Publications by authors named "Kasthuri Bai Magalingam"

9 Publications

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Clinically Relevant Genes and Proteins Modulated by Tocotrienols in Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines: Systematic Scoping Review.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 12;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Jeffery Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia.

The last decade has witnessed tremendous growth in tocotrienols (T3s) research, especially in the field of oncology, owing to potent anticancer property. Among the many types of cancers, colorectal cancer (CRC) is growing to become a serious global health threat to humans. Chemoprevention strategies in recent days are open to exploring alternative interventions to inhibit or delay carcinogenesis, especially with the use of bioactive natural compounds, such as tocotrienols. This scoping review aims to distil the large bodies of literature from various databases to identify the genes and their encoded modulations by tocotrienols and to explicate important mechanisms via which T3s combat CRC. For this scoping review, research papers published from 2010 to early 2021 related to T3s and human CRC cells were reviewed in compliance with the PRISMA guidelines. The study included research articles published in English, searchable on four literature databases (Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase) that reported differential expression of genes and proteins in human CRC cell lines following exposure to T3s. A total of 12 articles that fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study were short-listed for data extraction and analysis. The results from the analysis of these 12 articles showed that T3s, especially its γ and δ analogues, modulated the expression of 16 genes and their encoded proteins that are associated with several important CRC pathways (apoptosis, transcriptional dysregulation in cancer, and cancer progression). Further studies and validation work are required to scrutinize the specific role of T3s on these genes and proteins and to propose the use of T3s to develop adjuvant or multi-targeted therapy for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13114056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8625890PMC
November 2021

Identification of blood-based biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review of proteomics studies.

Ageing Res Rev 2021 Nov 16;73:101514. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan 47500, Malaysia.

Parkinson's Disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is characterised by the loss of motor function and dopamine neurons. Therapeutic avenues remain a challenge due to lack of accuracy in early diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression and limited therapeutic options. Proteomic platforms have been utilised to discover biomarkers for numerous diseases, a tool that may benefit the diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression in PD patients. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on analysing blood-based candidate biomarkers (CB) identified via proteomics platforms for PD. This study systematically reviewed articles across six databases (EMBASE, Cochrane, Ovid Medline, Scopus, Science Direct and PubMed) published between 2010 and 2020. Of the 504 articles identified, 12 controlled-PD studies were selected for further analysis. A total of 115 candidate biomarkers (CB) were identified across selected 12-controlled studies, of which 23 CB were found to be replicable in more than two cohorts. Using the PANTHER Go-Slim classification system and STRING network, the gene function and protein interactions between biomarkers were analysed. Our analysis highlights Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), which is essential in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and neuroprotection demonstrates high replicability across five cohorts with consistent downregulation across four cohorts. Since ApoA-I was highly replicable across blood fractions, proteomic platforms and continents, its relationship with cholesterol, statin and oxidative stress as PD biomarker, its role in the pathogenesis of PD is discussed in this paper. The present study identified ApoA-I as a potential biomarker via proteomics analysis of PD for the early diagnosis and prediction of disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101514DOI Listing
November 2021

Influence of serum concentration in retinoic acid and phorbol ester induced differentiation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Nov 23;47(11):8775-8788. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

School of Postgraduate Studies, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Numerous protocols to establish dopaminergic phenotype in SH-SY5Y cells have been reported. In most of these protocols there are variations in concentration of serum used. In this paper, we compared the effects of high (10%), low (3%) and descending (2.5%/1%) serum concentration in differentiation medium containing different proportion of retinoic acid (RA) and 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or RA-only on the undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells with regards to cell morphology, biochemical and gene expression alterations. Cells differentiated in culture medium containing low and descending serum concentrations showed increased number of neurite projections and reduced proliferation rates when compared to undifferentiated cells. The SH-SY5Y cells differentiated in culture medium containing 3% RA and low serum or descending (2.5%/1% RA/TPA) were found to be more susceptible to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced cytotoxicity. Cells differentiated with RA/TPA or RA differentiated showed increased production of the α-synuclein (SNCA) neuroprotein and dopamine neurotransmitter compared to undifferentiated cells, regardless serum concentrations used. There was no significant difference in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene between undifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. However, the expression of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene was markedly increased (p<0.05) in differentiated cells with 3% serum and RA only when compared to undifferentiated cells. In conclusion, to terminally differentiate SH-SY5Y cells to be used as a cell-based model to study Parkinson's disease (PD) to investigate molecular mechanisms and drug discovery, the optimal differentiation medium should contain 3% serum in RA-only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05925-2DOI Listing
November 2020

Current Concepts of Neurodegenerative Mechanisms in Alzheimer's Disease.

Biomed Res Int 2018 8;2018:3740461. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

Neurodegenerative diseases are hereditary or sporadic conditions that result in the progressive loss of the structure and function of neurons as well as neuronal death. Although a range of diseases lie under this umbrella term, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common neurodegenerative diseases that affect a large population around the globe. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of extracellular amyloid- plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles in brain regions and manifests as a type of dementia in aged individuals that results in memory loss, multiple cognitive abnormalities, and intellectual disabilities that interfere with quality of life. Since the discovery of AD, a wealth of new information has emerged that delineates the causes, mechanisms of disease, and potential therapeutic agents, but an effective remedy to cure the diseases has not been identified yet. This could be because of the complexity of the disease process, as it involves various contributing factors that include environmental factors and genetic predispositions. This review summarizes the current understanding on neurodegenerative mechanisms that lead to the emergence of the pathology of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3740461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5863339PMC
September 2018

Protective Mechanisms of Flavonoids in Parkinson's Disease.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2015 20;2015:314560. Epub 2015 Oct 20.

Discipline of Biomedicine, College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia.

Parkinson's disease is a chronic, debilitating neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region in human midbrain. To date, oxidative stress is the well accepted concept in the etiology and progression of Parkinson's disease. Hence, the therapeutic agent is targeted against suppressing and alleviating the oxidative stress-induced cellular damage. Within the past decades, an explosion of research discoveries has reported on the protective mechanisms of flavonoids, which are plant-based polyphenols, in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease using both in vitro and in vivo models. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature on the neuroprotective mechanisms of flavonoids in protecting the dopaminergic neurons hence reducing the symptoms of this movement disorder. The mechanism reviewed includes effect of flavonoids in activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, suppressing the lipid peroxidation, inhibition of inflammatory mediators, flavonoids as a mitochondrial target therapy, and modulation of gene expression in neuronal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/314560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4630416PMC
July 2016

Protective effects of quercetin glycosides, rutin, and isoquercetrin against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2016 Mar 5;29(1):30-9. Epub 2015 Nov 5.

Discipline of Biomedicine, College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia

There is increasing evidence that free radicals induced oxidative stress is a major causative agent in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Parkinson's disease. Quercetin glycosides, namely rutin and isoquercitrin, are flavonoid polyphenol compounds found ubiquitously in fruits and vegetables and have been known to possess antioxidant effects. This study was designed to compare the neuroprotective effects of quercetin glycosides rutin and isoquercitrin in 6-OHDA-induced rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. The results showed that both rutin and isoquercitrin significantly increased antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione level that were attenuated by 6-OHDA in PC-12 cells. There was no significant difference in the activation of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase enzymes between rutin and isoquercitrin. These two glycosides were equally effective in suppressing lipid peroxidation in 6-OHDA-induced PC-12 cells as both compounds suppressed the malondialdehyde generation and prevented cell damage. In conclusion, quercetin glycosides rutin and isoquercetrin are having a significant neuroprotective effect against 6-OHDA toxicity in PC-12 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0394632015613039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5806739PMC
March 2016

Quercetin glycosides induced neuroprotection by changes in the gene expression in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease.

J Mol Neurosci 2015 Mar 17;55(3):609-17. Epub 2014 Aug 17.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Quercetin glycosides, rutin and isoquercitrin, are potent antioxidants that have been found to possess neuroprotective effect in diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we have examined the gene expression changes with rutin and isoquercitrin pretreatment on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated toxicity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PC12 cells were pretreated with rutin or isoquercitrin and subsequently exposed to 6-OHDA. Rutin-pretreated PC12 attenuated the Park2, Park5, Park7, Casp3, and Casp7 genes which were expressed significantly in the 6-OHDA-treated PC12 cells. Rutin upregulated the TH gene which is important in dopamine biosynthesis, but isoquercitrin pretreatment did not affect the expression of this gene. Both rutin and isoquercitrin pretreatments upregulated the ion transport and antiapoptotic genes (NSF and Opa1). The qPCR array data were further validated by qRT-PCR using four primers, Park5, Park7, Casp3, and TH. This finding suggests that changes in the expression levels of transcripts encoded by genes that participate in ubiquitin pathway and dopamine biosynthesis may be involved in Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-014-0400-xDOI Listing
March 2015

Protective effects of flavonol isoquercitrin, against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.

BMC Res Notes 2014 Jan 21;7:49. Epub 2014 Jan 21.

Discipline of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Molecular Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Australia.

Background: Free radicals-induced neurodegeneration is one of the many causes of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of flavonol isoquercitrin against toxicity induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells.

Methods: PC12 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of isoquercitrin for 4, 8 and 12 hours and incubated with 6-OHDA for 24 hours to induce oxidative cell damage.

Results: A significant cytoprotective activity was observed in isoquercitrin pre-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione in isoquercitrin pretreated cells compared to cells incubated with 6-OHDA alone. Isoquercitrin significantly reduced (P < 0.01) lipid peroxidation in 6-OHDA treated cells. These results suggested that isoquercitrin protects PC 12 cells against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress.

Conclusions: The present study suggests the protective role of isoquercitrin on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced toxicity by virtue of its antioxidant potential. Isoquercitrin could be a potential therapeutic agent against neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-49DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3910241PMC
January 2014

Rutin, a bioflavonoid antioxidant protects rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity.

Int J Mol Med 2013 Jul 10;32(1):235-40. Epub 2013 May 10.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia.

Free radicals are widely known to be the major cause of human diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, allergy and autoimmune diseases. Human cells are equipped with a powerful natural antioxidant enzyme network. However, antioxidants, particularly those originating from natural sources such as fruits and vegetables, are still considered essential. Rutin, a quercetin glycoside, has been proven to possess antioxidant potential. However, the neuroprotective effect of rutin in pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells has not been studied extensively. Therefore, the present study was designed to establish the neuroprotective role of rutin as well as to elucidate the antioxidant mechanism of rutin in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in PC-12 neuronal cells. PC-12 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of rutin for 4, 8 and 12 h and subsequently incubated with 6-OHDA for 24 h to induce oxidative stress. A significant cytoprotective activity was observed in rutin pretreated cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, there was marked activation of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total glutathione (GSH) in rutin pretreated cells compared to cells incubated with 6-OHDA alone. Rutin significantly reduced lipid peroxidation in 6-OHDA-induced PC-12 cells. On the basis of these observations, it was concluded that the bioflavonoid rutin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in PC-12 cells by improving antioxidant enzyme levels and inhibiting lipid peroxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2013.1375DOI Listing
July 2013
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