Publications by authors named "Katayoun Tayeri"

12 Publications

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Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection and HIV among people who inject drugs in Iran.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2020 Dec 20. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Iran has an human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) epidemic that is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who have higher risks of progression from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active disease. The aim of this study is to measure prevalence of LTBI, HIV infection and any risk behaviors among PWID in Iran.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from August to December 2013 in six cities across Iran. A total of 420 PWID were recruited from drop-in centres using convenience sampling. Trained interviewers collected data on socio-demographic characteristics, drug use history and drug-related risk behaviors across the study sites. A tuberculin skin test (TST) was performed, and HIV infection was assessed by a rapid test. Multivariable modified Poisson regression and logistic regression were used for data analysis.

Results: Prevalence of positive TST and HIV positivity was 35.7% and 8.6%, respectively. The prevalence of LTBI and HIV was significantly different across the cities of this study. Positive TST was independently associated with older age (APR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05) and being HIV positive (APR 1.89, 95% CI 1.45, 2.47). HIV infection was associated with lifetime history of sharing syringes (AOR 3.28, 95% CI 1.44, 10.71) and lifetime number of imprisonment (AOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.14).

Discussion And Conclusions: Prevalence of LTBI infections among PWID is high and independently associated with HIV infection. Given that there are currently no TB services available within drop-in centres, programs which integrate TB case finding, TB preventive therapy, referral and care services for PWID are urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.13233DOI Listing
December 2020

HIV-1 drug resistance mutations detection and HIV-1 subtype G report by using next-generation sequencing platform.

Microb Pathog 2020 Sep 30;146:104221. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Based on world health organization (WHO) recommend, drug resistance assay should be performed in initial of treatment and after treatment for administering and monitoring of anti-retroviral regime in HIV-1 infected patients.

Material And Method: NGS analyses were performed on forty-one plasma samples from HIV-1 affected patients using the Sentosa SQ HIV genotyping assay (Vela-Diagnostics, Germany). This system comprises a semi-automated Ion torrent based platform and the sequencing results were analyzed based on ANRS, REGA and Stanford drug resistance algorithms. Phylogenetic analysis was analyzed based on https://comet.lih.lu database as well as MEGA5 Software.

Results: Drug resistances were identified in thirty-three samples (80%) out of forty-one samples. The Phylogenetic analysis results showed that CRF-35AD (94%) and subtypes B (2.4%) and G (2.4%) were dominant subtypes in this study. NRTI and NNRTI associated dominant mutations were M184I/V and K103 N.High-level resistance to lamivudine (3 TC) and Emtricitabine (FTC) were detected in 34.3% of patients while 53.1% were resistant to Efavirenz (EFV) and Nevirapine (NVP). The Protease inhibitor (PI) minor and major mutations were not reported but more than 95% of samples had polymorphisms mutation in K20R, M36I, H69K, L89 M positions. These mutations are subtype dependent and completely are absent in subtype B virus. The secondary mutations were reported in positions of E157Q, S230 N, and T97A of integrase gene and four samples represent low-level resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI).

Conclusions: This is the first preliminary evaluation of HIV-1 drug resistance mutation (DRM) by using the Sentosa SQ HIV Genotyping Assay in Iran. The NGS represent a promising tool for the accurate detection of DRMs of CRF-35AD that is dominant subtype in Iranian HIV-1 infected population and for the first time revealed HIV-1 subtype G in Iranian population. In the present study polymorphic mutation in the position of K20R, M36I, H69K, L89 M were properly reported in CRF35AD that is dominant in Iranian HIV patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104221DOI Listing
September 2020

Evaluation of Acquired HIV Drug Resistance among People Living with HIV Who Have Taken Antiretroviral Therapy for 9-15 Months in 14 Triangular Clinics in Iran, 2015-2016.

Intervirology 2018 12;61(6):292-300. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate drug resistance patterns among Iranian people living with HIV who have taken antiretroviral therapy for 9-15 months.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2015 and May 2016. Two hundred fifty-two blood samples were collected from all eligible HIV-infected patients at fourteen healthcare settings, located in major provinces in Iran. The samples were examined for presence of drug resistance strains and viral load level. Moreover, a phylogenetic tree, using neighbor joining, was constructed and HIV subtypes were determined.

Results: The most common subtypes were CRF35-AD (47.6%) and A1 (42.8%), followed by 45_CPX (4.8%) and C (4.8%). The resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and protease inhibitors was reported as 19.2, 19.2, and 10.3%, respectively. M184I/V mutation was the most frequent (31.6%) mutation among NRTI-based regimens. Moreover, K103E/N was the most frequent (34.2%) NNRTI mutation.

Conclusions: This is the first study to illuminate the emergence of the CPX genotype among Iranian patients. The drug resistance rate of NNRTIs was similar to that of NRTIs. By assessing drug resistance, it is possible to evaluate the efficacy of treatment and patient adherence to treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497036DOI Listing
September 2019

Life expectancy of HIV-positive patients after diagnosis in Iran from 1986 to 2016: A retrospective cohort study at national and sub-national levels.

Epidemiol Health 2018 7;40:e2018053. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Objectives: Little is known about the life expectancy of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Iran. This study therefore aimed to estimate the life expectancy of HIV-positive patients in Iran.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and the Death Registration System. We included patients aged 20 years and older who had a specified date of diagnosis. We estimated life expectancy and its 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Chiang's methodology.

Results: The overall life expectancy at the national level was 23.1 years (95% CI, 22.6 to 23.5). Life expectancy was 21.6 years (95% CI, 21.1 to 22.0) for men and 32.7 years (95% CI, 31.4 to 34.0) for women. The life expectancy of patients who did or did not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) was 37.0 years (95% CI, 36.2 to 37.8) and 15.5 years (95% CI, 15.1 to 15.9), respectively. The life expectancy of patients with or without tuberculosis (TB) was 21.6 years (95% CI, 20.4 to 22.9) and 36.5 years (95% CI, 35.7 to 37.4), respectively.

Conclusions: The life expectancy of Iranian HIV-positive patients was found to be very low. To improve their longevity, improvements in ART coverage and the control and treatment of TB are advised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6335499PMC
February 2019

Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus Among HIV Positive Patients in Tehran, Iran.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2019 ;19(3):304-309

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has resulted in the emergence of some metabolic complications including hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus among HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus and their associated risk factors in HIV positive patients.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV positive patients who visited Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran (2004-2013). Medical records of patients were reviewed retrospectively. A logistic regression model was applied for analysis of the association between glycemic status and relevant risk factors.

Results: Out of 480 patients who were included in this study, 267 (55.6%) had hyperglycemia, including 28 (5.8%) with diabetes mellitus and 239 (49.8%) with pre-diabetes. The higher frequency of hyperglycemia, was found to be significantly associated with older age (OR for patients ˃40 years old, 2.260; 95% CI, 1.491, 3.247), male gender (OR, 1.555; 95% CI, 1.047, 2.311), higher Body Mass Index (OR for patients with BMI˃25 Kg/m², 1.706; 95% CI, 1.149, 2.531) and prolonged duration of HIV infection (OR for patients with duration of HIV infection ≥60 months, 2.027; 95% CI, 1.372, 2.992).

Conclusion: Hyperglycemia, especially pre-diabetes, is highly frequent among Iranian people living with HIV. Male gender, older age, prolonged duration of HIV infection, and higher BMI were associated with a higher prevalence of hyperglycemia. Hence, it is important to screen all HIV infected patients at the time of diagnosis and then periodically for hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526518666180723152715DOI Listing
February 2020

Influenza Vaccination in Identified People Living with HIV/AIDS and Health Care Providers of Triangular Clinics in Iran, 2015-2016.

Iran J Public Health 2018 Feb;47(2):297-298

Surveillance Department, Center for Communicable Disease Control, Ministry of Health & Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5810396PMC
February 2018

Prevalence of cryptococcal antigen positivity among HIV infected patient with CD4 cell count less than 100 of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2017 Apr;9(2):119-121

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the main opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite the present and increasingly availability of specific treatment for cryptococcosis, the mortality rate of this infection is still high, particularly in patients with advanced immunsupression and advanced cryptococcal diseases.

Materials And Methods: This Prospective Cohort study was conducted at Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran, Iran. Serum cryptococcal antigen was detected using the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) There were 86 HIV-infected patients included in this study.

Results: There were 86 HIV-infected patients in this study. The prevalence of positive serum cryptococcal antigen was 0% (0 of 86).

Conclusion: The prevalence of cryptococcal infection among patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the Iran is very low (<3%) thus the screening test for cryptococcal antigenemia dose not save lives and is not cost-effective in Iranian population.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5715277PMC
April 2017

Changing Beliefs and Behaviors Related to Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Vulnerable Women: A Qualitative Study.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2017 Jul-Aug;22(4):303-307

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The first step in health education is awareness of the people and their acceptance to change their behavior. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of empowerment program towards the concept of self-care and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in women at risk of STDs.

Materials And Methods: The present study was conducted as a qualitative approach (step of action and observation of an action) by using conventional content analysis method. An empowerment program regarding STDs (Action) was performed among 32 (with convenient sample) drug user women with addicted husbands referring to the counseling center for vulnerable women (drop in enter) in Isfahan in 2015. The knowledge of quiddity, transmission, and prevention of STDs, as well as some items of life skills such as self-awareness, interpersonal communication, and assertive behavior were taught in an educational program. Teaching methods were lectures, group, and individual training and role play. The impact of the program on modified belief and behavior change regarding STDs was evaluated with structured interviews.

Results: Analysis of the obtained results yielded three categories. The categories were awareness of STD, believing in being at risk, and decision and change.

Conclusions: Promoting self-care and prevention through education programs based on action research can make a significant reduction in the incidence of problems and cause a behavior change in women with the disease or those at risk for STDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_117_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5590361PMC
September 2017

Immunocompromised patients: Review of the most common infections happened in 446 hospitalized patients.

J Res Med Sci 2014 Mar;19(Suppl 1):S71-3

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Immunodeficiency is a heterogenous group of diseases affecting different components of the immune system. Patterns of infection, etiology and organ involvement are not similar in this risky population. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of congenital and acquiring immunodeficiencies and also recognizing the most common infections and affected organs.

Materials And Methods: In a retrospective, cross-sectional survey, during 2006-2012, we reviewed all hospital records with any kind of immunodeficiency admitted in, all departments of university referral hospital, Isfahan, Iran.

Results: VARIOUS IMMUNODEFICIENCIES, SORTED BY PREVALENCE, WERE AS BELOW: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) 122 (27.4%), lymphohematogenous malignancy (LHM) 105 (23.5%), solid cancer 56 (12.6%), human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 64 (14.5%), non-cytotoxic immunosuppresion 94 (21%), and splenectomy 5 (1.2%). Common sources of infection were blood, lungs and buccal cavity.

Conclusion: The most frequent type of immunodeficiency was PIDs and LHM. Infection continues to be a major problem in all variety of immunodeficiency.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4078380PMC
March 2014

Occult hepatitis B virus infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with isolated hepatitis B core antibody in Isfahan, Iran.

J Res Med Sci 2014 Mar;19(Suppl 1):S64-6

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes without detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs-Ag) is termed occult HBV infection (OHBV) that may be transmitted by blood transfusion or organ transplantation and has acute reactivation when an immunosuppressive status like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurs. We aimed to evaluate OHBV in HIV-infected patients with isolated antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) in Isfahan, Iran.

Materials And Methods: In a cross-sectional study during August-September 2011, serum samples from HIV-infected patients who attended Isfahan Consultation Center for Behavioral Diseases were tested for HBs-Ag and anti-HBc using ELISA method. HBV-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected and quantified in plasma of HBs-Ag negative/anti-HBc positive subjects by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results: From 64 HIV-positive individuals, 12 (18%) patients were HBs-Ag negative/anti-HBc positive, and from those 3 (25%) had detectable HBV-DNA in their plasma.

Conclusion: It seems that occult HBV might be assessed and be treated in HIV-infected patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4078379PMC
March 2014

Life expectancy after HIV diagnosis based on data from the counseling center for behavioral diseases.

J Res Med Sci 2013 Dec;18(12):1040-5

Counseling Center for Behavioral Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Predicting life expectancy is an important component of public health, in that, it may affect policy making in fields such as social security and medical care., To estimate the life expectancy and the average years of life lost (AYLL) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-infected population, compared with that of the general population, and also to assess the impact of the CD4 count, risk factors of transmission, marital status, and employment status on life expectancy.

Material And Methods: This study is a population-based cohort study. The sample consisted of HIV/AIDS-infected patients receiving care from 2001-2011. The patients were all adults (20-64 years) who were recruited from the Counseling Center of Behavioral Diseases. Life expectancy was measured based on an abridged life table, according to age-specific mortality rates and average years of life lost (AYLL) during the study period.

Results: Forty-three of the 205 eligible patients died during 853 person-years follow-up. Compared to the general population, the life expectancy for patients with HIV infection at age 20 is about 36 years less. We have found that out a total of 1597 years of life lost during 2001-2011, compared to an overall AYLL for all HIV/AIDS, the deaths had occurred 36 years earlier than the life expectancy.

Conclusion: Life expectancy in HIV/AIDS-infected patients is about 38 years less than that of the general population at the exact age of 20. The deaths caused by HIV/AIDS occurred about 36 years before what was expected in the general population at ages 20-64, and many of these years of life lost could be saved if the health care system was implemented against the risk factors of HIV/AIDS.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3908523PMC
December 2013

Prevalence, severity, and related factors of anemia in HIV/AIDS patients.

J Res Med Sci 2012 Feb;17(2):138-42

Assistant Profeessor, Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: The prevalence of anemia in HIV infected patients has not been well characterized in Iran. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia and related factors in HIV positive patients.

Materials And Methods: In a cross-sectional study, anemia prevalence and risk factors of 212 HIV positive patients were assessed, at the behavioral disease consulting center in Isfahan. The relationship between anemia, demographic variables, and clinical histories were analyzed. Mild to moderate anemia was defined as hemoglobin 8-13 g/dL for men and 8-12 g/dL for women. Severe anemia was defined as hemoglobin, 8 g/dL.

Results: A total of 212 HIV positive patients with a mean±SD age of 36.1 ± 9.1 years were assessed. We found that hemoglobin levels were between 4.7 and 16.5 gr/dL. In this study, the overall prevalence of anemia was 71%, with the majority of patients having mild to moderate anemia. Mild to moderate anemia and severe anemia occurred in 67% and 4% of patients, respectively. The mean absolute CD4 count was 348 ± 267.8 cells/cubic mm. Sixty one of 212 patients were at late stage of HIV infection (males=51 and female=10). Of the 212 HIV positive patients enrolled, 17 (8%) had a positive history of tuberculosis. We found a strong association between anemia and death.

Conclusion: Normocytic anemia with decreased reticulocyte count was the most common type of anemia in overall. Prevalence of anemia in this study is relatively higher than other similar studies. Such a high prevalence of anemia needs close monitoring of patients on a zidovudine-based regimen. Better screening for anemia and infectious diseases, and modified harm reduction strategy (HRS) for injection drug users are primary needs in HIV seropositive patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3525030PMC
February 2012