Publications by authors named "Katarzyna Domanska-Blicharz"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mink SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Poland - Short Communication.

J Vet Res 2021 Mar 9;65(1):1-5. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Virology, Puławy, Poland.

Introduction: Since April 2020, when the first SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in mink and subsequently in mink farm workers in the Netherlands, it has been confirmed that human-to-mink and mink-to-human transmission can occur. Later, SARS-CoV-2 infections in mink were reported in many European and North American countries.

Material And Methods: Samples from 590 mink from a total of 28 farms were tested by real-time RT-PCR. Whole genome sequences from one positive farm were generated and genetic relatedness was established.

Results: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected on a breeder farm with stock of 5,850 mink. Active viraemia was confirmed in individually tested samples with Ct values respectively between 19.4 and 29.6 for E and N gene fragments. Further testing of samples from culled animals revealed 70% positivity in throat swabs and 30% seropositivity in blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length nucleotide sequences of two SARS-CoV-2 isolates revealed that they belong to the 20B Nextstrain clade. Several nucleotide mutations were found in analysed samples compared to the reference Wuhan HU-1 strain and some of them were nonsynonymous.

Conclusion: We report the infection of mink with SARS-CoV-2 on one farm in Poland and the results of subsequent analysis of virus sequences from two isolates. These data can be useful for assessment of the epidemiological situation of SARS-CoV-2 in Poland and how it endangers public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2021-0017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009592PMC
March 2021

Recombinant turkey coronavirus: are some S gene structures of gammacoronaviruses especially prone to exchange?

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 26;100(4):101018. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.

The objective of the present study was to characterize the atypical turkey coronavirus strain detected in a commercial meat turkey farm in Poland. Using the viral metagenomics approach, we obtained a complete genome sequence of coronavirus, isolated from duodenum samples of animals suffering from acute enteritis. The nearly full-length genome consisted of 27,614 nucleotides and presented a typical genetic organization similar to that of Polish infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) or French turkey coronavirus/guinea fowl coronavirus strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on both the full-length genome and the whole S gene suggested that gCoV/Tk/Poland/G160/2016 is related to turkey and guinea fowl coronavirus and not IBV strains. Sequence analysis of the genome revealed unique genetic characteristics of the present strain, demonstrating that the virus emerged as a result of the exchange of the S gene of IBV GI-19 lineage with the S gene related to the North American turkey coronaviruses and French guinea fowl coronaviruses. Analysis of earlier, similar recombinations suggests that both the S gene structures may be particularly mobile, willingly switching between different gammacoronavirus genomic backbones. The identified recombinant caused a severe course of the disease, which may imply that it is in the first phase of breaking the barriers between different bird species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937746PMC
April 2021

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 in Poland in 2019-2020.

J Vet Res 2020 Dec 1;64(4):469-476. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.

Introduction: Repeated incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5 subtype of Gs/GD lineage pose a serious threat to poultry worldwide. We provide a detailed analysis of the spatio-temporal spread and genetic characteristics of HPAIV Gs/GD H5N8 from the 2019/20 epidemic in Poland.

Material And Methods: Samples from poultry and free-living birds were tested by real-time RT-PCR. Whole genome sequences from 24 (out of 35) outbreaks were generated and genetic relatedness was established. The clinical status of birds and possible pathways of spread were analysed based on the information provided by veterinary inspections combined with the results of phylogenetic studies.

Results: Between 31 December 2019 and 31 March 2020, 35 outbreaks in commercial and backyard poultry holdings and 1 case in a wild bird were confirmed in nine provinces of Poland. Most of the outbreaks were detected in meat turkeys and ducks. All characterised viruses were closely related and belonged to a previously unrecognised genotype of HPAIV H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4b. Wild birds and human activity were identified as the major modes of HPAIV spread.

Conclusion: The unprecedentedly late introduction of the HPAI virus urges for re-evaluation of current risk assessments. Continuous vigilance, strengthening biosecurity and intensifying surveillance in wild birds are needed to better manage the risk of HPAI occurrence in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2020-0078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734677PMC
December 2020

Animal Coronaviruses in the Light of COVID-19.

J Vet Res 2020 Sep 2;64(3):333-345. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Department of Veterinary Pharmacy, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.

Coronaviruses are extremely susceptible to genetic changes due to the characteristic features of the genome structure, life cycle and environmental pressure. Their remarkable variability means that they can infect many different species of animals and cause different disease symptoms. Moreover, in some situations, coronaviruses might be transmitted across species. Although they are commonly found in farm, companion and wild animals, causing clinical and sometimes serious signs resulting in significant economic losses, not all of them have been classified by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as hazardous and included on the list of notifiable diseases. Currently, only three diseases caused by coronaviruses are on the OIE list of notifiable terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases. However, none of these three entails any administrative measures. The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 infections that have caused the COVID-19 pandemic in humans has proved that the occurrence and variability of coronaviruses is highly underestimated in the animal reservoir and reminded us of the critical importance of the One Health approach. Therefore, domestic and wild animals should be intensively monitored, both to broaden our knowledge of the viruses circulating among them and to understand the mechanisms of the emergence of viruses of relevance to animal and human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2020-0050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497757PMC
September 2020

New PA/1220/98-like variant of infectious bronchitis virus in Poland.

Avian Pathol 2020 Aug 18;49(4):380-388. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, Puławy, Poland.

The aim of the present study was to report the first detection of a new infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variant in Polish commercial flocks which is completely different to any previously known in this region. In 2018, samples from Ross 308 breeding hens aged 35 weeks were delivered for IBV diagnosis. IBV presence was detected, but all attempts to amplify the S gene fragment were negative. The field material was analysed using the Illumina MiSeq platform and a 1073-nt fragment of the S1 coding region was obtained. The gCoV/ck/Poland/516/2018 strain shared only 52.7-58.1% nucleotide identity to any known genotype of IBV and shared the highest identity of 81.4% to the unique North American PA/1220/98 variant. Based on the obtained sequence, a specific molecular test was constructed and used for screening of chicken samples from 35 field cases delivered to our laboratory between 2018 and 2019 for IBV diagnosis. Application of this test enabled detection of another three chicken flocks as positive for this new strain. All positives were identified in commercial layers with egg production problems. To date, the virus has not been detected in broiler chickens. Taking into account the proposed criteria for the definition of a new IBV genotype or lineage, it seems that the detected viruses in Poland, together with the unique North American PA/1220/98 variant, may be classified as separate lineages/genotype in the new IBV classification. The new IBV variant is distantly related to other known GI-GVII IBV genotypes/lineages. It affects long-lived birds causing egg production problems. The detected IBV and the unique North American PA/1220/98 variant are candidates for separate lineages in the new GVIII genotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2020.1754332DOI Listing
August 2020

Molecular epidemiology of infectious bronchitis virus in Poland from 1980 to 2017.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 06 7;80:104177. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, al. Partyzantow 57, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.

The presence of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was identified for the first time in the poultry population in Poland at the end of the 1960s. From this time a few waves of epidemics caused by different IBV variants spread across the country. In order to gain more insight into the molecular epidemiology of IBV in Poland, in the present study the S1 coding region of 34 IBV isolates and nearly whole genome of 10 strains collected over a period of 38 years was characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains belonged to five recently established IBV lineages: GI-1, GI-12, GI-13, GI-19 and GI-23. Additionally, two strains from 1989 and 1997 formed a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree categorized as unique early Polish variants, and one strain was revealed to be the recombinant of these and GI-1 lineage viruses. Irrespective of year of isolation and S1-dependent genotype, the genome sequences of Polish IBV strains showed the presence of six genes and 13 ORFs: 5'UTR-1a-1b-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-3'UTR, however their individual genes and putative proteins had different lengths. The phylogenetic analyses performed on the genome of ten Polish IBV strains revealed that they cluster into different groups. The Polish GI-1, GI-19 and GI-23 strains cluster with other similar viruses of these lineages, with the exception of the two strains from 1989 and 1997 which are different. It seems that in Poland in the 1980s and 1990s IBV strains with a unique genome backbone circulated in the field, which were then replaced by other strains belonging to other IBV lineages with a genome backbone specific to these lineages. The recombination analysis showed that some Polish strains resulted from a recombination event involving different IBV lineages, most frequently GI-13 and GI-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7173311PMC
June 2020

A Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus Expressing F and HN Genes of Avian Avulavirus-1 (AAvV-1) Genotype VI Confers Cross-Protection against Challenge with Virulent AAvV-1 Genotypes IV and VII in Chickens.

Viruses 2019 08 25;11(9). Epub 2019 Aug 25.

Laboratory of Recombinant Vaccines, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology of University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Abrahama Str. 58, 80-307 Gdansk, Poland.

Newcastle disease (ND) is responsible for significant economic losses in the poultry industry. The disease is caused by virulent strains of Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV-1), a species within the family Paramyxoviridae. We developed a recombinant construct based on the herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) as a vector expressing two genes: F and HN (HVT-NDV-F-HN) derived from the AAvV-1 genotype VI ("pigeon variant" of AAvV-1). This recombinant viral vaccine candidate was used to subcutaneously immunize one group of specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and two groups of broiler chickens (20 one-day-old birds/group). Humoral immune response was evaluated by hemagglutination-inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The efficacy of the immunization was assessed in two separate challenge studies performed at 6 weeks of age with the use of virulent AAvV-1 strains representing heterologous genotypes IV and VII. The developed vaccine candidate elicited complete protection in SPF chickens since none of the birds became sick or died during the 2-week observation period. In the broiler groups, 90% and 100% clinical protection were achieved after challenges with AAvV-1 of IV and VII genotypes, respectively. We found no obvious relationship between antibody levels and protection assessed in broilers in the challenge study. The developed recombinant HVT-NDV-F-HN construct containing genes from a genotype VI AAvV-1 offers promising results as a potential vaccine candidate against ND in chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11090784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6784189PMC
August 2019

Whole genome characterisation of quail deltacoronavirus detected in Poland.

Virus Genes 2019 Apr 13;55(2):243-247. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, Puławy, Poland.

Quail deltacoronavirus (QdCoV) described for the first time in the United Arab Emirates in 2018 belongs to the same deltacoronavirus species as viruses discovered in swine and tree sparrows. The full-length genome of QdCoV detected in quails with enteritis in Poland has similar organization as Middle Eastern viruses although there is no NSP7c gene. The overall degree of nucleotide sequence identity was 92.4-92.6% between Polish PL/G032/2015 and Middle Eastern UAE-HKU30 QdCoV isolates. The sequences of the individual genes show similar nucleotide identities in the range of 91.4-94.7% with the exception of the S gene with lower identity of 85.6-85.7%. The most variable part of the S gene is its fragment encoding the N-terminal domain of the S protein which is responsible for receptor binding. The amino acid homology in this region between PL/G032/2015 and UAE-HKU30 QdCoVs was 74.5-74.7%. In contrast, the C-terminal domain of the S protein which is responsible for membrane fusion had an amino acid homology of 96.9%. In the phylogenetic tree, PL/G032/2015 branched separately but clustered with the UAE-HKU30 QdCoV isolates. These data suggest that PL/G032/2015 could be a new genetic/serologic variant of QdCoV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-019-01639-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458967PMC
April 2019

Antigenicity, pathogenicity and immunosuppressive effect caused by a South American isolate of infectious bursal disease virus belonging to the "distinct" genetic lineage.

Avian Pathol 2019 Jun 12;48(3):245-254. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

b Avian and Rabbit Virology Immunology and Parasitology Unit (VIPAC) , French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES) Ploufragan , France.

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease affecting young chickens. The recently described "distinct IBDV" (dIBDV) genetic lineage encompasses a group of worldwide distributed strains that share conserved genetic characteristics in both genome segments making them unique within IBDV strains. Phenotypic characterization of these strains is scarce and limited to Asiatic and European strains collected more than 15 years ago. The present study aimed to assess the complete and comprehensive phenotypic characterization of a recently collected South American dIBDV strain (1/chicken/URY/1302/16). Genetic analyses of both partial genome segments confirmed that this strain belongs to the dIBDV genetic lineage and that it is not a reassortant. Antigenic analysis with monoclonal antibodies indicated that this strain has a particular antigenic profile, similar to that obtained in a dIBDV strain from Europe (80/GA), which differs from those previously found in the traditional classic, variant and very virulent strains. Chickens infected with the South American dIBDV strain showed subclinical infections but had a marked bursal atrophy. Further analysis using Newcastle disease virus-immunized chickens, previously infected with the South American and European dIBDV strains, demonstrated their severe immunosuppressive effect. These results indicate that dIBDV strains currently circulating in South America can severely impair the immune system of chickens, consequently affecting the local poultry industry. Our study provides new insights into the characteristics and variability of this global genetic lineage and is valuable to determine whether specific control measures are required for the dIBDV lineage. Research Highlights A South American strain of the dIBDV lineage was phenotypically characterized. The strain produced subclinical infections with a marked bursal atrophy. Infected chickens were severely immunosuppressed. The dIBDV strains are antigenically divergent from other IBDV lineages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2019.1572867DOI Listing
June 2019

Administration of CpG ODN Induces Expression of Immune Response Genes in Neonatal Chicken Spleen.

J Vet Res 2017 Dec 27;61(4):451-458. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.

Introduction: Due to their immunostimulatory properties TLR ligands are used prophylactically to protect against a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens in mammals. Knowledge of the molecular and functional aspects of TLRs is essential for a better understanding of the immune system and resistance to diseases in birds. For that reason, this study attempted to determine the impact of TLR21 stimulation by its synthetic ligand (CpG ODN, class B) on the chicken immune system.

Material And Methods: Sixty embryonated chicken eggs were randomly allocated into three groups (control and two experimental groups). On day 18 of embryonic development, chickens in one experimental group were administered a low dose of CpG ODN and the birds of the second experimental group were given a high dose of the ligand. Spleens were collected at 1, 2, 5, and 10 days post-hatching (dph) for analysis of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 expression using qRT-PCR.

Results: Significant differences were observed in mRNA expression levels of all the measured cytokines associated with the modulation and regulation of the immune response at different time points.

Conclusion: The obtained data clearly demonstrate that immune response induction takes place after administration of class B CpG ODN, and that the ligand has the ability to induce cytokine responses in neonatal chicken spleen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jvetres-2017-0050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5937344PMC
December 2017

Identification of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus with Atypical VP2 Amino Acid Profile in Latvia.

J Vet Res 2017 Jun 6;61(2):145-149. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.

Introduction: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a causative agent of immunosuppressive disorder resulting in significant losses to the world poultry industry. This study describes the molecular characterisation of an atypical IBDV from a field outbreak that occurred in vaccinated chicken flocks in Latvia in 2011.

Material And Methods: Ten bursae of Fabricius from each flock were collected for laboratory examination. Virus isolation was performed in embryonated eggs and CEF culture. The RT-PCR aimed at hypervariable domain of VP2 gene combined with sequencing was performed for detection and identification of IBDV.

Results: The molecular examinations confirmed the IBDV infection. The analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed that the strain possessed four amino acids at VP2 protein (222A, 256I, 294I, and 299S), indicating a genetic relatedness to a very virulent IBDV. However, some unique or rare amino acid substitutions (219L, 220F, 254D, 279N, and 280T) were also detected.

Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrate the occurrence of IBDV with a high mutation rate within the hypervariable domain of VP2 peptide, and highlight the necessity of implementation of IBDV surveillance in Eastern European poultry industry to determine whether this strain is an exception or a new wave of IBDV with new genetic features emerged in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jvetres-2017-0018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894395PMC
June 2017

First characterization of a Middle-East GI-23 lineage (Var2-like) of infectious bronchitis virus in Europe.

Virus Res 2017 10 18;242:43-48. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy, Poland. Electronic address:

Variants assigned to GI-23 lineage of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), formerly called Var2, have circulated for nearly 20 years only in countries of the Middle East. Strains of this lineage were first identified in Israel in 1998. More severe form of the virus appeared in 2006, when the second wave of Var2 epidemic has spread over the Middle East region. The present study describes the detection and detailed genetic characterization of the GI-23 viruses in Poland. The full-length genome of gammaCoV/Ck/Poland/G052/2016 strain consists of 27596 nucleotides and has typical organization for IBV (UTR5'-POl-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-UTR3'). The phylogenetic analysis of the complete sequence showed that it formed separate branch distinct from all of the full-length genome sequences analyzed in this study. Recombination analyses with other gammacoronaviruses revealed that Polish GI-23 strain may originate from recombination events and potential donors of build-in sequences are IBV of GI-1, GI-13 and G-19 lineages (Mass-, 793B- and QX-like strains, respectively). The 1a, 1b and N genes were involved in these recombination events. The source of virus introduction to the chicken population in Poland is unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2017.09.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7114549PMC
October 2017

A novel hemagglutinin protein produced in bacteria protects chickens against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses by inducing H5 subtype-specific neutralizing antibodies.

PLoS One 2017 17;12(2):e0172008. Epub 2017 Feb 17.

Institute of Biotechnology and Antibiotics, Warsaw, Poland.

The highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause a mortality rate of up to 100% in infected chickens and pose a permanent pandemic threat. Attempts to obtain effective vaccines against H5N1 HPAIVs have focused on hemagglutinin (HA), an immunodominant viral antigen capable of eliciting neutralizing antibodies. The vast majority of vaccine projects have been performed using eukaryotic expression systems. In contrast, we used a bacterial expression system to produce vaccine HA protein (bacterial HA) according to our own design. The HA protein with the sequence of the H5N1 HPAIV strain was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli, recovered in the form of inclusion bodies and refolded by dilution between two chromatographic purification steps. Antigenicity studies showed that the resulting antigen, referred to as rH5-E. coli, preserves conformational epitopes targeted by antibodies specific for H5-subtype HAs, inhibiting hemagglutination and/or neutralizing influenza viruses in vitro. The proper conformation of this protein and its ability to form functional oligomers were confirmed by a hemagglutination test. Consistent with the biochemical characteristics, prime-boost immunizations with adjuvanted rH5-E. coli protected 100% and 70% of specific pathogen-free, layer-type chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous H5N1 HPAIVs, respectively. The observed protection was related to the positivity in the FluAC H5 test (IDVet) but not to hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers. Due to full protection, the effective contact transmission of the homologous challenge virus did not occur. Survivors from both challenges did not or only transiently shed the viruses, as established by viral RNA detection in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. Our results demonstrate that vaccination with rH5-E. coli could confer control of H5N1 HPAIV infection and transmission rates in chicken flocks, accompanied by reduced virus shedding. Moreover, the role of H5 subtype-specific neutralizing antibodies in anti-influenza immunity and a novel correlate of protection are indicated.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0172008PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5315377PMC
August 2017

SURVEILLANCE FOR AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN WILD BIRDS IN POLAND, 2008-15.

J Wildl Dis 2017 04 17;53(2):330-338. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

1  National Veterinary Research Institute, Department of Poultry Diseases, Al. Partyzantów 57, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.

We tested wild birds in Poland during 2008-15 for avian influenza virus (AIV). We took 10,312 swabs and feces samples from 6,314 live birds representing 12 orders and 84 bird species, mostly from orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, for testing and characterization by various PCR methods. From PCR-positive samples, we attempted to isolate and subtype the virus. The RNA of AIV was detected in 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-2.1%) of birds represented by 48 Mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos ), 11 Mute Swans ( Cygnus olor ), 48 Common Teals ( Anas crecca ), three Black-headed Gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), one Common Coot ( Fulica atra ), one Garganey (Spatula querquedula), and one unidentified bird species. Overall, the prevalence of AIV detection in Mallards and Mute Swans (the most frequently sampled species) was 2.0% (95% CI, 1.4-2.5%) and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2-0.8%), respectively; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.000). Hemagglutinin subtypes from H1 to H13 were identified, including H5 and H7 low pathogenic AIV subtypes. Mallards and Common Teals harbored the greatest diversity of subtypes. We observed seasonality of viral detection in Mallards, with higher AIV prevalence in late summer and autumn than in winter and spring. In addition, two peaks in AIV prevalence in summer (August) and autumn (November) were demonstrated for Mallards. The prevalence of AIV in Mute Swans did not show any statistically significant seasonal patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2016-07-154DOI Listing
April 2017

Nearly full-length genome sequence of a novel astrovirus isolated from chickens with 'white chicks' condition.

Arch Virol 2016 Sep 23;161(9):2581-7. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, Al. Partyzantow 57, 24-100, Pulawy, Poland.

Avian astroviruses (aAstVs) are divided into three species, Avastrovirus 1, Avastrovirus 2, and Avastrovirus 3, but there are a few strains are waiting to be assigned to an official taxonomic group. This study presents the molecular characterization of chicken astrovirus (CAstV), PL/G059/2014, which is involved in the induction of "white chicks" condition. The 7382-nucleotide-long genome sequence was determined by next-generation sequencing using an Illumina MiSeq System. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it has the characteristics that are typical of avian astroviruses. However, overall degree of nucleotide sequence identity was 43.6 % to 73.7 % between PL/G059/2014 and other available genome sequences of aAstV strains. The amino acid sequences of the proteins encoded by ORF1a and ORF1b of the studied strain were very similar (86.5-93.8 % identity) to those of CAstVs 4175 and GA2011, but they were only 32.7-35.2 % identical in the case of ORF2, which is used officially for astrovirus species demarcation. These features could suggest that the PL/G059/2014 strain should be assigned to a new species in the genus Avastrovirus. Moreover, the different phylogenetic topology of PL/G059/2014 and its nucleotide sequence similarity in different genomic regions could suggest that a recombination event occurred during its evolution and that it has ancestors in common with duck astroviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-016-2940-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4987400PMC
September 2016

Astrovirus-induced "white chicks" condition - field observation, virus detection and preliminary characterization.

Avian Pathol 2016 ;45(1):2-12

a Department of Poultry Diseases , National Veterinary Research Institute , Puławy , Poland.

Chicken astrovirus (CAstV) was recently indicated as the factor of the "white chicks" condition associated not only with increased embryo/chick mortality but also with weakness and white plumage of hatched chicks. In February 2014, organ samples (livers and kidneys) from dead-in-shell embryos, as well as 1-day-old whitish and normal chicks, were delivered from one hatchery in Poland for disease diagnosis. The samples originated from the same 30-week-old breeder flock in which the only observed abnormal signs were 4-5% decrease in the number of hatched chickens and the presence (about 1%) of weaker chicks with characteristic whitish plumage among normal ones. CAstV was detected in submitted samples and was then isolated in 10-day-old embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. We also reproduced an infection model for the "white chicks" condition in SPF layer chickens using the isolated PL/G059/2014 strain as the infectious agent. Results of experimental reproduction of the "white chicks" condition were somewhat more serious than field observation. The administration of the CAstV material into the yolk sac of 8-day-old SPF chicken eggs caused delay and prolongation of hatching, as well as death of embryos/chicks, and also a change of plumage pigmentation. Only two chicks of a total of 10 inoculated SPF eggs survived and were observed for 2 months. A gradual elimination of the CAstV genome was noted in this period. Moreover, a few contact-naive SPF chicks, which had been placed in the same cage, were infected with CAstV. Molecular characterization of detected CAstV was performed by nucleotide sequencing of the full ORF2 region encoding the capsid precursor protein gene. Phylogenetic studies showed that the PL/G059/2014 isolate clustered in the subgroup Aiii of CAstV. In the light of the new classification rules, the Polish PL/G059/2014 CAstV isolate could be assigned to a new species of the Avastrovirus genus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2015.1114173DOI Listing
April 2017

Experimental infection of different species of birds with pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 virus--evaluation of clinical outcomes, viral shedding, and distribution in tissues.

Avian Dis 2014 Dec;58(4):523-30

The virulence of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) for different species of birds was investigated in two independent sets of experiments in which groups of pigeons, chickens, turkeys, quails, and geese (10 birds per group) were inoculated with 10(6) median embryo infectious doses of PPMV-1 isolate: 1) nonpassaged (nPPMV-1, intracerebral pathogenicity [ICPI] value = 1.27) and 2) after six passages in specific-pathogen-free chickens (pPPMV-1, ICPI = 1.46) via the oculonasal route. Naive birds were placed in contact with infected birds (two birds per group) to monitor virus transmission. Clinical observation was performed daily. Additionally, cloacal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, and selected organ samples were collected on days 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 postinfection and tested by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR for estimation of viral shedding and distribution in tissues. Infected pigeons exhibited nervous and digestive tract symptoms, mortality, shedding, and transmission to contact birds. Chickens, turkeys, quails, and geese did not exhibit any clinical signs regardless of the PPMV-1 strain used for inoculation. However, in contrast to quails and geese, chickens and turkeys shed the virus via the oral cavity and cloaca, and transmission to contact birds was also observed. Viral RNA was identified in tissues collected from all pPPMV-1-infected birds, whereas negative results were obtained in the case of tissues taken from nPPMV-1-infected quails and geese. We conclude that the PPMV-1 used in this study was most virulent to pigeons, followed by chickens and turkeys, while quails and geese seem to have the highest level of innate resistance to this strain. However, passaging of PPMV-1 in chickens resulted in the increase of ICPI and noticeable but sometimes contrasting changes in the replication capacities of the virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/10769-011514-Reg.1DOI Listing
December 2014

High-level fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198 epidemic clone with IncA/C conjugative plasmid carrying bla(CTX-M-25) gene.

Vet Microbiol 2015 Jan 24;175(1):85-91. Epub 2014 Oct 24.

Department of Microbiology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Partyzantów 57, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.

Multidrug resistant Salmonella Kentucky strains have been isolated from turkeys in Poland since 2009. Multiple mutations within chromosomal genes gyrA and parC were responsible for high-level ciprofloxacin resistance. One of the isolates was extended spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL) positive: the strain 1643/2010 carried a conjugative 167,779 bps plasmid of IncA/C family. The sequence analysis revealed that it carried a blaCTX-M-25 gene and an integron with another β-lactamase encoding gene-blaOXA-21. This is the first known report of a CTX-M-25 encoding gene both in Poland and in Salmonella Kentucky world-wide, as well as in the IncA/C plasmid. Analysis of the integron showed a novel arrangement of gene cassettes-aacA4, aacC-A1 and blaOXA-21 where the latter might result from an intergeneric gene transfer. The study confirmed Salmonella Kentucky population isolated in Poland belongs to global epidemics of high level fluoroquinolone resistant clone ST198 that can carry rare β-lactamase genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.10.014DOI Listing
January 2015

Detection and molecular characterization of infectious bronchitis-like viruses in wild bird populations.

Avian Pathol 2014 1;43(5):406-13. Epub 2014 Oct 1.

a Department of Poultry Diseases , National Veterinary Research Institute , Pulawy , Poland.

We examined 884 wild birds mainly from the Anseriformes, Charadriiformes and Galliformes orders for infectious bronchitis (IBV)-like coronavirus in Poland between 2008 and 2011. Coronavirus was detected in 31 (3.5%) of the tested birds, with detection rates of 3.5% in Anseriformes and 2.3% in Charadriiformes and as high as 17.6% in Galliformes. From the 31 positive samples, only 10 gave positive results in molecular tests aimed at various IBV genome fragments: five samples were positive for the RdRp gene, four for gene 3, eight for gene N and eight for the 3'-untranslated region fragment. All analysed genome fragments of the coronavirus strains shared different evolutionary branches, resulting in a different phylogenetic tree topology. Most detected fragment genes seem to be IBV-like genes of the most frequently detected lineages of IBV in this geographical region (i.e. Massachusetts, 793B and QX). Two waves of coronavirus infections were identified: one in spring (April and May) and another in late autumn (October to December). To our knowledge this is the first report of the detection of different fragment IBV-like genes in wild bird populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2014.949619DOI Listing
March 2015

Avian influenza H9N2 subtype in Poland--characterization of the isolates and evidence of concomitant infections.

Avian Pathol 2014 3;43(5):427-36. Epub 2014 Oct 3.

a Department of Poultry Diseases, National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease , National Veterinary Research Institute , Puławy , Poland.

In April/May 2013, four outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) infections caused by H9N2 subtype were diagnosed in Poland in fattening turkey flocks exhibiting a drop in feed and water intake, depression, respiratory signs and mortality. The subsequent serological survey carried out on samples collected between June 2012 and September 2013 from 92 poultry flocks detected positive sera in two additional meat turkey flocks located in the same province. The analysis of amino acids in the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase glycoproteins revealed that the detected H9N2 viruses possessed molecular profiles suggestive of low pathogenicity, avian-like SAα2,3 receptor specificity and adaptation to domestic poultry. Phylogenetic studies showed that these H9N2 AIVs grouped within the Eurasian clade of wild bird-origin AIVs and had no relationship with H9N2 AIV circulating in poultry in the Middle East and Far East Asia over the past decade. Experimentally infected SPF chickens with the index-case H9N2 virus remained healthy throughout the experiment. On the other hand, ten 3-week-old commercial turkeys infected via the oculonasal route showed respiratory signs and mortality (2/10 birds). Additional diagnostic tests demonstrated the consistent presence of DNA/RNA of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Bordetella avium and, less frequently, of astro-, rota-, reo-, parvo- and adenoviruses in turkeys both from field outbreaks and laboratory experiment. Although no microbiological culture was performed, we speculate that these secondary pathogens could play a role in the pathogenicity of the current H9N2 infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2014.952221DOI Listing
March 2015

Astroviruses in Polish commercial turkey farms in 2009-2012.

Avian Dis 2014 Mar;58(1):158-64

Avian astrovirus infections are widespread in many countries, and infections have been connected with enteritis and increased mortality in young birds. In the present study, fecal samples were collected during 2009-2012 from a total of 156 meat turkey flocks. Astrovirus presence and type differentiation was performed with the use of two molecular diagnostic approaches. Out of 156 flocks, 48.7% were found to be TAstV positive. Depending on the method used for type differentiation, TAstV-2 and TAstV-1 prevalence was between 31.4%-41% and 9.6%-15.4%, respectively. No avian nephritis virus was detected. About 30% of astrovirus-positive flocks were infected with both types of TAstV. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial polymerase gene sequence revealed the genetic variability of isolated TAstV, and most of the detected TAstV-2 belonged to the European lineage of astroviruses. Statistical analysis suggested the positive but weak correlation between the presence of astrovirus and health status (slightly more frequent detection of TAstV in sick, diarrheic birds) and also negative medium correlation between age and astrovirus occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/10611-070813-ResNote.1DOI Listing
March 2014

Genetic characterization of parvoviruses circulating in turkey and chicken flocks in Poland.

Arch Virol 2012 Dec 17;157(12):2425-30. Epub 2012 Aug 17.

Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, Al. Partyzantow 57, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.

Between 2008 and 2011, commercial turkey and chicken flocks in Poland were examined for the presence of turkey parvovirus (TuPV) and chicken parvovirus (ChPV). Clinical samples (10 individual faecal swabs/flock) from 197 turkey flocks (turkeys aged 1 to 19 weeks) and 45 chicken flocks (chickens aged 3 to 17 weeks) were collected in different regions of the country and tested using a PCR assay that targeted the NS1 gene (3'ORF). The prevalence of TuPV was 29.4 % in the flocks tested, while ChPV infections were found in 22.2 % of the studied flocks. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear division into three groups: ChPV-like, TuPV-like and a third, previously unrecognized and distinct subgroup, TuPV-LUB, containing exclusively three Polish isolates from turkeys. The isolates from the novel group showed as little as 50.6-64.5 % of nucleotide sequence identity to the prototype chicken and turkey parvovirus strains. Genetic analysis of a ChPV isolate that was classified in the TuPV group strongly suggests a recombination event between chicken and turkey parvoviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-012-1446-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3506198PMC
December 2012

Genetic data from avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses generated by the European network of excellence (EPIZONE) between 2006 and 2011--review and recommendations for surveillance.

Vet Microbiol 2012 Jan 25;154(3-4):209-21. Epub 2011 Aug 25.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro, Italy.

Since 2006, the members of the molecular epidemiological working group of the European "EPIZONE" network of excellence have been generating sequence data on avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses from both European and African sources in an attempt to more fully understand the circulation and impact of these viruses. This review presents a timely update on the epidemiological situation of these viruses based on sequence data generated during the lifetime of this project in addition to data produced by other groups during the same period. Based on this information and putting it all into a European context, recommendations for continued surveillance of these important viruses within Europe are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.08.018DOI Listing
January 2012

Susceptibility of pigeons to clade 1 and 2.2 high pathogenicity avian influenza H5N1 virus.

Avian Dis 2011 Mar;55(1):106-12

National Reference Laboratory for Avian influenza and Newcastle Disease, Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, Al. Partyzantów 57, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.

To assess the susceptibility of pigeons (Columba livia) to infection with H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV), four groups of 1-yr-old and 4-wk-old racing pigeons (10 birds in each group) were inoculated oculonasally with 106 50% egg infectious dose (EID50) of A/crested eagle/Belgium/01/2004 (clade 1) or A/swan/Poland/305-135V08/2006 (clade 2.2). Contact specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were kept in the same isolators as young pigeons (two chickens per group). At 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days postinfection (PI) two pigeons from each infected group were selected randomly, and oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs (pigeons and contact chickens) as well as a number of internal organs (pigeons) were collected for viral RNA detection in real-time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) and histopathology. At the end of the experiment (14 days PI) blood samples from two pigeons in each group and from contact SPF chickens were also collected, and sera were tested using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA). During the observation period all pigeons remained clinically healthy, and no gross lesions were observed in any of the infected groups. SPF contact chickens were also healthy and negative in RRT-PCR and HI tests. However, the clade 1 H5N1 virus produced more sustained infection manifested by the presence of histopathologic changes (consisting mainly of mild to moderate hemorrhagic and inflammatory lesions), prolonged persistence of viral RNA (detectable between 3 and 10 days PI) in a variety of tissues of both adult and juvenile birds (with highest RNA load in lungs and brain) as well as slight viral shedding from the trachea and cloaca, but without transmission to SPF contact chickens. Additionally, two clade 1-infected adult pigeons sacrificed at the end of experiment showed seroconversion in bELISA and HI test (using homologous virus as antigen). The viral RNA was found only at day 3 PI in one adult pigeon inoculated with dade 2.2 H5N1 virus, but neither microscopic lesions nor seroconversion were found in any other tested birds inoculated with A/swan/Poland/305-135V08/2006. Our results support the observations that pigeons are resistant to H5N1 HPAIV (no deaths or clinical signs), but there may be clade-dependent differences in the pathogenic potentials of H5N1 HPAIV of Asian origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/9514-090110-ResNote.1DOI Listing
March 2011

One-year molecular survey of astrovirus infection in turkeys in Poland.

Arch Virol 2011 Jun 15;156(6):1065-72. Epub 2011 Mar 15.

Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, Al. Partyzantow 57, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.

The presence of turkey astrovirus (TAstV) was monitored in meat-type turkey flocks in Poland in 2008. Clinical samples (10 individual faecal swabs/flock) from 77 flocks aged 1-19 weeks were collected from different regions of the country. RT-PCR experiments were performed for detection and molecular characterization of TAstV using four sets of primers within the RdRp gene (ORF1b). The prevalence of astrovirus was 34/77 (44.15%) in the flocks tested. TAstV type 2 was associated with 30 of 77 infections (38.9%), either alone or in mixed infections; TAstV type 1 was detected in 9 of 77 flocks (11.6%), either alone or in mixed infections; ANV was detected only in one flock (1.29%) by sequence analysis during this study. Phylogenetic analysis revealed genetic variability in the TAstV strains that were isolated. Some of Polish TAstV-2 strains were genetically related to the North American isolates; however, most of them formed a distinct subgroup of "European" isolates, suggesting their separate origin or evolution. Additionally, due to the high variability of the TAstV sequences, the most suitable method for TAstV typing seems to be sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-011-0958-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3104002PMC
June 2011

H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus survival in different types of water.

Avian Dis 2010 Mar;54(1 Suppl):734-7

National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, and Newcastle Disease, Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, Al. Partyzantow 57, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.

Persistence of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV), isolated during the epidemic in wild birds in Poland in 2006, was evaluated in three water samples derived from the sources known to host wild water birds (city pond, Vistula river mouth, and Baltic Sea). The virus was tested at two concentrations (10(4) and 10(6) median tissue culture infective dose per milliliter) and at three temperatures (4 C, 10 C, and 20 C), representing average seasonal temperatures in Poland. All tested water samples were filtered before virus inoculation, and one unfiltered sample (Baltic seawater) was also tested. Infectivity was determined twice a week over a 60-day trial period by microtiter endpoint titration. The persistence of the virus varied considerably depending on its concentration and also on physico-chemical parameters of the water, such as temperature and salinity. Avian influenza virus survival was the highest at 4 C and the lowest at 20 C. Prolonged infectivity of the virus in Baltic seawater (brackish, 7.8 ppt) was also seen. In distilled water, the virus retained its infectivity beyond the 60-day study period. Interestingly, a devastating effect of the unfiltered fraction of seawater was seen as the virus disappeared in this fraction the quickest in all studied combinations; thus, biologic factors may also affect infectivity of HPAIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/8786-040109-ResNote.1DOI Listing
March 2010

Full-length genome sequencing of the Polish HPAI H5N1 viruses suggests separate introductions in 2006 and 2007.

Avian Dis 2010 Mar;54(1 Suppl):335-9

National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease, Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, Al. Partyzantów 57, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland

This paper describes the results of the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of seven highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 strains isolated in 2006 (n = 5) and 2007 (n = 2) from wild birds and poultry in Poland. The whole genome sequence of these isolates was determined. All of the isolates possessed the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site sequence PQGERRRKKR*GLF typical of HPAI. Molecular markers associated with increased adaptation and virulence in mammals, as well as susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors, were revealed in the HA, neuraminidase (NA), and PB2 proteins. Based on the sequencing results related to the HA and NA genomic segments, H5N1 viruses circulating in Poland all belong to lineage 2.2. However, isolates isolated in 2006 were genetically distinct from those isolated in 2007 and grouped in different sublineages. H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds in 2006 are almost identical to each other (99.9% HA; 99.6%-100% NA), and they are grouped within a cluster of viruses isolated in Germany from wild and domestic birds and mammals in 2006. Isolates from 2007 are also closely related to each other (nucleotide homologies 99.9% and 100% for HA and NA, respectively), and they are grouped together with isolates from wild and domestic birds collected in Eastern and Central Europe (Romania, Germany), and the Middle East (Kuwait, Saudi Arabia). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences related to the internal proteins confirmed the results obtained for the HA and NA genes. Overall, the results indicate that HPAI H5N1 in Poland in 2006-07 was caused by at least two separate incursions of genetically distinct viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/8782-040109-ResNote.1DOI Listing
March 2010