics (SHC) in England between 2016 and 2018.

Aim: to evaluate the pilot's first year (April 2016-March 2017) in terms of feasibility, acceptability, uptake, impact and equity and interpret the outcome in the context of wide HPV vaccination policy.

Methods: Attendance and uptake data from routine SHC surveillance datasets and a cross-sectional survey administered to individuals receiving the vaccine were analysed.

Results: Among 18,875 eligible MSM, 8,580 (45.5%) were recorded as having received one HPV vaccine dose, decreasing slightly with increasing age, and uptake was higher in rural than urban areas. Survey results suggested that of those receiving the first dose of HPV vaccine, 8% were new attendees and that among those, less than 11% attended just to receive the vaccine. Of those having their first HPV vaccination, 95% indicated they would like to receive the next vaccine doses at the same clinic and 85% of patients reported accessing other services when visiting SHC for the first dose of vaccine.

Conclusion: An opportunistic HPV vaccination programme for MSM can be delivered in an acceptable and, as far as can be evaluated, equitable manner, without major disruption to SHC and HIV clinics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.8.1800055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446955PMC
February 2019

Declines in anogenital warts diagnoses since the change in 2012 to use the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in England: data to end 2017.

Sex Transm Infect 2019 08 5;95(5):368-373. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Blood Safety, Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and HIV Service, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK.

Objectives: In 2008, a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme for females was introduced in England using the bivalent vaccine (HPV16 and 18 only). In 2012, the programme changed to offer the quadrivalent vaccine that includes protection against the two HPV types that cause the majority of anogenital warts (AGW; HPV6 and 11). We present data reporting AGW diagnoses in sexual health clinics (SHCs) in England to the end of 2017, including diagnoses among birth cohorts offered the quadrivalent vaccine.

Methods: Using data from all SHCs across England, we performed ecological analyses to consider rates of AGW diagnoses by age, gender and sexual orientation. We tested for trends over time of diagnoses of AGW in young females, heterosexual males, and men who have sex with men (MSM) between the ages of 15 and 24 years during both bivalent (2009 to 2013) and quadrivalent (2014 to 2017) vaccine time periods using Poisson regression.

Results: Between 2014 and 2017, there was strong evidence for a decreasing trend in the rate of AGW diagnoses at SHC among females aged 15-17 years from 257.5 to 45.7 per 100 000 population (82.3% decline) and same aged heterosexual males from 59.1 to 19.1 per 100 000 population (67.7% decline). The reductions in the incidence of AGW diagnoses in MSM aged 15-17 years were less clear (decreased by 13.6% between 2014 and 2017, from 129.9 to 112.2 per 100 000 population).

Conclusions: The moderate, unexpected declines in AGW seen since the introduction of a high-coverage HPV vaccination programme using the bivalent vaccine are being followed, as expected, by much larger declines among females offered the quadrivalent vaccine and same-aged heterosexual males. Surveillance plans are in place to continue to monitor AGW diagnoses to evaluate the impact of both female and targeted MSM HPV vaccination on early disease outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2018-053751DOI Listing
August 2019

Epidemiology of genital warts in the British population: implications for HPV vaccination programmes.

Sex Transm Infect 2019 08 5;95(5):386-390. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Mortimer Market Centre, Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of, and describe risk factors for, genital warts (GWs) in the British population, following the introduction of the bivalent (human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18) vaccination programme in girls, and prior to the switch to quadrivalent (HPV-6/11/16/18) vaccine (offering direct protection against GWs) and compare this with GW diagnoses in the prevaccination era.

Methods: Natsal-3, a probability sample survey in Britain, conducted in 2010-2012, interviewed 9902 men and women aged 16-44. Natsal-2, conducted in 1999-2001, surveyed 11 161 men and women aged 16-44. Both surveys collected data on sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infection diagnoses using computer-assisted interview methods.

Results: In Natsal-3, 3.8% and 4.6% of sexually experienced men and women reported ever having a diagnosis of GWs, with 1.3% of men and 1.7% of woman reporting a GWs diagnosis in the past 5 years. GWs were strongly associated with increasing partner numbers and condomless sex. Diagnoses were more frequent in men who have sex with men (MSM) (11.6% ever, 3.3% past 5 years) and in women reporting sex with women (10.8% ever, 3.6% past 5 years). In the age group who were eligible for vaccination at the time of Natsal-3 (16-20 years), a similar proportion of same-aged women reported a history of GWs in Natsal-2 (1.9%, 1.1-3.4) and Natsal-3 (2.6%, 1.5-4.4).

Conclusions: These data provide essential parameters for mathematical models that inform cost-effectiveness analyses of HPV vaccination programmes. There was no evidence of population protection against GWs conferred by the bivalent vaccine. Even with vaccination of adolescent boys, vaccination should be offered to MSM attending sexual health clinics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2018-053786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6678036PMC
August 2019

Sera selected from national STI surveillance system shows Chlamydia trachomatis PgP3 antibody correlates with time since infection and number of previous infections.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208652. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Health Protection Research Unit in Evaluation of Interventions at University of Bristol in partnership with Public Health England, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: Seroprevalence surveys of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) antibodies are promising for estimating age-specific CT cumulative incidence, however accurate estimates require improved understanding of antibody response to CT infection.

Methods: We used GUMCAD, England's national sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance system, to select sera taken from female STI clinic attendees on the day of or after a chlamydia diagnosis. Serum specimens were collected from laboratories and tested anonymously on an indirect and a double-antigen ELISA, both of which are based on the CT-specific Pgp3 antigen. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal descriptive analyses to explore the relationship between seropositivity and a) cumulative number of chlamydia diagnoses and b) time since most recent chlamydia diagnosis.

Results: 919 samples were obtained from visits when chlamydia was diagnosed and 812 during subsequent follow-up visits. Pgp3 seropositivity using the indirect ELISA increased from 57.1% (95% confidence interval: 53.2-60.7) on the day of a first-recorded chlamydia diagnosis to 89.6% (95%CI: 79.3-95.0) on the day of a third or higher documented diagnosis. With the double-antigen ELISA, the increase was from 61.1% (95%CI: 53.2-60.7) to 97.0% (95%CI: 88.5-99.3). Seropositivity decreased with time since CT diagnosis on only the indirect assay, to 49.3% (95%CI: 40.9-57.7) two or more years after a first diagnosis and 51.9% (95%CI: 33.2-70.0) after a repeat diagnosis.

Conclusion: Seropositivity increased with cumulative number of infections, and decreased over time after diagnosis on the indirect ELISA, but not on the double-antigen ELISA. This is the first study to demonstrate the combined impact of number of chlamydia diagnoses, time since diagnosis, and specific ELISA on Pgp3 seropositivity. Our findings are being used to inform models estimating age-specific chlamydia incidence over time using serial population-representative serum sample collections, to enable accurate public health monitoring of chlamydia.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208652PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296657PMC
May 2019

Human papillomavirus infection: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of imiquimod cream (5%) versus podophyllotoxin cream (0.15%), in combination with quadrivalent human papillomavirus or control vaccination in the treatment and prevention of recurrence of anogenital warts (HIPvac trial).

BMC Med Res Methodol 2018 11 6;18(1):125. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

UCL Centre for Clinical Research in Infection and Sexual Health, The Mortimer Market Centre, Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, WC1E 6JB, UK.

Background: Anogenital warts are the second most common sexually transmitted infection diagnosed in sexual health services in England. About 90% of genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 or 11, and half of episodes diagnosed are recurrences. The best and most cost-effective treatment for patients with anogenital warts is unknown. The commonly used treatments are self-administered topical agents, podophyllotoxin (0.15% cream) or imiquimod (5% cream), or cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. Quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination is effective in preventing infection, and disease, but whether it has any therapeutic effect is not known.

Methods And Design: To investigate the efficacy of clearance and prevention of recurrence of external anogenital warts by topical treatments, podophyllotoxin 0.15% cream or imiquimod 5% cream, in combination with a three-dose regimen of qHPV or control vaccination. 500 adult patients presenting with external anogenital warts with either a first or subsequent episode of anogenital warts will be entered into this randomised, controlled partially blinded 2 × 2 factorial trial.

Discussion: The trial is expected to provide the first high-quality evidence of the comparative efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the two topical treatments in current use, as well as investigate the potential benefit of HPV vaccination, in the management of anogenital warts.

Trial Registration: The trial was registered prior to starting recruitment under the following reference numbers: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Registry - ISRCTN32729817 (registered 25 July 2014); European Union Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT) - 2013-002951-14 (registered 26 June 2013).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-018-0581-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6220496PMC
November 2018

Estimating chlamydia prevalence: more difficult than modelling suggests.

Lancet Public Health 2018 09;3(9):e416

National Chlamydia Screening Programme, HIV & STI Department, National Infection Service, Public Health England.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30166-XDOI Listing
September 2018

The Impact of the National HPV Vaccination Program in England Using the Bivalent HPV Vaccine: Surveillance of Type-Specific HPV in Young Females, 2010-2016.

J Infect Dis 2018 08;218(6):911-921

HIV and STI Department, Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, London, United Kingdom.

Background: The national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization program was introduced in England in September 2008 using the bivalent vaccine.

Methods: We collected residual vulva-vaginal swab specimens from 16 to 24-year-old women attending for chlamydia screening between 2010 and 2016 and tested for HPV DNA. We compared changes in type-specific (vaccine and nonvaccine) HPV prevalence over time and association with vaccination coverage. For women with known vaccination status, vaccine effectiveness was estimated.

Results: HPV DNA testing was completed for 15459 specimens. Prevalence of HPV16/18 decreased between 2010/2011 and 2016 from 8.2% to 1.6% in 16-18 year olds and from 14.0% to 1.6% in 19-21 year olds. Declines were also seen for HPV31/33/45 (6.5% to 0.6% for 16-18 year olds and 8.6% to 2.6% for 19-21 year olds). Vaccine effectiveness for HPV16/18 was 82.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 60.6%-91.8%) and for HPV31/33/45 was 48.7% (95% CI, 20.8%-66.8%). Prevalence of HPV16/18 was compared to findings in 2007-2008 (prevaccination) and to predictions from Public Health England's mathematical model.

Discussion: Eight years after the introduction of a national HPV vaccination program, substantial declines have occurred in HPV16/18 and HPV31/33/45. The prevalence of other high-risk HPV types has not changed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy249DOI Listing
August 2018

Effect of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening in England by ethnicity: a modelling study.

Lancet Public Health 2018 01 19;3(1):e44-e51. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Centre for the Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Health equality is increasingly being considered alongside overall health gain when assessing public health interventions. However, the trade-off between the direct effects of vaccination and herd immunity could lead to unintuitive consequences for the distribution of disease burden within a population. We used a transmission dynamic model of human papillomavirus (HPV) to investigate the effect of ethnic disparities in vaccine and cervical screening uptake on inequality in disease incidence in England.

Methods: We developed an individual-based model of HPV transmission and disease, parameterising it with the latest data for sexual behaviour (from National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles [Natsal-3]) and vaccine and screening uptake by ethnicity (from Public Health England [PHE]) and fitting it to data for HPV prevalence (from ARTISTIC, PHE, Natsal-3) and HPV-related disease incidence (from National Cancer Registry [ONS]). The outcome of interest was the age-adjusted incidence of HPV-related cancer (both cervical and non-cervical) in all women in England in view of differences and changes in vaccination and screening uptake by ethnicity in England, over time. We also studied three potential public health interventions aimed at reducing inequality in HPV-related disease incidence: increasing uptake in black and Asian females to match that in whites for vaccination; cervical screening in women who turn 25 in 2018 or later; and cervical screening in all ages.

Findings: In the pre-vaccination era, before 2008, women from ethnic minorities in England reported a disproportionate share of cervical disease. Our model suggests that Asian women were 1·7 times (95% credibility interval [CI] 1·1-2·7) more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer than white women (22·8 vs 13·4 cases per 100 000 women). Because HPV vaccination uptake is lower in ethnic minorities, we predict an initial widening of this gap, with cervical cancer incidence in Asian women up to 2·5 times higher (95% CI 1·3-4·8) than in white women 20 years after vaccine introduction (corresponding to an additional 10·8 [95% CI 10·1-11·5] cases every year). In time, we predict that herd immunity benefits will diffuse from the larger white sub-population and the disparity will narrow. Increased cervical screening uptake in vaccinated women from ethnic minorities would lead to rapid improvement in equality with parity in incidence after 20 years of HPV vaccination.

Interpretation: Our study suggests that the introduction of HPV vaccination in England will initially widen a pre-existing disparity in the incidence of HPV-related cancer by ethnicity, partly due to herd immunity disproportionately benefiting subgroups with high vaccination rates. Although in time this induced disparity will narrow, increasing cervical screening uptake in girls from ethnic minorities should be encouraged to eliminate the inequality in cervical cancer incidence in the medium term. We recommend that dynamic effects should be considered when estimating the effect of public health programmes on equality.

Funding: Cancer Research UK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(17)30238-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5765530PMC
January 2018

Human papillomavirus (HPV) in young women in Britain: Population-based evidence of the effectiveness of the bivalent immunisation programme and burden of quadrivalent and 9-valent vaccine types.

Papillomavirus Res 2017 Jun;3:36-41

Research Department of Infection & Population Health, University College London, Mortimer Market Centre, London WC1E 6JB, UK. Electronic address:

Background: In 2008, the UK introduced an HPV immunisation programme in girls. Population-based prevalence estimates of bivalent (HPV-16/18), quadrivalent (HPV-6/11/16/18) and 9-valent (HPV-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, and comparison over time, are needed to monitor impact, evaluate effectiveness and guide decision-making on vaccination strategies.

Methods: The third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) in 2010-12, tested urine for HPV from 2569 sexually-experienced women aged 16-44. We report type-specific HPV prevalence and compare results with 1798 women in Natsal-2 (1999-2001) using age-adjusted prevalence ratios (APR).

Findings: In Natsal-3, 4.2% of women aged 16-44y were positive for HPV-16/18 and 2.9% for HPV-6/11. In 16-20 year olds, 4.5%, 10.8% and 20.7% had at least one bivalent, quadrivalent or 9-valent vaccine type, respectively. Three-dose vaccine coverage was 52.0% in women aged 18-20y. In this age group, HPV-16/18 prevalence was lower in Natsal-3 than Natsal-2 (5.8% vs 11.2%; APR=0.48[95%CI: 0.24-0.93]), however, prevalences of HPV-6/11, HPV-31/33/45 and HPV-52/58 were unchanged. HPV-16/18 prevalence was also unchanged in women aged 21-44y (APR=0.85[0.61-1.19]).

Interpretation: These probability surveys provide evidence of the impact of the bivalent immunisation programme. Reductions were specific to HPV-16/18 and to the age group eligible for vaccination. However, substantial vaccine-preventable HPV remains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pvr.2017.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5462921PMC
June 2017

Attendance of MSM at Genitourinary Medicine services in England: implications for selective HPV vaccination programme (a short communication).

Sex Transm Infect 2018 11 9;94(7):542-544. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

Public Health England, London, UK.

Background: Human papillomaviruses (HPV) immunisation programmes for female adolescents in the UK offer relatively little benefit to men who have sex with men (MSM). Targeted HPV vaccination for MSM may reduce the high incidence of HPV-related disease among MSM. We used national data from sexual health clinics to calculate the number of MSM attending these clinics throughout England from 2009 to 2014 and to identify their characteristics, to inform the implementation of a targeted HPV vaccination programme in MSM.

Methods: We used the Genitourinary Medicine Clinic Activity Dataset (GUMCADv2) to obtain data for men aged 15-70 years who had attended a GUM clinic in England from 2009 to 2014. We analysed both numbers of MSM attending and number of GUM attendances, age at first attendance, ethnicity and geographical area of the clinic in England.

Results: A total of 374 983 MSM attended sexual health services in England between 2009 and 2014. Median age of presentation was 32 years (IQR 25-41) and showed regional geographical variation. Of all men attending sexual health clinics in England, the highest proportion of those identifying as MSM was in London (21%). Excluding visits within 1 month of an initial attendance, 49% of all MSM re-attended within 12 months and 58% within 24 months. MSM aged ≥36 years reattended more frequently than younger MSM. 51% reattended at least twice within 24 months of initial visit.

Conclusions: The majority of MSM reattend clinic at least once within a 24-month period, potentially facilitating the delivery of a three-dose HPV vaccination programme. This would reduce the burden on sexual health clinics and cost to local authorities due to extra visits if HPV vaccination were to be delivered through these services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2016-052912DOI Listing
November 2018

Filling in the gaps: estimating numbers of chlamydia tests and diagnoses by age group and sex before and during the implementation of the English National Screening Programme, 2000 to 2012.

Euro Surveill 2017 Feb;22(5)

National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.

To inform mathematical modelling of the impact of chlamydia screening in England since 2000, a complete picture of chlamydia testing is needed. Monitoring and surveillance systems evolved between 2000 and 2012. Since 2012, data on publicly funded chlamydia tests and diagnoses have been collected nationally. However, gaps exist for earlier years. We collated available data on chlamydia testing and diagnosis rates among 15-44-year-olds by sex and age group for 2000-2012. Where data were unavailable, we applied data- and evidence-based assumptions to construct plausible minimum and maximum estimates and set bounds on uncertainty. There was a large range between estimates in years when datasets were less comprehensive (2000-2008); smaller ranges were seen hereafter. In 15-19-year-old women in 2000, the estimated diagnosis rate ranged between 891 and 2,489 diagnoses per 100,000 persons. Testing and diagnosis rates increased between 2000 and 2012 in women and men across all age groups using minimum or maximum estimates, with greatest increases seen among 15-24-year-olds. Our dataset can be used to parameterise and validate mathematical models and serve as a reference dataset to which trends in chlamydia-related complications can be compared. Our analysis highlights the complexities of combining monitoring and surveillance datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.5.30453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5388116PMC
February 2017

Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Population Seroprevalence before and during an Era of Widespread Opportunistic Chlamydia Screening in England (1994-2012).

PLoS One 2017 27;12(1):e0152810. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

Research Department of Infection and Population Health, UCL, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Opportunistic chlamydia screening of <25 year-olds was nationally-implemented in England in 2008 but its impact on chlamydia transmission is poorly understood. We undertook a population-based seroprevalence study to explore the impact of screening on cumulative incidence of chlamydia, as measured by C.trachomatis-specific antibody.

Methods: Anonymised sera from participants in the nationally-representative Health Surveys for England (HSE) were tested for C.trachomatis antibodies using two novel Pgp3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) as a marker of past infection. Determinants of being seropositive were explored using logistic regression among 16-44 year-old women and men in 2010 and 2012 (years when sexual behaviour questions were included in the survey) (n = 1,402 women; 1,119 men). Seroprevalence trends among 16-24 year-old women (n = 3,361) were investigated over ten time points from 1994-2012.

Results: In HSE2010/2012, Pgp3 seroprevalence among 16-44 year-olds was 24.4% (95%CI 22.0-27.1) in women and 13.9% (11.8-16.2) in men. Seroprevalence increased with age (up to 33.5% [27.5-40.2] in 30-34 year-old women, 18.7% [13.4-25.6] in 35-39 year-old men); years since first sex; number of lifetime sexual partners; and younger age at first sex. 76.7% of seropositive 16-24 year-olds had never been diagnosed with chlamydia. Among 16-24 year-old women, a non-significant decline in seroprevalence was observed from 2008-2012 (prevalence ratio per year: 0.94 [0.84-1.05]).

Conclusion: Our application of Pgp3 ELISAs demonstrates a high lifetime risk of chlamydia infection among women and a large proportion of undiagnosed infections. A decrease in age-specific cumulative incidence following national implementation of opportunistic chlamydia screening has not yet been demonstrated. We propose these assays be used to assess impact of chlamydia control programmes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0152810PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5271337PMC
August 2017

Impact and Cost-effectiveness of Selective Human Papillomavirus Vaccination of Men Who Have Sex With Men.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 03;64(5):580-588

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high lifetime risk of anogenital warts and cancers related to infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). They also benefit less from herd protection than heterosexual males in settings with female-only HPV vaccination.

Methods: We evaluated the potential health impact and cost-effectiveness of offering vaccination to MSM who visit genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics. We used a mathematical model of HPV 6/11/16/18 sexual transmission within an MSM population in England, parameterized with sexual behaviour, GUM attendance, HPV prevalence, HIV prevalence, warts, and cancer incidence data. Interventions considered were offering HPV vaccination to either HIV-positive MSM or MSM regardless of HIV status, for age bands 16-25, 16-30, 16-35, and 16-40 years.

Results: Substantial declines in anogenital warts and male HPV-related cancer incidence are projected to occur following an offer of vaccination to MSM. MSM not attending GUM clinics will partially benefit from herd protection. Offering vaccination to HIV-positive MSM up to age 40 is likely to be cost-effective if vaccine procurement and administration costs are below £96.50 a dose. At £48 a dose, offering vaccination to all MSM up to age 40 is likely to be cost-effective.

Conclusions: Quadrivalent HPV vaccination of MSM via GUM clinics is likely to be an effective and cost-effective way of reducing the burden of HPV-related disease in MSM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciw845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5404831PMC
March 2017

Population-Level Effects of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs on Infections with Nonvaccine Genotypes.

Emerg Infect Dis 2016 10;22(10):1732-40

We analyzed human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalences during prevaccination and postvaccination periods to consider possible changes in nonvaccine HPV genotypes after introduction of vaccines that confer protection against 2 high-risk types, HPV16 and HPV18. Our meta-analysis included 9 studies with data for 13,886 girls and women ≤19 years of age and 23,340 women 20-24 years of age. We found evidence of cross-protection for HPV31 among the younger age group after vaccine introduction but little evidence for reductions of HPV33 and HPV45. For the group this same age group, we also found slight increases in 2 nonvaccine high-risk HPV types (HPV39 and HPV52) and in 2 possible high-risk types (HPV53 and HPV73). However, results between age groups and vaccines used were inconsistent, and the increases had possible alternative explanations; consequently, these data provided no clear evidence for type replacement. Continued monitoring of these HPV genotypes is important.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5038419PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2210.160675DOI Listing
October 2016

Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

PLoS One 2016 6;11(7):e0157976. Epub 2016 Jul 6.

Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, WC1E 6JB, London, United Kingdom.

Background: The epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) differs from anogenital HPV infection. The impact of HPV vaccination has, to date, largely focussed on anogenital outcomes. Vaccination of MSM in the UK has been recommended and, if implemented, baseline estimates of oral HPV prevalence will be useful.

Methods: We searched Medline, Embase and psycINFO databases for studies reporting prevalence, incidence, and clearance of oral HPV infection in MSM. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression on prevalence estimates and summarised within-study risk factors for oral HPV DNA detection and incidence/clearance rates. We also performed a meta-analysis of the effect of MSM on oral HPV prevalence compared to heterosexual men.

Results: 26 publications were identified. The pooled prevalence of oral HPV16 from twelve estimates was 3.0% (95%CI 0.5-5.5) in HIV-negative and 4.7% (95%CI 2.1-7.3) in HIV-positive MSM. Median age of study participants explained 38% of heterogeneity (p<0.01) in HPV prevalence estimates (pooled = 17% and 29% in HIV-negative and HIV-positive, respectively; 22 estimates). Nine studies compared MSM to heterosexual men and found no difference in oral HPV prevalence (pooled OR 1.07 (95%CI 0.65-1.74)). The clearance rate was higher than incidence within studies. Type-specific concordance between oral and anogenital sites was rare.

Conclusion: There was substantial heterogeneity between estimates of oral HPV prevalence in MSM populations that was partly explained by HIV status and median age.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0157976PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4934925PMC
July 2017

Chlamydia sequelae cost estimates used in current economic evaluations: does one-size-fit-all?

Sex Transm Infect 2017 Feb 9;93(1):18-24. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

HIV/STI Department, National Infection Service, Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, Public Health England, London, UK.

Background: Current evidence suggests that chlamydia screening programmes can be cost-effective, conditional on assumptions within mathematical models. We explored differences in cost estimates used in published economic evaluations of chlamydia screening from seven countries (four papers each from UK and the Netherlands, two each from Sweden and Australia, and one each from Ireland, Canada and Denmark).

Methods: From these studies, we extracted management cost estimates for seven major chlamydia sequelae. In order to compare the influence of different sequelae considered in each paper and their corresponding management costs on the total cost per case of untreated chlamydia, we applied reported unit sequelae management costs considered in each paper to a set of untreated infection to sequela progression probabilities. All costs were adjusted to 2013/2014 Great British Pound (GBP) values.

Results: Sequelae management costs ranged from £171 to £3635 (pelvic inflammatory disease); £953 to £3615 (ectopic pregnancy); £546 to £6752 (tubal factor infertility); £159 to £3341 (chronic pelvic pain); £22 to £1008 (epididymitis); £11 to £1459 (neonatal conjunctivitis) and £433 to £3992 (neonatal pneumonia). Total cost of sequelae per case of untreated chlamydia ranged from £37 to £412.

Conclusions: There was substantial variation in cost per case of chlamydia sequelae used in published chlamydia screening economic evaluations, which likely arose from different assumptions about disease management pathways and the country perspectives taken. In light of this, when interpreting these studies, the reader should be satisfied that the cost estimates used sufficiently reflect the perspective taken and current disease management for their respective context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2016-052597DOI Listing
February 2017

The natural history of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women: a multi-parameter evidence synthesis.

Health Technol Assess 2016 Mar;20(22):1-250

School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background And Objectives: The evidence base supporting the National Chlamydia Screening Programme, initiated in 2003, has been questioned repeatedly, with little consensus on modelling assumptions, parameter values or evidence sources to be used in cost-effectiveness analyses. The purpose of this project was to assemble all available evidence on the prevalence and incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in the UK and its sequelae, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy (EP) and tubal factor infertility (TFI) to review the evidence base in its entirety, assess its consistency and, if possible, arrive at a coherent set of estimates consistent with all the evidence.

Methods: Evidence was identified using 'high-yield' strategies. Bayesian Multi-Parameter Evidence Synthesis models were constructed for separate subparts of the clinical and population epidemiology of CT. Where possible, different types of data sources were statistically combined to derive coherent estimates. Where evidence was inconsistent, evidence sources were re-interpreted and new estimates derived on a post-hoc basis.

Results: An internally coherent set of estimates was generated, consistent with a multifaceted evidence base, fertility surveys and routine UK statistics on PID and EP. Among the key findings were that the risk of PID (symptomatic or asymptomatic) following an untreated CT infection is 17.1% [95% credible interval (CrI) 6% to 29%] and the risk of salpingitis is 7.3% (95% CrI 2.2% to 14.0%). In women aged 16-24 years, screened at annual intervals, at best, 61% (95% CrI 55% to 67%) of CT-related PID and 22% (95% CrI 7% to 43%) of all PID could be directly prevented. For women aged 16-44 years, the proportions of PID, EP and TFI that are attributable to CT are estimated to be 20% (95% CrI 6% to 38%), 4.9% (95% CrI 1.2% to 12%) and 29% (95% CrI 9% to 56%), respectively. The prevalence of TFI in the UK in women at the end of their reproductive lives is 1.1%: this is consistent with all PID carrying a relatively high risk of reproductive damage, whether diagnosed or not. Every 1000 CT infections in women aged 16-44 years, on average, gives rise to approximately 171 episodes of PID and 73 of salpingitis, 2.0 EPs and 5.1 women with TFI at age 44 years.

Conclusions And Research Recommendations: The study establishes a set of interpretations of the major studies and study designs, under which a coherent set of estimates can be generated. CT is a significant cause of PID and TFI. CT screening is of benefit to the individual, but detection and treatment of incident infection may be more beneficial. Women with lower abdominal pain need better advice on when to seek early medical attention to avoid risk of reproductive damage. The study provides new insights into the reproductive risks of PID and the role of CT. Further research is required on the proportions of PID, EP and TFI attributable to CT to confirm predictions made in this report, and to improve the precision of key estimates. The cost-effectiveness of screening should be re-evaluated using the findings of this report.

Funding: The Medical Research Council grant G0801947.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3310/hta20220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4819202PMC
March 2016

HPV Serology Testing Confirms High HPV Immunisation Coverage in England.

PLoS One 2016 9;11(3):e0150107. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

HIV & STI Department, Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Reported human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage in England is high, particularly in girls offered routine immunisation at age 12 years. Serological surveillance can be used to validate reported coverage and explore variations within it and changes in serological markers over time.

Methods: Residual serum specimens collected from females aged 15-19 years in 2010-2011 were tested for anti-HPV16 and HPV18 IgG by ELISA. Based on these results, females were classified as follows: seronegative, probable natural infection, probable vaccine-induced seropositivity, or possible natural infection/possible vaccine-induced seropositivity. The proportion of females with vaccine-induced seropositivity was compared to the reported vaccination coverage.

Results: Of 2146 specimens tested, 1380 (64%) were seropositive for both types HPV16 and HPV18 and 159 (7.4%) positive for only one HPV type. The IgG concentrations were far higher for those positive for both HPV types than those positive for only one HPV type. 1320 (62%) females were considered to have probable vaccine-induced seropositivity. Among vaccine-induced seropositives, antibody concentrations declined with increasing age at vaccination and increasing time since vaccination.

Conclusions: The proportion of females with vaccine-induced seropositivity was closest to the reported 3-dose coverage in those offered the vaccination at younger ages, with a greater discrepancy in the older females. This suggests either some under-reporting of immunisations of older females and/or that partial vaccination (i.e. one- or two-doses) has provided high antibody responses in 13-17 year olds.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0150107PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4784902PMC
August 2016

Continuing reductions in HPV 16/18 in a population with high coverage of bivalent HPV vaccination in England: an ongoing cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2016 Feb 11;6(2):e009915. Epub 2016 Feb 11.

HIV & STI Department, Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, Public Health England, London, UK.

Objectives: The human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme in England was introduced in 2008. Monitoring changes in type-specific HPV prevalence allows assessment of the population impact of this vaccination programme.

Methods: Residual vulva-vaginal swab specimens were collected from young sexually active women (aged 16-24 years) attending for chlamydia screening across England. Specimens were collected between 2010 and 2013 for type-specific HPV-DNA testing. HPV prevalence was compared to a similar survey conducted in 2008 prior to the introduction of HPV vaccination.

Results: A total of 7321 specimens collected in the postvaccination period, and 2354 specimens from the prevaccination period were included in this analysis. Among the individuals aged 16-18 years, with an estimated vaccination coverage of 67%, the prevalence of HPV16/18 infection decreased from 17.6% in 2008 to 6.1% in the postvaccination period. Within the postvaccination period, there was a trend towards lower HPV16/18 prevalence with higher vaccination coverage and increasing time since vaccine introduction from 8.5% in the period 2-3 years postvaccination to 4.0% in the period 4-5 years postvaccination. The prevalence of HPV31 reduced from 3.7% in the prevaccination period to 0.9% after vaccine introduction, although this no longer reached statistical significance after additional consideration of the uncertainty due to the assay change. Smaller reductions were seen in the individuals aged 19-21 years with lower estimated vaccination coverage, but there was no evidence of a reduction in the older unvaccinated women. Some overall increase in non-vaccine types was seen in the youngest age groups (ORs (95% CI); 1.3 (1.0 to 1.7) and 1.5 (1.1 to 2.0) for individuals aged 16-18 and 19-21 years, respectively, when adjusted for known population changes and the change in assay) although this should be interpreted with caution given the potential unmasking effect.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate a reduction in the HPV vaccine types in the age group with the highest HPV vaccination coverage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4762111PMC
February 2016

Epidemiology of Mycoplasma genitalium in British men and women aged 16–44 years: evidence from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3).

Int J Epidemiol 2015 Dec;44(6):1982-94

Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: There are currently no large general population epidemiological studies of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), which include prevalence, risk factors, symptoms and co-infection in men and women across a broad age range.

Methods: In 2010-–12, we conducted the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a probability sample survey in Britain. Urine from 4507 sexually-experienced participants, aged 16–44 years, was tested for MG.

Results: MG prevalence was 1.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7–1.8%] in men and 1.3% (0.9–1.9%) in women. There were no positive MG tests in men aged 16–19, and prevalence peaked at 2.1% (1.2–3.7%) in men aged 25–34 years. In women, prevalence was highest in 16–19 year olds, at 2.4% (1.2–4.8%), and decreased with age. Men of Black ethnicity were more likely to test positive for MG [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 12.1; 95% CI: 3.7–39.4). For both men and women, MG was strongly associated with reporting sexual risk behaviours (increasing number of total and new partners, and unsafe sex, in the past year). Women with MG were more likely to report post-coital bleeding (AOR 5.8; 95%CI 1.4–23.3). However, the majority of men (94.4%), and over half of women (56.2%) with MG did not report any sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms. Men with MG were more likely to report previously diagnosed gonorrhoea, syphilis or non-specific urethritis, and women previous trichomoniasis.

Conclusions: This study strengthens evidence that MG is an STI. MG was identified in over 1% of the population, including in men with high-risk behaviours in older age groups that are often not included in STI prevention measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyv194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4690003PMC
December 2015

How do changes in the population tested for chlamydia over time affect observed trends in chlamydia positivity? Analysis of routinely collected data from young women tested for chlamydia in family planning clinics in the Pacific Northwest (USA), between 2003 and 2010.

Sex Health 2015 Nov;12(6):512-9

Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Unlabelled: Background The proportion of chlamydia tests that are positive (positivity) is dependent on the population tested and the test technology used. The way in which changes in these variables might affect trends in positivity over time is investigated.

Methods: Data from 15- to 24-year-old women tested for chlamydia in family planning clinics participating in the Infertility Prevention Project in the Pacific Northwest, United States (USA Public Health Service Region X) during 2003-2010 (n=590557) were analysed. Trends in positivity and in test, demographic and sexual behaviour variables were identified. Unadjusted and adjusted trends in chlamydia positivity were calculated using logistic regression.

Results: The proportion of tests carried out using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) increased dramatically during the analysis period in two states. Smaller changes in demographic and behavioural characteristics were seen. Controlling for test technology used had the largest effect on the trend in testing positive per year, leading to a fall in the calculated odds ratio of testing positive from 1.06 to 1.02 in Oregon, and from 1.07 to 1.02 in Idaho. Controlling for other variables had minimal effect on chlamydia positivity trends.

Conclusions: Changes in NAAT use had a large effect on observed trends in chlamydia positivity over time in the two states where NAATs were introduced during the analysis period. While trends in chlamydia positivity may be a useful metric for monitoring chlamydia burden, it is important to consider changes in test type when interpreting these data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SH15044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893300PMC
November 2015
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