Publications by authors named "Kasopefoluwa Oguntuyo"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Qualitatively distinct modes of Sputnik V vaccine-neutralization escape by SARS-CoV-2 Spike variants.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

The novel pandemic betacoronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected at least 120 million people since its identification as the cause of a December 2019 viral pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China. Despite the unprecedented pace of vaccine development, with six vaccines already in use worldwide, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 'variants of concern' (VOC) across diverse geographic locales suggests herd immunity may fail to eliminate the virus. All three officially designated VOC carry Spike (S) polymorphisms thought to enable escape from neutralizing antibodies elicited during initial waves of the pandemic. Here, we characterize the biological consequences of the ensemble of S mutations present in VOC lineages B.1.1.7 (501Y.V1) and B.1.351 (501Y.V2). Using a replication-competent EGFP-reporter vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) system, rcVSV-CoV2-S, which encodes S from SARS coronavirus 2 in place of VSV-G, and coupled with a clonal HEK-293T ACE2 TMPRSS2 cell line optimized for highly efficient S-mediated infection, we determined that 8 out of 12 (67%) serum samples from a cohort of recipients of the Gamaleya Sputnik V Ad26 / Ad5 vaccine showed dose response curve slopes indicative of failure to neutralize rcVSV-CoV2-S: B.1.351. The same set of sera efficiently neutralized S from B.1.1.7 and showed only moderately reduced activity against S carrying the E484K substitution alone. Taken together, our data suggest that control of emergent SARS-CoV-2 variants may benefit from updated vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.31.21254660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020991PMC
April 2021

Emergence in late 2020 of multiple lineages of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein variants affecting amino acid position 677.

medRxiv 2021 Feb 14. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein (S) plays critical roles in host cell entry. Non-synonymous substitutions affecting S are not uncommon and have become fixed in a number of SARS-CoV-2 lineages. A subset of such mutations enable escape from neutralizing antibodies or are thought to enhance transmission through mechanisms such as increased affinity for the cell entry receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Independent genomic surveillance programs based in New Mexico and Louisiana contemporaneously detected the rapid rise of numerous clade 20G (lineage B.1.2) infections carrying a Q677P substitution in S. The variant was first detected in the US on October 23, yet between 01 Dec 2020 and 19 Jan 2021 it rose to represent 27.8% and 11.3% of all SARS-CoV-2 genomes sequenced from Louisiana and New Mexico, respectively. Q677P cases have been detected predominantly in the south central and southwest United States; as of 03 Feb 2021, GISAID data show 499 viral sequences of this variant from the USA. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the independent evolution and spread of at least six distinct Q677H sub-lineages, with first collection dates ranging from mid-August to late November 2020. Four 677H clades from clade 20G (B.1.2), 20A (B.1.234), and 20B (B.1.1.220, and B.1.1.222) each contain roughly 100 or fewer sequenced cases, while a distinct pair of clade 20G clusters are represented by 754 and 298 cases, respectively. Although sampling bias and founder effects may have contributed to the rise of S:677 polymorphic variants, the proximity of this position to the polybasic cleavage site at the S1/S2 boundary are consistent with its potential functional relevance during cell entry, suggesting parallel evolution of a trait that may confer an advantage in spread or transmission. Taken together, our findings demonstrate simultaneous convergent evolution, thus providing an impetus to further evaluate S:677 polymorphisms for effects on proteolytic processing, cell tropism, and transmissibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.12.21251658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885944PMC
February 2021

Quantifying Absolute Neutralization Titers against SARS-CoV-2 by a Standardized Virus Neutralization Assay Allows for Cross-Cohort Comparisons of COVID-19 Sera.

mBio 2021 02 16;12(1). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has mobilized efforts to develop vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics, including convalescent-phase plasma therapy, that inhibit viral entry by inducing or transferring neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein (CoV2-S). However, rigorous efficacy testing requires extensive screening with live virus under onerous biosafety level 3 (BSL3) conditions, which limits high-throughput screening of patient and vaccine sera. Myriad BSL2-compatible surrogate virus neutralization assays (VNAs) have been developed to overcome this barrier. Yet, there is marked variability between VNAs and how their results are presented, making intergroup comparisons difficult. To address these limitations, we developed a standardized VNA using CoV2-S pseudotyped particles (CoV2pp) based on vesicular stomatitis virus bearing the luciferase gene in place of its G glycoprotein (VSVΔG); this assay can be robustly produced at scale and generate accurate neutralizing titers within 18 h postinfection. Our standardized CoV2pp VNA showed a strong positive correlation with CoV2-S enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results and live-virus neutralizations in confirmed convalescent-patient sera. Three independent groups subsequently validated our standardized CoV2pp VNA ( > 120). Our data (i) show that absolute 50% inhibitory concentration (absIC), absIC, and absIC values can be legitimately compared across diverse cohorts, (ii) highlight the substantial but consistent variability in neutralization potency across these cohorts, and (iii) support the use of the absIC as a more meaningful metric for assessing the neutralization potency of a vaccine or convalescent-phase sera. Lastly, we used our CoV2pp in a screen to identify ultrapermissive 293T clones that stably express ACE2 or ACE2 plus TMPRSS2. When these are used in combination with our CoV2pp, we can produce CoV2pp sufficient for 150,000 standardized VNAs/week. Vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics like convalescent-phase plasma therapy are premised upon inducing or transferring neutralizing antibodies that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Virus neutralization assays (VNAs) for measuring neutralizing antibody titers (NATs) are an essential part of determining vaccine or therapeutic efficacy. However, such efficacy testing is limited by the inherent dangers of working with the live virus, which requires specialized high-level biocontainment facilities. We therefore developed a standardized replication-defective pseudotyped particle system that mimics the entry of live SARS-CoV-2. This tool allows for the safe and efficient measurement of NATs, determination of other forms of entry inhibition, and thorough investigation of virus entry mechanisms. Four independent labs across the globe validated our standardized VNA using diverse cohorts. We argue that a standardized and scalable assay is necessary for meaningful comparisons of the myriad of vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics becoming available. Our data provide generalizable metrics for assessing their efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02492-20DOI Listing
February 2021

Emergency response for evaluating SARS-CoV-2 immune status, seroprevalence and convalescent plasma in Argentina.

PLoS Pathog 2021 01 14;17(1):e1009161. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Fundación Instituto Leloir-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

We report the emergency development and application of a robust serologic test to evaluate acute and convalescent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Argentina. The assays, COVIDAR IgG and IgM, which were produced and provided for free to health authorities, private and public health institutions and nursing homes, use a combination of a trimer stabilized spike protein and the receptor binding domain (RBD) in a single enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate. Over half million tests have already been distributed to detect and quantify antibodies for multiple purposes, including assessment of immune responses in hospitalized patients and large seroprevalence studies in neighborhoods, slums and health care workers, which resulted in a powerful tool for asymptomatic detection and policy making in the country. Analysis of antibody levels and longitudinal studies of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in over one thousand patient samples provided insightful information about IgM and IgG seroconversion time and kinetics, and IgM waning profiles. At least 35% of patients showed seroconversion within 7 days, and 95% within 45 days of symptoms onset, with simultaneous or close sequential IgM and IgG detection. Longitudinal studies of asymptomatic cases showed a wide range of antibody responses with median levels below those observed in symptomatic patients. Regarding convalescent plasma applications, a protocol was standardized for the assessment of end point IgG antibody titers with COVIDAR with more than 500 plasma donors. The protocol showed a positive correlation with neutralizing antibody titers, and was used for clinical trials and therapies across the country. Using this protocol, about 80% of convalescent donor plasmas were potentially suitable for therapies. Here, we demonstrate the importance of providing a robust and specific serologic assay for generating new information about antibody kinetics in infected individuals and mitigation policies to cope with pandemic needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808630PMC
January 2021

Role of Immunoglobulin M and A Antibodies in the Neutralization of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2.

J Infect Dis 2021 03;223(6):957-970

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people globally. Virus infection requires the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. Although studies have demonstrated anti-spike and -RBD antibodies to be protective in animal models, and convalescent plasma as a promising therapeutic option, little is known about immunoglobulin isotypes capable of blocking infection.

Methods: We studied spike- and RBD-specific immunoglobulin isotypes in convalescent and acute plasma/serum samples using a multiplex bead assay. We also determined virus neutralization activities in plasma and serum samples, and purified immunoglobulin fractions using a vesicular stomatitis pseudovirus assay.

Results: Spike- and RBD-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG1, and IgA1 were produced by all or nearly all subjects at variable levels and detected early after infection. All samples displayed neutralizing activity. Regression analyses revealed that IgM and IgG1 contributed most to neutralization, consistent with IgM and IgG fractions' neutralization potency. IgA also exhibited neutralizing activity, but with lower potency.

Conclusion: IgG, IgM, and IgA are critical components of convalescent plasma used for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798948PMC
March 2021

Role of IgM and IgA Antibodies in the Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2.

medRxiv 2020 Nov 2. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY USA.

SARS-CoV-2 has infected millions of people globally. Virus infection requires the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. Although studies have demonstrated anti-spike and - RBD antibodies to be protective in animal models and convalescent plasma as a promising therapeutic option, little is known about immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes capable of blocking infection. Here, we studied spike- and RBD-specific Ig isotypes in convalescent and acute plasma/sera. We also determined virus neutralization activities in plasma/sera, and purified Ig fractions. Spike- and RBD-specific IgM, IgG1, and IgA1 were produced by all or nearly all subjects at variable levels and detected early after infection. All samples also displayed neutralizing activity. Regression analyses revealed that IgM and IgG1 contributed most to neutralization, consistent with IgM and IgG fractions' neutralization potency. However, IgA also exhibited neutralizing activity at a lower potency. Together, IgG, IgM and IgA are critical components of convalescent plasma used for COVID-19 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.18.20177303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654883PMC
November 2020

Genome-wide CRISPR Screens Reveal Host Factors Critical for SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Cell 2021 01 20;184(1):76-91.e13. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Yale Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

Identification of host genes essential for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may reveal novel therapeutic targets and inform our understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Here we performed genome-wide CRISPR screens in Vero-E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), bat CoV HKU5 expressing the SARS-CoV-1 spike, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike. We identified known SARS-CoV-2 host factors, including the receptor ACE2 and protease Cathepsin L. We additionally discovered pro-viral genes and pathways, including HMGB1 and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, that are SARS lineage and pan-coronavirus specific, respectively. We show that HMGB1 regulates ACE2 expression and is critical for entry of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and NL63. We also show that small-molecule antagonists of identified gene products inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in monkey and human cells, demonstrating the conserved role of these genetic hits across species. This identifies potential therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 and reveals SARS lineage-specific and pan-CoV host factors that regulate susceptibility to highly pathogenic CoVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574718PMC
January 2021

Genome-wide CRISPR screen reveals host genes that regulate SARS-CoV-2 infection.

bioRxiv 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Identification of host genes essential for SARS-CoV-2 infection may reveal novel therapeutic targets and inform our understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Here we performed a genome-wide CRISPR screen with SARS-CoV-2 and identified known SARS-CoV-2 host factors including the receptor ACE2 and protease Cathepsin L. We additionally discovered novel pro-viral genes and pathways including the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and key components of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Small molecule inhibitors of these pathways prevented SARS-CoV-2-induced cell death. We also revealed that the alarmin HMGB1 is critical for SARS-CoV-2 replication. In contrast, loss of the histone H3.3 chaperone complex sensitized cells to virus-induced death. Together this study reveals potential therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 and highlights host genes that may regulate COVID-19 pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.16.155101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457610PMC
June 2020

Quantifying absolute neutralization titers against SARS-CoV-2 by a standardized virus neutralization assay allows for cross-cohort comparisons of COVID-19 sera.

medRxiv 2020 Aug 15. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029.

The on-going coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has mobilized a global effort to develop vaccines and therapeutics that inhibit viral entry by inducing or transferring antibodies against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein (CoV2-S). Phase I/II vaccine clinical trials, monoclonal antibodies, and convalescent sera have all shown promise. However, these efforts often require extensive screening with the live virus under onerous high biocontainment conditions (BSL-3). Virus neutralization assays (VNAs) remain the gold standard for evaluating the anti-viral potency of antibodies and entry inhibitors. The proliferation of pseudotyped virus systems that can be used in BSL-2 compatible VNAs is a positive development. Yet, there is marked variability between VNAs and how the findings are presented, making inter-group comparisons difficult. To address these limitations, we developed a standardized VNA using VSVdeltaG based CoV-2-S pseudotyped particles (CoV2pp) that can be robustly produced at scale. We used our CoV2pp to interrogate the role of exogenous and endogenous proteases in CoV-2-S mediated entry and standardized our VNA based on that understanding. Our CoV2pp VNA showed a strong positive correlation with CoV2-S ELISA and live virus neutralizations in a validated set of patient sera. Our system was subsequently validated by three independent groups as an out-of-the-box VNA. More than 120 patient sera were screened, and we report descriptive statistics for absolute (abs) IC50, IC80, and IC90 values from all positive patient sera. Lastly, we used our CoV2pp in a screen to identify ultrapermissive 293T clones that stably express ACE2 or ACE2+TMPRSS2. When used in combination with our CoV2pp, we can now produce CoV2pp sufficient for 150,000 standardized VNA/week.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.13.20157222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430605PMC
August 2020

In plain sight: the role of alpha-1-antitrypsin in COVID-19 pathogenesis and therapeutics.

bioRxiv 2020 Aug 15. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Entry of SARS-CoV-2 is facilitated by endogenous and exogenous proteases. These proteases proteolytically activate the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and are key modulators of virus tropism. We show that SARS-CoV-2 naïve serum exhibits significant inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 entry. We identify alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), and to a lesser degree, alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) as highly abundant serum protease inhibitors that potently restrict protease-mediated entry of SARS-CoV-2. AAT inhibition of protease-mediated SARS-CoV-2 entry in vitro occurs at concentrations far below what is present in serum and bronchoalveolar tissues, suggesting that AAT effects are physiologically relevant. Moreover, AAT mutations that have been characterized to affect abundance or function are highly prevalent. In addition to the effects that AAT may have on viral entry itself, we argue that the anti-inflammatory and coagulation regulatory activity of AAT have implications for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenicity, SARS-CoV-2 tissue restriction, convalescent plasma therapies, and even potentially AAT therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.14.248880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430570PMC
August 2020

A structural basis for antibody-mediated neutralization of Nipah virus reveals a site of vulnerability at the fusion glycoprotein apex.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 12 25;116(50):25057-25067. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Center for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, OX3 7BN Oxford, United Kingdom;

Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes frequent outbreaks of severe neurologic and respiratory disease in humans with high case fatality rates. The 2 glycoproteins displayed on the surface of the virus, NiV-G and NiV-F, mediate host-cell attachment and membrane fusion, respectively, and are targets of the host antibody response. Here, we provide a molecular basis for neutralization of NiV through antibody-mediated targeting of NiV-F. Structural characterization of a neutralizing antibody (nAb) in complex with trimeric prefusion NiV-F reveals an epitope at the membrane-distal domain III (DIII) of the molecule, a region that undergoes substantial refolding during host-cell entry. The epitope of this monoclonal antibody (mAb66) is primarily protein-specific and we observe that glycosylation at the periphery of the interface likely does not inhibit mAb66 binding to NiV-F. Further characterization reveals that a Hendra virus-F-specific nAb (mAb36) and many antibodies in an antihenipavirus-F polyclonal antibody mixture (pAb835) also target this region of the molecule. Integrated with previously reported paramyxovirus F-nAb structures, these data support a model whereby the membrane-distal region of the F protein is targeted by the antibody-mediated immune response across henipaviruses. Notably, our domain-specific sequence analysis reveals no evidence of selective pressure at this region of the molecule, suggestive that functional constraints prevent immune-driven sequence variation. Combined, our data reveal the membrane-distal region of NiV-F as a site of vulnerability on the NiV surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1912503116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6911215PMC
December 2019

The nasal microbiome in asthma.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 09 5;142(3):834-843.e2. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Background: Nasal microbiota may influence asthma pathobiology.

Objective: We sought to characterize the nasal microbiome of subjects with exacerbated asthma, nonexacerbated asthma, and healthy controls to identify nasal microbiota associated with asthma activity.

Methods: We performed 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing on nasal swabs obtained from 72 primarily adult subjects with exacerbated asthma (n = 20), nonexacerbated asthma (n = 31), and healthy controls (n = 21). Analyses were performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial (QIIME); linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe); Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States; and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles (PICRUSt); and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles (STAMP). Species found to be associated with asthma activity were validated using quantitative PCR. Metabolic pathways associated with differentially abundant nasal taxa were inferred through metagenomic functional prediction.

Results: Nasal bacterial composition significantly differed among subjects with exacerbated asthma, nonexacerbated asthma, and healthy controls (permutational multivariate ANOVA, P = 2.2 × 10). Relative to controls, the nasal microbiota of subjects with asthma were enriched with taxa from Bacteroidetes (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney, r = 0.33, P = 5.1 × 10) and Proteobacteria (r = 0.29, P = 1.4 × 10). Four species were differentially abundant based on asthma status after correction for multiple comparisons: Prevotella buccalis, P = 1.0 × 10; Dialister invisus, P = 9.1 × 10; Gardnerella vaginalis, P = 2.8 × 10; Alkanindiges hongkongensis, P = 2.6 × 10. These phyla and species were also differentially abundant based on asthma activity (exacerbated asthma vs nonexacerbated asthma vs controls). Quantitative PCR confirmed species overrepresentation in asthma relative to controls for Prevotella buccalis (fold change = 130, P = 2.1 × 10) and Gardnerella vaginalis (fold change = 160, P = 6.8 × 10). Metagenomic inference revealed differential glycerolipid metabolism (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 1.9 × 10) based on asthma activity.

Conclusions: Nasal microbiome composition differs in subjects with exacerbated asthma, nonexacerbated asthma, and healthy controls. The identified nasal taxa could be further investigated for potential mechanistic roles in asthma and as possible biomarkers of asthma activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2018.02.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6123291PMC
September 2018

Sendai virus, an RNA virus with no risk of genomic integration, delivers CRISPR/Cas9 for efficient gene editing.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2016 24;3:16057. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai , New York, New York, USA.

The advent of RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN)-mediated gene editing, specifically via CRISPR/Cas9, has spurred intensive efforts to improve the efficiency of both RGEN delivery and targeted mutagenesis. The major viral vectors in use for delivery of Cas9 and its associated guide RNA, lentiviral and adeno-associated viral systems, have the potential for undesired random integration into the host genome. Here, we repurpose Sendai virus, an RNA virus with no viral DNA phase and that replicates solely in the cytoplasm, as a delivery system for efficient Cas9-mediated gene editing. The high efficiency of Sendai virus infection resulted in high rates of on-target mutagenesis in cell lines (75-98% at various endogenous and transgenic loci) and primary human monocytes (88% at the ccr5 locus) in the absence of any selection. In conjunction with extensive former work on Sendai virus as a promising gene therapy vector that can infect a wide range of cell types including hematopoietic stem cells, this proof-of-concept study opens the door to using Sendai virus as well as other related paramyxoviruses as versatile and efficient tools for gene editing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mtm.2016.57DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4996130PMC
September 2016