Publications by authors named "Kate Ghezzi-Kopel"

6 Publications

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Update on the Transmission of Zika Virus Through Breast Milk and Breastfeeding: A Systematic Review of the Evidence.

Viruses 2021 Jan 18;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

We systematically searched regional and international databases and screened 1658 non-duplicate records describing women with suspected or confirmed ZIKV infection, intending to breastfeed or give breast milk to an infant to examine the potential of mother-to-child transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) through breast milk or breastfeeding-related practices. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria and inform this analysis. These studies reported on 97 mother-children pairs who provided breast milk for ZIKV assessment. Seventeen breast milk samples from different women were found positive for ZIKV via RT-PCR, and ZIKV replication was found in cell cultures from five out of seven breast milk samples from different women. Only three out of six infants who had ZIKV infection were breastfed, no evidence of clinical complications was found to be associated with ZIKV RNA in breast milk. This review updates our previous report by including 12 new articles, in which we found no evidence of ZIKV mother-to-child transmission through breast milk intake or breastfeeding. As the certainty of the present evidence is low, additional studies are still warranted to determine if ZIKV can be transmitted through breastfeeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13010123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830280PMC
January 2021

Presence of Ebola virus in breast milk and risk of mother-to-child transmission: synthesis of evidence.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 03 28;1488(1):33-43. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

To help inform global guidelines on infant feeding, this systematic review synthesizes evidence related to the presence of the Ebola virus (EBOV) in breast milk and its potential risk of viral transmission to the infant when breastfeeding. We relied on a comprehensive search strategy to identify studies including women with suspected, probable, or confirmed EBOV infection, intending to breastfeed or give breast milk to an infant. Our search identified 10,454 records, and after deduplication and screening, we assessed 148 full texts. We included eight studies reporting on 10 breastfeeding mothers and their children (one mother with twins), who provided breast milk samples for assessment. EBOV was detected via RT-PCR or viral culture in seven out of ten breast milk samples. Four out of the five-breastfed infants with EBOV-positive breast milk were found positive for EBOV infection, and all of these EBOV-positive infants died. Since previous reports have detected EBOV in tears, saliva, sweat, and contaminated surfaces, with the current evidence, it is not possible to conclude with certainty that breast milk was the main route of EBOV transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048832PMC
March 2021

A scoping review of adoption of climate-resilient crops by small-scale producers in low- and middle-income countries.

Nat Plants 2020 10 12;6(10):1231-1241. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Climate-resilient crops and crop varieties have been recommended as a way for farmers to cope with or adapt to climate change, but despite the apparent benefits, rates of adoption by smallholder farmers are highly variable. Here we present a scoping review, using PRISMA-P (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols), examining the conditions that have led to the adoption of climate-resilient crops over the past 30 years in lower- and middle-income countries. The descriptive analysis performed on 202 papers shows that small-scale producers adopted climate-resilient crops and varieties to cope with abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, flooding and salinity. The most prevalent trait in our dataset was drought tolerance, followed by water-use efficiency. Our analysis found that the most important determinants of adoption of climate-resilient crops were the availability and effectiveness of extension services and outreach, followed by education levels of heads of households, farmers' access to inputs-especially seeds and fertilizers-and socio-economic status of farming families. About 53% of studies reported that social differences such as sex, age, marital status and ethnicity affected the adoption of varieties or crops as climate change-adaptation strategies. On the basis of the collected evidence, this study presents a series of pathways and interventions that could contribute to higher adoption rates of climate-resilient crops and reduce dis-adoption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41477-020-00783-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553851PMC
October 2020

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through breast milk and breastfeeding: a living systematic review.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 01 28;1484(1):32-54. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with a novel coronavirus strain, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, there is limited information on potential transmission of the infection from mother to child, particularly through breast milk and breastfeeding. Here, we provide a living systematic review to capture information that might necessitate changes in the guidance on breast milk and breastfeeding given the uncertainty in this area. Our search retrieved 19,414 total records; 605 were considered for full-text eligibility and no ongoing trials were identified. Our review includes 340 records, 37 with breast milk samples and 303 without. The 37 articles with analyzed breast milk samples reported on 77 mothers who were breastfeeding their children; among them, 19 of 77 children were confirmed COVID-19 cases based on RT-PCR assays, including 14 neonates and five older infants. Nine of the 68 analyzed breast milk samples from mothers with COVID-19 were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA; of the exposed infants, four were positive and two were negative for COVID-19. Currently, there is no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through breast milk. Studies are needed with longer follow-up periods that collect data on infant feeding practices and on viral presence in breast milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970667PMC
January 2021

Positive affect and chronic pain: a preregistered systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pain 2020 06;161(6):1140-1149

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York City, NY, United States.

Chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) is a significant health burden among adults. Standard behavioral therapies typically focus on targeting negative affect (NA) and yield only modest treatment effects. The aims of this study were to systematically review and investigate the association between positive affect (PA) and pain severity among adults with CNCP. Databases that were searched included MEDLINE (PubMed), PsycINFO, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, OLASTER, Open Grey, and PsyArXiv (inception to July 23, 2019). We analyzed studies that: (1) used observational, experimental, or intervention study designs; (2) enrolled individuals with CNCP (pain ≥ 12 weeks); and (3) reported full quantitative results on outcomes. Two researchers independently screened articles, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. The main meta-analysis was followed by subgroup analyses. All analyses were performed using random-effects models. Formal tests for heterogeneity (Q-statistic; I) and publication bias (p-curve and p-uniform*) were performed. We meta-analyzed 29 studies with 3521 participants. Results demonstrated that PA inversely impacts pain severity in people with CNCP (r = -0.23). Subgroup analyses showed a significant effect for gender and marginally significant effects for age in studies that adjusted for NA. On average, effect sizes for observational studies were larger in studies with a higher proportion of female respondents and in studies that did not adjust for NA. Finally, larger effect sizes were found in intervention studies with older compared with younger samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230030PMC
June 2020

Design Elements of Listeria Environmental Monitoring Programs in Food Processing Facilities: A Scoping Review of Research and Guidance Materials.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2018 Sep 6;17(5):1156-1171. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Dept. of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. 14850, U.S.A.

Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), the causative agent of listeriosis, in food processing facilities presents considerable challenges to food producers and food safety authorities. Design of an effective, risk-based environmental monitoring (EM) program is essential for finding and eliminating Lm from the processing environment to prevent product contamination. A scoping review was conducted to collate and synthesize available research and guidance materials on Listeria EM in food processing facilities. An exhaustive search was performed to identify all available research, industry and regulatory documents, and search results were screened for relevance based on eligibility criteria. After screening, 198 references were subjected to an in-depth review and categorized according to objectives for conducting Listeria sampling in food processing facilities and food sector. Mapping of the literature revealed research and guidance gaps by food sector, as fresh produce was the focus in only 10 references, compared to 72 on meat, 52 on fish and seafood, and 50 on dairy. Review of reported practices and guidance highlighted key design elements of EM, including the number, location, timing and frequency of sampling, as well as methods of detection and confirmation, and record-keeping. While utilization of molecular subtyping methods is a trend that will continue to advance understanding of Listeria contamination risks, improved study design and reporting standards by researchers will be essential to assist the food industry optimize their EM design and decision-making. The comprehensive collection of documents identified and synthesized in this review aids continued efforts to minimize the risk of Lm contaminated foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12366DOI Listing
September 2018